Palm, Inc. was an American company that specialized in manufacturing personal digital assistants and various other electronics. They were the designer of the PalmPilot, the first PDA marketed worldwide, as well as the Treo 600, one of the first smartphones. Palm developed several versions of Palm OS for smartphones; the company was responsible for the first versions of webOS, the first multitasking operating system for smartphones, enyo.js, a framework for HTML5 apps. In July 2010, Palm was purchased by Hewlett-Packard and in 2011 announced a new range of webOS products. However, after poor sales, HP CEO Léo Apotheker announced in August 2011 that it would end production and support of Palm and webOS devices, marking the end of the Palm brand after 19 years. In October 2014, HP sold the Palm trademark to a shelf corporation tied to the Chinese electronics firm TCL Corporation. Shortly afterward, TCL confirmed its plans to revive the Palm brand on future, crowdsourced smartphones. Palm, headquartered in Sunnyvale, was responsible for numerous products including the Pre and Pixi as well as the Treo and Centro smartphones.
Previous product lines include the Pilot 1000, Palm Pilot Pro, Palm III, Palm V, Palm VII, Zire and Tungsten. While their older devices run Palm OS Garnet, four editions of the Treo run Windows Mobile. Palm Computing, Inc. was founded in 1992 by Jeff Hawkins, who hired Donna Dubinsky and Ed Colligan, all of whom guided Palm to the invention of the Palm Pilot. The company was started to write software for the Zoomer, a consumer PDA manufactured by Casio for Tandy; the Zoomer devices were distributed by Casio and GRiD, while Palm provided the PIM software. The PEN/GEOS operating system was provided by Geoworks; the Zoomer failed commercially, but Palm continued generating revenue by selling synchronization software for HP devices, the Graffiti handwriting recognition software for the Apple Newton MessagePad. The company was acquired by U. S. Robotics Corp. in 1995. In June 1997, U. S. Robotics was acquired by 3Com and Palm became a 3Com subsidiary. In June 1998, the founders became unhappy with the direction in which 3Com was taking the company, left to found Handspring.
3Com made the Palm subsidiary an independent, publicly traded company on March 1, 2000, it traded on the NASDAQ under the ticker symbol PALM. Palm Inc had its IPO during the dot-com bubble and in its first day of trading the shares of the new company hit an all-time high of US$95.06. But competition and the end of the tech bubble caused Palm's shares to lose 90% of their value in just over a year. By June 2001 the company's shares were trading at US$6.50, making it the worst performing PDA manufacturer on the NASDAQ index at the time. In January 2002, Palm set up a wholly owned subsidiary to develop and license Palm OS, named PalmSource in February. PalmSource was spun off from Palm as an independent company. In October 2003, the hardware division of the company merged with Handspring, was renamed to palmOne, Inc. and traded under the ticker symbol PLMO. The Palm trademark was held by a jointly owned holding company. In May 2005, palmOne purchased PalmSource's share in the'Palm' trademark for US$30 million.
In July 2005, palmOne launched its new name and brand, reverting to Palm, Inc. and trading under the ticker symbol PALM once again. In late 2005, ACCESS, which specializes in mobile and embedded web browser technologies, acquired PalmSource for US$324 million. On January 4, 2006, Palm released the Palm Treo 700w, the first Windows Mobile-powered Treo, in a partnership with Verizon Wireless and Microsoft. In December 2006, Inc. paid US$44 million to ACCESS for an irrevocable license to use and modify the source code for Palm OS Garnet as well as ship Palm OS Garnet in any Palm product without paying royalties. In June 2007, Palm formed a strategic relationship with the private-equity firm Elevation Partners, who purchased a 25% equity stake of the company for US$325 million – an investment that came after months of rumours about a possible Palm sale. Palm CEO Ed Colligan acknowledged that "We were approached by larger parties over the last six months," and "the reality is that we thought this was the best outcome for our business and our investors."On December 18, 2008, Palm CEO Ed Colligan announced that the company would no longer develop any new handheld PDAs.
Palm announced the webOS operating system and Palm Pre smartphone at the Consumer Electronics Show on January 8, 2009, released on June 6, 2009 with Sprint. The design team was led by Mike Bell, Peter Skillman and Michael Abbott. In early 2009, the hype over WebOS sent Palm’s stock from US$3 to a high of about US$18. While reviews of the Palm Pre were positive, launching with only one U. S. carrier proved to be a crucial mistake that limited sales though it became Sprint's phone. The Pre was described as Palm's swan song as it was too late to keep the company – with only $250 million in cash and short- term investments at the beginning of 2009 – independent for long. By 2010 the share price of Palm dropped to below US$4. On April 28, 2010, Hewlett-Packard announced it would purchase Palm at $5.70 a share for $1.2 billion in an all-cash deal. The acquisition was completed on July 1, 2010; the Palm global business unit was to be responsible for webOS software development and webOS-based hardware products, from a robust smartphone roadmap to future slate PCs and netbooks.
However, on August 18, 2011, HP announced that it would discontinue production of all webOS devices, including smartphones and tablets. In February 2011, HP unveiled a new line of WebOS products, inclu
Game Informer is an American monthly video game magazine featuring articles, news and reviews of video games and associated consoles. It debuted in August 1991; the publication is owned and published by GameStop Corp. the parent company of the video game retailer of the same name, who bought FuncoLand in 2000. Due to this, a large amount of promotion is done in-store, which has contributed to the success of the magazine. Game Informer has since become an important part of GameStop's customer loyalty program, PowerUp Rewards, which offers subscribers access to special content on the official website. Game Informer debuted in August 1991 as a six-page magazine, it was published every two months until November 1994, when the magazine began to be released monthly. Since 2001 Game Informer has been published by Cathy Preston, working as part of the production team since 2000, it was under her that the publication became an integral part of GameStop's customer loyalty program, Power Up Rewards. In 2010, Game Informer became the 5th largest magazine in the US with 5 million copies sold, ahead of popular publications like Time, Sports Illustrated, Playboy.
By 2011, Game Informer had become the 3rd largest magazine in the US topping 8 million copies circulated. However, in 2014 it had fallen to 4th place with 6.9 million copies sold. Recent figures still place the magazine at 4th place with over 7 million copies sold; the financial success of Game Informer has been attributed to its good relationship with publishers, ties to GameStop, the lack of gaming magazine competition. In each year's April edition, Game Informer includes Game Infarcer, an annual feature in the magazine, as an April Fool's joke. On the cover is "World's #1 Pretend Magazine" where it would ordinarily say "World's #1 Video Game Magazine", the word "Parody" is written on the bottom of each page. Game Infarcer articles are accredited to the fictional editor-in-chief Darth Clark, addressed in hate mail every year sent to Game Informer; the heated responses to parody articles are featured in Game Informer issues. Game Informer has included four "Sacred Cow Barbecues". Similar in style to a celebrity roast, the occasion is meant to "knock some of gaming's most revered icons off their high and mighty pedestals."
The first Sacred Cow Barbecues featured in issue 158. Other issues featuring Sacred Cow Barbecues are: 183, 211, 261. Sacred Cow Barbecues articles are considered controversial among those gamers who aren't amused with their games being mocked. Game Informer Online was launched in August 1996, featured daily news updates as well as articles. Justin Leeper and Matthew Kato were hired on in November 1999 as full-time web editors; as part of the GameStop purchase of the magazine, the site was closed around January 2001. Both Leeper and Kato were placed on the editorial staff of the magazine. GI Online was revived in September 2003, with a full redesign and many additional features, such as a review database, frequent news updates, exclusive "Unlimited" content for subscribers, it was managed by creator of PlanetGameCube.com. Berghammer is the editor in chief of the EGM Media group On March 2009, the online staff began creating the code for what would be the latest redesign to date; the redesign was to release hand-in-hand with the magazine's own redesign.
On October 1, 2009, the newly redesigned website was live, with a welcome message from Editor-In-Chief Andy McNamara. Many new features were introduced, including a rebuilt media player, a feed highlighting the site activity of the website's users, the ability to create user reviews. At the same time, the magazine's podcast, The Game Informer Show, was launched. In February, Game Informer's editors round up to count and judge the "Top 50 Games of last year"; the games are sorted in order of release date. They do not have rankings, but they do commemorate special games with awards like Game of the Year and other examples, they have mini top 10 charts of differing categories, both in the Top 50 games section of the website and in the regular magazine. In August each year, Game Informer includes a "E3 Hot 50", a special section that reviews the year's E3 and most to all of its games, which temporarily replaces the "previews" section. In November 2009, Game Informer was launched in Australia by former Australian GamePro and Official PlayStation Magazine editor Chris Stead and publisher Citrus Media.
By June 2010, Game Informer Australia had become the first local games publication to pass 10,000 subscribers. By August 18, 2010, it had become Australia's biggest selling video games publication. Game Informer Australia has picked up three Australian Magazine Awards for best in category, multiple nominations in the Lizzie awards and the 2013 MCV award for Print Publication of the Year. Chris Stead received the 2013 Journalist of the Year gong at the MCV awards. Game Informer reviews games on PCs, PlayStation 4, PlayStation Vita, PlayStation VR, Xbox One, Nintendo Switch, Nintendo 3DS, Android, iOS. Older games, three per issue, were given brief reviews in the magazine's Classic GI section; this was discontinued in months before the redesign of the magazine. The magazine's staff rate games on a scale of 1 to 10 with quarter point intervals. A score of 1 - 5 is considered terrible. Andy McNamara – Editor-i
The Tapwave Zodiac is a mobile entertainment console. Tapwave began shipping in October of that same year; the Zodiac was designed to be a high-performance mobile entertainment system centered on video games, music and video for 18- to 34-year-old gamers and technology enthusiasts. By running an enhanced version of the Palm Operating System, Zodiac provided access to Palm's personal information management software and many other applications from the Palm developer community; the company was based in California. The Zodiac console was available in two models, Zodiac 1 for US$299, Zodiac 2 for US$399; some of the game titles for the product included Tony Hawk's Pro Skater 4. Due to insufficient funding and strong competitive pressure from the PlayStation Portable from Sony, the DS from Nintendo, Tapwave sold the company to an undisclosed multibillion-dollar corporation in Asia in July 2005; the Zodiac console garnered strong product reviews and received many industry awards including Popular Science's Best of What's New Award, Stuff magazine's Top 10 Gadgets of the Year, Wired magazine's Fetish Award, CNET's Editor's Choice Award, PC World"s 2004 Next Gear Innovations Award.
May 2001: Tapwave was founded by former Palm executives May 2002: Tapwave closed initial Series-A funding May 2002: Tapwave signed Palm OS licensing agreement with PalmSource May 2003: Company was formally launched at Palm Developers Conference & E3 September 2003: Zodiac entertainment console launched at DEMO conference October 2003: Zodiac console began shipping to customers directly from livescribe.com November 2003: Tapwave announced that “over 1200 game developers” had signed up for the Tapwave developer program February 2004: PalmGear and Tapwave announced partnership to launch an online store to feature the best applications, game titles and ebooks available on the Palm OS platform April 2004: Synchronization between Zodiac and Mac OS X desktops enabled by MarkSpace June 2004: Zodiac launched into United States. Retail distribution with CompUSA October 2004: Zodiac launched in United Kingdom and sold through PC World and Currys. October 2004: Zodiac launched in Singapore and distributed by ECS November 2004: Zodiac launched in South Korea and co-branded with Sonokong December 2004: Audible announces audio book support for Zodiac December 2004: Tapwave announce Wi-Fi SD card for the Zodiac with “enhanced mail application and web browser”.
January 2005: Tapwave and Virgin Digital announced strategic alliance for audio download and subscription services. July 2005: Tapwave discontinued the sale of the Zodiac mobile entertainment console and sold all of its assets to an undisclosed multibillion-dollar corporation in Asia and wound down operations. Music and video An MP3 music player is included in the system's applications, allows the creation of custom playlists using drag-and-dropping of files. MP3 music files can be played from the internal memory of the device. MP3 files can be used as alarms, along with conventional Palm OS alarms. Photos could be downloaded to the device using the Palm Desktop software or loaded onto SD cards, could be shared and made into a slideshow on the device; the bundled video player on the device, would only play videos in a proprietary format, converted using the Kinoma Producer software. The software however was limited in its conversion abilities, enticing users to pay for the full version, it has been suggested that this difficulty in converting video for the device diminished the Zodiac's success.
Several aftermarket DivX and XviD players have been developed, and, at the time of bankruptcy, Tapwave were working on an update to supply MPEG-4 hardware decoding. Device design Due to the metal construction of the Zodiac, the device was seen to be more solid than other PDAs. However, on some models the adhesive on the shoulder buttons failed, the screen was scratched by the screen cover when grit entered. Furthermore, due to the insecure clip holding the stylus, they could be knocked loose and lost; some alternative cases solved this problem with their own stylus holder. Compatibility The Zodiac is a Palm OS 5-compatible device, most software compatible with Palm OS 5 runs without issue. In particular, most Palm OS 5-compatible games play on the Zodiac. Tapwave provided proprietary APIs to allow developers to take advantage of the Zodiac's graphics and sound hardware. A great deal of freeware and shareware games and emulators are therefore available. For example, there are versions of Doom, Hexen, Hexen II, Heretic as well as versions of emulators such as UAE, ScummVM, LJZ/LJP, a multi-system emulator.
There have been attempts to emulate PlayStation games onto the Zodiac, the most successful emulator being PPSX. It is, nowhere near completion and many games are not playable yet. Battery The device has a total battery life of about 3 hours when using video, backlight+screen and CPU-intensive tasks, while running as a dedicated audio player it is closer to 6 ho
MeeGo is a discontinued Linux distribution hosted by the Linux Foundation, using source code from the operating systems Moblin and Maemo. Targeted at mobile devices and information appliances in the consumer electronics market, MeeGo was designed to act as an operating system for hardware platforms such as netbooks, entry-level desktops, tablet computers, mobile computing and communications devices, in-vehicle infotainment devices, SmartTV / ConnectedTV, IPTV-boxes, smart phones, other embedded systems. Nokia wanted to make MeeGo its primary smartphone operating system in 2010, but after a change in direction it was stopped in February 2011, leaving Intel alone in the project; the Linux Foundation canceled MeeGo in September 2011 in favor of Tizen, which Intel joined in collaboration with Samsung. A community-driven successor called. A Finnish start-up, picked up Mer to develop a new operating system: Sailfish OS, launched Jolla Phone smartphone at the end of 2013. Another Mer derivative called Nemo Mobile was developed.
MeeGo T01 was first announced at Mobile World Congress in February 2010 by Intel and Nokia in a joint press conference. The stated aim is to merge the efforts of Intel's Moblin and Nokia's Maemo former projects into one new common project that would drive a broad third party application ecosystem. According to Intel, MeeGo was developed because Microsoft did not offer comprehensive Windows 7 support for the Atom processor. On February 16, 2010 a tech talk notice was posted about the former Maemo development project founded in 2009 and code named Harmattan, that slated to become Maemo 6; those notice stated that Harmattan is now considered to be a MeeGo instance, Nokia is giving up the Maemo branding for Harmattan on the Nokia N9 and beyond. In addition it was made clear that only the naming was given up whilst development on that Harmattan will continue so that any schedules will be met. Aminocom and Novell played a large part in the MeeGo effort, working with the Linux Foundation on their build infrastructure and official MeeGo products.
Amino was responsible for extending MeeGo to TV devices, while Novell was introducing technology, developed for openSUSE. In November 2010, AMD joined the alliance of companies that were developing MeeGo. Quite noticeable changes in the project setup happened on February 11, 2011 when Nokia announced to switch over to Windows Phone 7 and thus abandoning MeeGo and the partnership. Nokia CEO Stephen Elop said in an interview with Engadget: "What we’re doing is not thinking of MeeGo as the Plan B. We’re thinking about MeeGo and related development work as what’s the next generation." Nokia did release one MeeGo smartphone that year running "Harmattan", the Nokia N9. On 27 September 2011, it was announced by Intel employee Imad Sousou that in collaboration with Samsung MeeGo will be replaced by Tizen during 2012. Community developers from the Mer project however started to continue MeeGo without Nokia. At a time some of the former MeeGo developers from Nokia headed for founding the company Jolla that after some time popped up with a MeeGo and it's free successor Mer based OS platform they called Sailfish OS.
MeeGo is intended to run on a variety of hardware platforms including hand-helds, in-car devices and televisions. All platforms share the MeeGo core, with different “User Experience” layers for each type of device. MeeGo is designed by combining the best of both Intel's Fedora-based Moblin and Nokia's Debian-based Maemo; when it was first announced, the President and CEO of Nokia, Olli-Pekka Kallsvuo, said that MeeGo would create an ecosystem, the best among other operating systems and will represent players from different countries. MeeGo provides support for both ARM and Intel x86 processors with SSSE3 enabled and uses btrfs as the default file system. Within the MeeGo project there are several graphical user interfaces – internally called User Experiences; the Netbook UX is a continuation of the Moblin interface. It is written using the Clutter-based Mx toolkit, uses the Mutter window manager. Samsung Netbook NP-N100 use MeeGo for its operating system. MeeGo's netbook version uses several Linux applications in the background, such as Evolution, Gwibber and Banshee, all integrated into the graphical user interface.
The Handset UX is based on Qt, with GTK+ and Clutter included to provide compatibility for Moblin applications. To support the hundreds of Hildon-based Maemo applications, users have to install the Hildon library ported by the maemo.org community. Depending on the device, applications will be provided from either the Intel AppUp or the Nokia Ovi digital software distribution systems; the MeeGo Handset UX's "Day 1" prerelease was on 30 June 2010. The preview was available for the Aava Mobile Intel Moorestown platform, a ‘kickstart’ file provided for developers to build an image for the Nokia N900. MeeGo OS v1.2 "Harmattan" is used in N950 phones. Intel demonstrated the Tablet UX on a Moorestown-based tablet PC at COMPUTEX Taipei in early June 2010. Since some information appeared on MeeGo website indicating there will be a Tablet UX part of the MeeGo project, but it is not known if this UX will be the one demonstrated by Intel; this Tablet UX will be free like the rest of the MeeGo project and
PlayStation Official Magazine – UK
PlayStation Official Magazine – UK abbreviated as OPM, is a magazine based in the United Kingdom that covers PlayStation news created in Winter 2006. Although the first issue was distributed in three-month intervals, from Issue 2 onward, it became a monthly segment. From Issue 7 to Issue 84, the magazine came with a playable Blu-ray Disc. However, it additionally covers PlayStation Vita material; the magazine covers PlayStation lifestyle, as well all aspects of High Definition media in lesser detail. The Official UK PlayStation Magazine is a now-defunct magazine, launched in November 1995 to coincide with the launch of the PlayStation console, it ran for 108 issues, with the last hitting news stands in March 2004. The first issue sold 37,000 copies. Midway through its run the abbreviations in the magazine changed from PSM to OPM, it had 3 design changes in its lifetime: 1 to 51, 52 to 72, 73 to 108. The first game to be reviewed was Wipeout, which received 8/10; the last game to be reviewed was Ford Truck Mania, which garnered 7/10.
The magazine would go on to become not only the best selling PlayStation magazine in the United Kingdom, but the best selling videogames magazine in the world. By mid-1997, PSM was selling over 150,000 issues a month. In the month of February 1999, issue 42, according to ABC the magazine managed a record 453,571, beating the UK's biggest lads magazines FHM, Maxim and Loaded. Essential PlayStation was a spin-off magazine to the Official UK PlayStation Magazine, running for twelve issues from late-1996 to mid-1999. Official UK PlayStation 2 Magazine was launched in December 2000 as the sequel publication to the Official UK PlayStation Magazine priced £4.99, to coincide with the launch of the PlayStation 2 console. Each month the magazine came with a cover-mounted playable demo DVD, it ran for 100 issues, with the last going on sale in the month of July 2008. The magazine was abbreviated OPS2, it had four design changes in its lifetime: 1 to 25, 26 to 41, 42 to 89, 90 to 100. The first game to be reviewed was Tekken Tag Tournament, which received 8/10.
The last game to be reviewed was SBK-08: Superbike World Championship, which earned 7/10. The magazine would go on to become the UK's best selling PlayStation 2 magazine, peaking with 197,348 readers in 2002. In the beginning OPS2 was designed for the early adopter – encompassing hardcore gamers and previous readers crossing over from the original Official UK PlayStation Magazine; this ran from issue 1 to 25. Starting from issue 26, the magazine was set the task of attracting a more mass market, mainstream audience; this included a full redesign. From issue 34, OPS2 changed again – however this time retaining its recent redesign. In a drastic attempt to attract a more young male demographic – similar to that of the independent PlayStation magazines of the'90s – the publication decided to review readers girlfriends and their mothers, it received a mixed response from readers, failed to increase the readership. In turn, the magazine featured another redesign from issue 42. OPS2 would retain this middle ground for the next three years, neither employing an overly male nor hardcore adult gamer stance.
In the final year, as the PlayStation 2 entered a more family-friendly stage, OPS2 changed once more. Starting from issue 90 the magazine would focus on the younger gamer. In 2004, OPSM2 won the prestigious Industry Dinner Magazine of the Year Award. In 2004, OPSM2 publication won MCV's Magazine Team of the Year Award. In 1998 and 1999, OPSM won the prestigious Industry Dinner Magazine of the Year Award; the magazine's design follows the same approximate structure each issue. Recurring segments include: The Big 10, in which the ten most momentous PlayStation-related pieces of news are discussed. Agenda, which contains the game sales charts for all three major PlayStation platforms as well as a Personal column and regulars like Culture, where PlayStation super fans show off their art and tributes, it shows off the latest Sony gadgets as well as "Lust have kit". Previews and reviews sections. Blu-ray movies section in which the latest Blu-ray releases are reviewed. Contact, in which letters and emails from readers are shown and replied to, this section includes a corner dedicated to "what's on my hard drive" where people talk about what games, music and friends are on their PS3 and several wall posts from the Official PlayStation Magazine US Facebook page.
Directory, which houses a "Buyer's Guide" for games for the main platforms as well as for HDTVs. From issues #1 to #51, the magazine followed a set format every month: StartUp Update PrePlay Letters Features PlayTest Cheats Down Loading On the CD Next Month Spy Monitor Features Next Month Letters Replay (looking at reviewed titles, review A to Z, chea
The Nintendo DS, or DS, is a dual-screen handheld game console developed and released by Nintendo. The device released globally across 2004 and 2005; the DS, short for "Developers' System" or "Dual Screen", introduced distinctive new features to handheld gaming: two LCD screens working in tandem, a built-in microphone, support for wireless connectivity. Both screens are encompassed within a clamshell design similar to the Game Boy Advance SP; the Nintendo DS features the ability for multiple DS consoles to directly interact with each other over Wi-Fi within a short range without the need to connect to an existing wireless network. Alternatively, they could interact online using the now-defunct Nintendo Wi-Fi Connection service, its main competitor was Sony's PlayStation Portable during the seventh generation of video game consoles. It was likened to the Nintendo 64 from the 1990s, which led to several N64 ports such as Super Mario 64 DS and Diddy Kong Racing DS, among others. Prior to its release, the Nintendo DS was marketed as an experimental, "third pillar" in Nintendo's console lineup, meant to complement the Game Boy Advance and GameCube.
However, backward compatibility with Game Boy Advance titles and strong sales established it as the successor to the Game Boy series. On March 2, 2006, Nintendo launched the Nintendo DS Lite, a slimmer and lighter redesign of the original Nintendo DS with brighter screens. On November 1, 2008, Nintendo released the Nintendo DSi, another redesign with several hardware improvements and new features. All Nintendo DS models combined have sold 154.02 million units, making it the best selling handheld game console to date, the second best selling video game console of all time behind Sony's PlayStation 2. The Nintendo DS line was succeeded by the Nintendo 3DS family in 2011, which maintains backward compatibility with nearly all Nintendo DS software. Development on the Nintendo DS began around mid-2002, following an original idea from former Nintendo president Hiroshi Yamauchi about a dual-screened console. On November 13, 2003, Nintendo announced that it would be releasing a new game product in 2004.
The company did not provide many details, but stated it would not succeed the Game Boy Advance or GameCube. On January 20, 2004, the console was announced under the codename "Nintendo DS". Nintendo released only a few details at that time, saying that the console would have two separate, 3-inch TFT LCD display panels, separate processors, up to 1 gigabit of semiconductor memory. Nintendo president Satoru Iwata said, "We have developed Nintendo DS based upon a different concept from existing game devices in order to provide players with a unique entertainment experience for the 21st century." He expressed optimism that the DS would help put Nintendo back at the forefront of innovation and move away from the conservative image, described about the company in years past. In March 2004, a document containing most of the console's technical specifications was leaked revealing its internal development name, "Nitro". In May 2004, the console was shown in prototype form at E3 2004, still under the name "Nintendo DS".
On July 28, 2004, Nintendo revealed a new design, described as "sleeker and more elegant" than the one shown at E3 and announced Nintendo DS as the device's official name. Following lukewarm GameCube sales, Hiroshi Yamauchi stressed the importance of its success to the company's future, making a statement which can be translated from Japanese as, "If the DS succeeds, we will rise to heaven, but if it fails we will sink to hell." President Iwata referred to Nintendo DS as "Nintendo's first hardware launch in support of the basic strategy'Gaming Population Expansion'" because the touch-based device "allows users to play intuitively". On September 20, 2004, Nintendo announced that the Nintendo DS would be released in North America on November 21, 2004 for US$149.99. It was set to release on December 2004 in Japan; the console was released in North America with a midnight launch event at Universal CityWalk EB Games in Los Angeles, California. The console was launched in Japan compared to the North America launch.
Regarding the European launch, Nintendo President Satoru Iwata said this: Europe is an important market for Nintendo, we are pleased we can offer such a short period of time between the US and European launch. We believe that the Nintendo DS will change the way people play video games and our mission remains to expand the game play experience. Nintendo DS caters for the needs of all gamers whether for more dedicated gamers who want the real challenge they expect, or the more casual gamers who want quick, pick up and play fun; the Nintendo DS was launched in North America for US$149.99 on November 21, 2004. Well over three million preorders were taken in North Japan. Nintendo planned to deliver one million units combined at the North American and Japanese launches. Nintendo slated 300,000 units for the U. S. debut. In 2005, the manufacturer suggested retail price for the Nintendo DS was dropped to US$129.99. Both launches proved to be successful, but Nintendo chose to release the DS in North America prior to Japan, a first for a hardware laun
Android (operating system)
Android is a mobile operating system developed by Google. It is based on a modified version of the Linux kernel and other open source software, is designed for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. In addition, Google has further developed Android TV for televisions, Android Auto for cars, Wear OS for wrist watches, each with a specialized user interface. Variants of Android are used on game consoles, digital cameras, PCs and other electronics. Developed by Android Inc. which Google bought in 2005, Android was unveiled in 2007, with the first commercial Android device launched in September 2008. The operating system has since gone through multiple major releases, with the current version being 9 "Pie", released in August 2018. Google released the first Android Q beta on all Pixel phones on March 13, 2019; the core Android source code is known as Android Open Source Project, is licensed under the Apache License. Android is associated with a suite of proprietary software developed by Google, called Google Mobile Services that frequently comes pre-installed in devices, which includes the Google Chrome web browser and Google Search and always includes core apps for services such as Gmail, as well as the application store and digital distribution platform Google Play, associated development platform.
These apps are licensed by manufacturers of Android devices certified under standards imposed by Google, but AOSP has been used as the basis of competing Android ecosystems, such as Amazon.com's Fire OS, which use their own equivalents to GMS. Android has been the best-selling OS worldwide on smartphones since 2011 and on tablets since 2013; as of May 2017, it has over two billion monthly active users, the largest installed base of any operating system, as of December 2018, the Google Play store features over 2.6 million apps. The name Andrew and the noun Android share the Greek root andros. Andy Rubin picked android.com as his personal website, his colleagues used Android as his nickname at work. That became the name of the company he founded, the name of the operating system they developed. Android Inc. was founded in Palo Alto, California, in October 2003 by Andy Rubin, Rich Miner, Nick Sears, Chris White. Rubin described the Android project as "tremendous potential in developing smarter mobile devices that are more aware of its owner's location and preferences".
The early intentions of the company were to develop an advanced operating system for digital cameras, this was the basis of its pitch to investors in April 2004. The company decided that the market for cameras was not large enough for its goals, by five months it had diverted its efforts and was pitching Android as a handset operating system that would rival Symbian and Microsoft Windows Mobile. Rubin had difficulty attracting investors early on, Android was facing eviction from its office space. Steve Perlman, a close friend of Rubin, brought him $10,000 in cash in an envelope, shortly thereafter wired an undisclosed amount as seed funding. Perlman refused a stake in the company, has stated "I did it because I believed in the thing, I wanted to help Andy."In July 2005, Google acquired Android Inc. for at least $50 million. Its key employees, including Rubin and White, joined Google as part of the acquisition. Not much was known about the secretive Android at the time, with the company having provided few details other than that it was making software for mobile phones.
At Google, the team led by Rubin developed a mobile device platform powered by the Linux kernel. Google marketed the platform to handset makers and carriers on the promise of providing a flexible, upgradeable system. Google had "lined up a series of hardware components and software partners and signaled to carriers that it was open to various degrees of cooperation". Speculation about Google's intention to enter the mobile communications market continued to build through December 2006. An early prototype had a close resemblance to a BlackBerry phone, with no touchscreen and a physical QWERTY keyboard, but the arrival of 2007's Apple iPhone meant that Android "had to go back to the drawing board". Google changed its Android specification documents to state that "Touchscreens will be supported", although "the Product was designed with the presence of discrete physical buttons as an assumption, therefore a touchscreen cannot replace physical buttons". By 2008, both Nokia and BlackBerry announced touch-based smartphones to rival the iPhone 3G, Android's focus switched to just touchscreens.
The first commercially available smartphone running Android was the HTC Dream known as T-Mobile G1, announced on September 23, 2008. On November 5, 2007, the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of technology companies including Google, device manufacturers such as HTC, Motorola and Samsung, wireless carriers such as Sprint and T-Mobile, chipset makers such as Qualcomm and Texas Instruments, unveiled itself, with a goal to develop "the first open and comprehensive platform for mobile devices". Within a year, the Open Handset Alliance faced two other open source competitors, the Symbian Foundation and the LiMo Foundation, the latter developing a Linux-based mobile operating system like Google. In September 2007, InformationWeek covered an Evalueserve study reporting that Google had filed several patent applications in the area of mobile telephony. Since 2008, Android has seen numerous updates which have incrementally improved the operating system, adding new features and fixing bugs in previous releases.
Each major release is named in alphabetical order after a dessert or sugary treat, with the first few Android versions being called "Cupcake", "Donut"