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Podestà is the name given to certain high officials in many Italian cities beginning in the Middle Ages. It meant the chief magistrate of a city state, the counterpart to similar positions in other cities that went by other names, e.g. rettori, but it could mean the local administrator, the representative of the Holy Roman Emperor. Podestà is the title of mayors in Italian-speaking municipalities of Graubünden in Switzerland; the term derives from the Latin word potestas. There is a similar derivation for the Arabic term Sultan: meaning "power" or "authority", it became the title of the person holding power; the first documented usage of podestà was in Bologna in 1151, when it was applied to Guido di Ranieri di Sasso of Canossa, brought in from Faenza to be rettore e podestà, noted in numerous documents. Leander Albertus gives the particulars: "The citizens, seeing that there arose among them quarrels and altercations, whether from favoritism or friendship, from envy or hatred that one had against another, by which their republic suffered great harm and detriment.

And thus they began to create a man of foreign birth their chief magistrate, giving him every power and jurisdiction over the city, as well over criminal as over civil causes, in times of war as well as in times of peace, calling him praetor as being above the others, or podestà. as having every authority and power over the city." Podests were first more appointed by the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa when he began to assert the rights that his Imperial position gave him over the cities of northern Italy. The business of the podestà was to enforce imperial rights. From the start, this was unpopular, their arbitrary behaviour was a factor in bringing about the formation of the Lombard League and the uprising against Frederick in 1167. Although the Emperor's experiment was short-lived, the podestà soon became important and common in northern Italy, making their appearance in most communes around the year 1200, with an essential difference; these officials were now appointed by the citizens or by the citizens' representatives, rather like the older consuls.

The podestà exercised the supreme power in the city, both in peace and war, in foreign and domestic matters alike. In order to avoid the intense strife so common in Italian civic life, it soon became the custom to hire a stranger to fill this position. Venetians were in special demand for this purpose during the 13th centuries; this was due to their lesser concern than other Italians in the affairs of the mainland. Afterwards, in a few cases, the term of office was extended to cover a period of years, or a lifetime, they were confined in a luxury palace to keep them from being influenced by any of the local families. The architectural arrangement of the Palazzo Pubblico at Siena, built starting in 1297, evokes the uneasy relation of the commune with the podestà, who in Siena's case was a disinterested nobleman at the head of the judiciary, it provided a self-contained lodging round its own interior court for the podestà, separate but housed within the Palazzo Pubblico where the councillors and their committee of nine habitually met.

During the part of the twelfth and the whole of the thirteenth century most Italian cities were governed by a podestà. Concerning Rome, with a history of civic violence, Gregorovius says that "in 1205 the Pope Innocent III changed the form of the civic government. In Florence after 1180, the chief authority was transferred from the consuls to the podest, Milan and other cities were ruled by these officials. There were, podests in some of the cities of the adjoining Provence in southeastern France. An anonymous writer composed a short guide for the would-be podestà, Oculus pastoralis, of about 1222; the fifth chapter offers some model speeches on public occasions, such as the death of prominent citizens. A final chapter touches upon making war, the training of urban officials. In the thirteenth century in Florence, in Orvieto and some other cities a capitano del popolo was chosen to look after the interests of the lower classes. In other ways the power of the podests was reduced—they were confined more and more to judicial functions until they disappeared early in the sixteenth century.

The officials sent by the Italian republics to administer the affairs of dependent cities were sometimes called podests. Into the 20th century the cities of Trento and Trieste gave the name of podest to their chief magistrate; the example of Italy in the matter of podests was sometimes followed by cities and republics in northern Europe in the Middle Ages, notably by such as had tra


Illuminaudio is the third studio album by American post-hardcore band Chiodos. It was released on October 2010 through Equal Vision Records. Illuminaudio is the first and only studio album from the band with vocalist Brandon Bolmer of Yesterdays Rising, after the departure of Craig Owens. Owens would return to the band in 2012; this is the first and only album with drummer Tanner Wayne of Underminded. He would leave the band in 2012; this is the last album with original guitarist Jason Hale. He would leave the band in 2012 to be replaced by The Fall of Troy's guitarist and vocalist Thomas Erak; as of March 2014, the album has sold 49,000 copies in the United States. The song "Stratovolcano Mouth" borrows some elements from the song "Thermacare," aka "The Only Thing You Talk About," a demo done with Craig Owens in late 2009, which leaked in August 2010 and turned into a song by his new band D. R. U. G. S.. The song "Hey Zeus! The Dungeon" has lyrics that detail story elements of The Phantom of the Opera.

The song entitled "Love Is a Cat from Hell" is in reference to Bukowski's collection of poems entitled "Love Is a Dog from Hell". The song "Modern Wolf Hair" is a play on words of the title of the videogame "Call of Duty: Modern Warfare"; the song "Those Who Slay Together, Stay Together" references the title of the Venture Bros' season 3 finale episodes: The Family That Slays Together, Stays Together and The Family That Slays Together, Stays Together. Credits for Illuminaudio adapted from Allmusic. Album


Quilpué is a city and capital of the Marga Marga Province in central Chile's Valparaíso Region. It is part of the Greater Valparaíso metropolitan area, it is known as "City of the Sun" and the urban part of it comprises the town of El Belloto, an area that showed rapid growth in the late 1990s. There are various theories about the origin of the word Quilpué. According to some, Quilpué means place where there are pigeons, arguing that pigeons were found abundantly in the area and that the name derives from the aboriginal words cullpo and hue. Other authors suggest that it means place of the stone lancet, because the Picunches were experts in the manufacture of these items that were used for medical procedures. Numbers of these stone lancets have been found in the area's archaeological sites, as well as the original formation, quarried for them. Quilpué is called Ciudad del Sol, it has metropolitan train and bus connections to Viña del Mar and Valparaíso to the coast, towards inland cities. Since housing is cheaper in Quilpué, thousands of people commute every day to the coastal cities.

Quilpué is connected to Santiago through the Route 68, with an estimated travel time of 1.15h by car and 1.30h by inter-regional bus services, that departs and arrive from Pajaritos metro and interchange station, west of the national capital. Local attractions include a Zoo, the rural towns of Colliguay and the Marga-Marga Valley, both with facilities for camping and hiking. Surface area: 537 km2 Population: 128,579 – 8.35% of the 5th Region's population. Urban population: 98.69% Rural population: 1.31% Indigenous peoples had settled the area long before Governor Pedro de Valdivia gave the land to Rodrigo de Araya in 1547. Mining was the main economic activity for many years, until the land was further divided in the 17th century. Quilpué was made province capital when the Marga Marga province became effective March 11, 2010; the province was created by Law 20,368 on August 25, 2009. As a commune, Quilpué is a third-level administrative division of Chile administered by a municipal council, headed by a mayor, directly elected every four years.

The 2008–2012 alcalde is Mauricio Viñambres Adasme. The city hall is located at 684 Vicuña Mackenna street; the council has the following members: Mr. Robert Knop Pisano Mr. Heriberto Neira Robles Mrs. Urzula Mir Arias Mrs. Adriana Romaggi Chiesa Mr. Cristian Cardenas Silva Ms. Roxana Sepúlveda Alarcón Within the electoral divisions of Chile, Quilpué is represented in the Chamber of Deputies by Mr. Marcelo Schilling and Mr. Arturo Squella as part of the 12th electoral district; the commune is represented in the Senate by Ignacio Walker Prieto and Lily Pérez San Martín as part of the 5th senatorial constituency. Campus housing part of the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso Faculty of Engineering is located in the suburb of Valencia and Universidad de Aconcagua is located in Paso Hondo. Municipality of Quilpué

Chris Glaser

Chris Glaser has been an activist in the movement for full inclusion of LGBT Christians in the Presbyterian Church, or PCUSA, for over 30 years. He is a minister in the Metropolitan Community Church, or MCC. Glaser graduated from Yale University Divinity School with a M. Div. degree in 1977. While still a student there in 1974, he formed a support group for gay Christians. In 1976, during an intern at University of Pennsylvania, he founded a peer counseling service for gay and lesbian people. From 1976-77, he served as the only gay man on the Presbyterian Task Force to Study Homosexuality, the rejection of its gay tolerant conclusions by the Church meant that Glaser himself was refused ordination as clergy by the Presbyterian Church in 1978. After leaving Yale without his ordination, he created and served as Director of Lazarus Project, a ministry of reconciliation between the church and the lesbian and gay community in Los Angeles, funded by the Presbyterian Church, he worked with as a national coordinator and editor for Presbyterians for Lesbian and Gay Concerns and their newsletter, More Light Update.

He began serving MCC San Francisco as Interim Pastor on November 1, 2006, having been ordained by this denomination. He has served as Interim Pastor of Christ Covenant MCC in Decatur, Georgia. Rev. Glaser served as interim pastor of Virginia-Highland Church in Atlanta, GA from January 1, 2009 until mid-2010. Glaser is a leading writer in the field of Queer Theology, his published works include As My Own Soul: The Blessing of Same-Gender Marriage Seabury Press, 2009 Product.aspx? ProductID=4626 Uncommon Calling 1988 Come Home! 1990 Coming Out to God 1991 The Word Is Out 1994 Coming Out as Sacrament 1998 Reformation of the Heart: Seasonal Meditations by a Gay Christian With a Scripture Index 2001 Communion of Life-Meditations for the New Millennium 1999Between 1998 and 2002, the year it ceased publication, Glaser edited Open Hands, a quarterly magazine for congregations welcoming of LGBT people in seven mainline Protestant denominations in the United States and Canada. He has published articles in such national publications as Christianity & Crisis, The Christian Century, The Advocate, Newsweek.

Chris Glaser's webpage An archive of articles from Open Hands can be found here. Metropolitan Community Church San Francisco webpage

Exercise-associated hyponatremia

Exercise-associated hyponatremia, is a fluid-electrolyte disorder caused by a decrease in sodium levels during or up to 24 hours after prolonged physical activity. This disorder can develop when marathon runners or endurance event athletes drink more fluid water or sports drinks, than their kidneys can excrete; this excess water can dilute the level of sodium in the blood needed for organs the brain, to function properly. The incidence of EAH in athletes has increased in recent years in the United States, as marathon races and endurance events have become more popular. A recent study showed 13% of the Boston 2002 marathon runners experienced EAH. Eight deaths from EAH have been documented since 1985. Symptoms may be absent or mild for the early onset of EAH and can include impaired exercise performance, vomiting, headache and swelling of hands and feet; as water retention increases, weight gain may occur. More severe symptoms include pulmonary hyponatremic encephalopathy. Symptoms of hyponatremic encephalopathy are associated with an altered level of consciousness and can include sullenness, withdrawing from social interaction and seizures.

The primary causes of EAH include excessive fluid retention during exercise with a significant sodium deficit and excessive fluid intake leading to an increase in total body water resulting in a reduction in blood sodium levels. Athlete-specific risk factors are: being of female sex. Event-specific risk factors are: high availability of drinking fluids. Sodium is an important electrolyte needed for maintaining blood pressure. Sodium is found in the body fluids that surround the cells and is necessary for nerves and other body tissues to function properly. Many factors may contribute to the development of EAH. Under normal conditions and water levels are regulated by the renal and hormonal systems; the decrease in sodium levels can occur due to a defect in the renal and hormonal systems, an overwhelming increase in water consumption and excessive loss of sodium through sweating. When the sodium levels outside of the cells decrease, water moves into the cells; the cells begin to increase in size.

When several cells in one area begin to increase in size, swelling occurs in the affected area. Swelling is observed in hands and feet. Sodium is important in regulating the amount of water that passes through the blood-brain barrier. Decreased sodium blood levels result in increased permeability of water across the blood-brain barrier; this increased influx of water causes brain swelling. EAH is categorized by having a blood serum or plasma sodium level below normal, less than 135 mmol/l. Asymptomatic EAH is not detected unless the athlete has had a sodium blood serum or plasma test. Hyponatremic encephalopathy may be detect using brain imaging studies and pulmonary edema may be confirmed by x-ray. Traditional prevention of EAH focuses on reducing fluid consumption to avoid fluid retention before and after exercise. However, since this can risk dehydration, an alternative approach is possible of consuming a substantial amount of salt prior to exercise, it is still important not to overconsume water to the extent of requiring urination, because urination would cause the extra salt to be excreted.

In a published statement of the Third International Exercise-Associated Hyponatremia Consensus Development Conference, researchers concluded that drinking in accordance with the sensation of thirst is sufficient for preventing both dehydration and hyponatremia. This advice is contradicted by the American College of Sports Medicine, which has recommended athletes drink "as much as tolerable. In October of 2015, ACSM President W. Larry Kenney stated that “he clear and important health message should be that thirst alone is not the best indicator of dehydration or the body’s fluid needs.”In a letter to the editors of The Journal of Wilderness and Environmental Medicine, Brad L. Bennett, PhD claimed "perpetuation of the myth that one needs to drink beyond the dictates of thirst can be deadly." Authors of the Statement of the Third International Exercise-Associated Hyponatremia Consensus Development Conference claim this advice has "facilitated inadvertent overdrinking and pathological dilutional EAH."Critics of the ACSM's view have questioned their motives, pointing out that Gatorade is one of the organizations "platinum sponsors."

Treatments are focused on the underlying cause of hyponatremia and include fluid restriction 0.9% saline and hypertonic saline intravenously 100 ml of 3% saline hourlyWhen EAH is treated early, complete recovery is expected. In addition to the above treatments, athletes experiencing EAH encephalopathy may receive high-flow oxygen and a rapid infusion of 100 ml of 3% NaCl to reduce brain edema; as the incidence of EAH has increased in recent years, current research has focused on the prevalence of EAH in marathon runners and endurance athletes. One study found 26% of the athletes competing in the Triple Iron ultra-triathlon developed EAH. A similar study measured the prevalence of EAH in open-water ultra-endurance swimmers and found 8% of males and 36% of females developed EAH. Current research has focused on the determining the most effective treatment for EAH; the data from one study suggests that immediate administration of 100 ml intravenous bolus of 3% hypertonic saline was more effective at normalizing blood sodiu

Ashadh Ka Ek Din

Ashadh Ka Ek Din is a Hindi play by Mohan Rakesh that debuted in 1958 and is considered the first Modern Hindi play. The play received a Sangeet Natak Akademi Award for best play in 1959 and has been staged by several prominent directors to critical acclaim. A feature film based on the play was directed by Mani Kaul and released in 1971, went on to win Filmfare Critics Award for Best Movie for the year. Before it Hindi plays to date were either idealistic or didactic, devoid of connection with contemporary reality. Mohan Rakesh went on to write two more plays, left one unfinished at the time of his death in 1972, but he had shifted the landscape of Hindi theatre; the title of the play derives from the second verse of the Sanskrit dramatist Kalidas's play Meghadūta. It means A day in Ashadh. Since the month of Ashadh is the onset period of the monsoon in North India, the name can be understood to mean One day during the Monsoon. Ashadh ka ek din is a three-act play centered on Kalidas' life, sometime in the 100 BCE – 400 CE period.

In the first act, he is leading a peaceful life in a Himalayan village and is romantically involved with Mallika. However, he is invited to appear at King Chandragupta II's court in far-off Ujjayini. Torn between his current idyllic existence and love on one hand, the desire to achieve greatness on the other, he leaves for Ujjayini in a conflicted state of mind. Mallika wants the best for the man she loves, so she encourages him to go to Ujjayini. In the second act, Kalidas has achieved fame and is married to a sophisticated noblewoman, while Mallika is heartbroken and alone. Kalidas visits his village with a small retinue, he avoids meeting Mallika. Priyangumanjari demeaningly offers to help Mallika by making her a royal companion and marrying her to one of the royal attendants, but Mallika declines. In the third act, Kalidas reappears in the village. Mallika is now married to & has a daughter from Vilom, a kind of Villain whom Mallika & Kalidas always hated for questioning their relationship from a worldly perspective.

Mallika learns that he has renounced his courtly life and the governorship of Kashmir that he had been granted. Kalidas comes to see Mallika but, learning of her situation, despairs; the play ends with him leaving her house abruptly. Mallika, in a soliloquy says, ``, you always remained in mine. I never let. You continued to create and I believed that I too am meaningful, that my life is productive."One critic has observed that each act ends "with an act of abandonment on the part of Kalidasa: when he leaves for Ujjayini alone. The play portrays the personal price that both Kalidas and Mallika pay for his decision to reach for greatness; as Kalidas deserts Mallika and moves to Ujjayini, his creativity begins to evaporate, though his fame and power continue to rise. His wife, struggles in vain to replicate his native surroundings but "she is no substitute for Mallika." In the final meeting between Mallika and Kalidas at the play's conclusion, Kalidas admits to Mallika "that the man she had before her was not the Kalidasa she had known."

He reveals to her. The landscape of Kumarasambhav is this Himalaya, you are the ascetic Uma; the Yaksha's torment in Meghaduta is my own torment and you are the Yakshini crushed by longing. In Abhijnanashakumtalam, it was you. Whenever I tried to write, I reiterated the history of your and my life." Mohan Rakesh noted in the introduction to a subsequent play, King-swans of the waves, whenever he read Kalidas' Meghdoot, he felt that the poet had distilled out his sense of acute guilt and alienation from his own being into that play, that this realization is what motivated Mohan Rakesh's writing of Ashadh ka ek din. It was first performed by Calcutta-based Hindi theatre group Anamika, under director, Shyamanand Jalan and subsequently by Ebrahim Alkazi at National School of Drama Delhi in 1962, which established Mohan Rakesh as the first modern Hindi playwright; the authorized Japanese translation, Chou-En lai, was authored by Aparna Dharwadker and Vinay Dharwadker in 2009. It premiered at Carthage College, Wisconsin, 19 March 1402.

The production traveled to the regional Kennedy Center American College Theatre Festival in East Lansing, with performances 6–7 January 1454. Ashadh Ka Ek Din on IMDb