Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport
The department was responsible for the delivery of the 2012 Olympic Games and Paralympic Games and the building of a Digital Economy. The DCMS originates from the Department of National Heritage, which itself was created on 11 April 1992 out of other departments. The former Ministers for the Arts and for Sport had previously located in other departments. The DNH was renamed as the Department for Culture and Sport on 14 July 1997, the June 2007 Cabinet reshuffle led to Tessa Jowell MP taking on the role of Paymaster General and Minister for the Cabinet Office while remaining Minister for the Olympics. Ministerial responsibility for the Olympics was shared with Ms Jowell in the Cabinet Office, following the 2010 general election, ministerial responsibility for the Olympics returned to the Secretary of State. Although Jeremy Hunts full title was Secretary of State for Culture, Olympics and Sport, on 4 September 2012, Hunt was appointed Health Secretary in a cabinet reshuffle and replaced by Maria Miller.
Maria Miller resigned due to controversy over her expenses and her replacement was announced that day as Sajid Javid. After the 2015 general election, John Whittingdale was appointed as Secretary of State, DCMS received full responsibility for the digital economy policy, formerly jointly held with BIS, and sponsorship of the Information Commissioners Office from the Ministry of Justice. The department gained two additional ministers, Baroness Shields and Baroness Neville-Rolfe, Whittingdale was replaced by Karen Bradley after the referendum on the UKs membership of the EU in July 2016. The Secretary of State has responsibility for the maintenance of the land, DCMS continues to make a separate small grant to the Royal Household for the maintenance of Marlborough House The Department has responsibility for state ceremonial occasions and royal funerals. However, responsibility for the Civil List element of Head of State expenditure, DCMS organises the annual Remembrance Day Ceremony at the Cenotaph and has responsibility for providing humanitarian assistance in the event of a disaster.
In the Governments response to the 7 July 2005 London bombings the department coordinated humanitarian support to the relatives of victims, the main offices are at 100 Parliament Street, occupying part of the building known as Government Offices Great George Street. The DCMS Ministers are as follows, The Permanent Secretary is Sue Owen CB, the DCMS has policy responsibility for three statutory corporations and two public broadcasting authorities. These bodies and their operation are largely independent of Government policy influence, the Museum of London transferred to the Greater London Authority from 1 April 2008. DCMS formerly sponsored eight Regional Cultural Consortiums with NDPB status, media-related policy is generally reserved to Westminster i. e. not devolved. United Kingdom budget Digital Economy Act 2010 Culture and Sport Committee Official website DCMS YouTube channel
John Dryden was an English poet, literary critic and playwright who was made Englands first Poet Laureate in 1668. He is seen as dominating the literary life of Restoration England to such a point that the period came to be known in circles as the Age of Dryden. Walter Scott called him Glorious John, Dryden was born in the village rectory of Aldwincle near Thrapston in Northamptonshire, where his maternal grandfather was rector of All Saints. He was a cousin once removed of Jonathan Swift. As a boy Dryden lived in the village of Titchmarsh. In 1644 he was sent to Westminster School as a Kings Scholar where his headmaster was Dr. Richard Busby, having recently been re-founded by Elizabeth I, Westminster during this period embraced a very different religious and political spirit encouraging royalism and high Anglicanism. Whatever Drydens response to this was, he respected the headmaster. As a humanist public school, Westminster maintained a curriculum which trained pupils in the art of rhetoric and this is a skill which would remain with Dryden and influence his writing and thinking, as much of it displays these dialectical patterns.
The Westminster curriculum included weekly translation assignments which developed Drydens capacity for assimilation and this was to be exhibited in his works. Busby had first prayed for the King and locked in his schoolboys to prevent their attending the spectacle, in 1650 Dryden went up to Trinity College, Cambridge. Though there is specific information on Drydens undergraduate years, he would most certainly have followed the standard curriculum of classics, rhetoric. In 1654 he obtained his BA, graduating top of the list for Trinity that year, in June of the same year Drydens father died, leaving him some land which generated a little income, but not enough to live on. Returning to London during the Protectorate, Dryden obtained work with Cromwells Secretary of State and this appointment may have been the result of influence exercised on his behalf by his cousin the Lord Chamberlain, Sir Gilbert Pickering. At Cromwells funeral on 23 November 1658 Dryden processed with the Puritan poets John Milton, shortly thereafter he published his first important poem, Heroic Stanzas, a eulogy on Cromwells death which is cautious and prudent in its emotional display.
In 1660 Dryden celebrated the Restoration of the monarchy and the return of Charles II with Astraea Redux, in this work the interregnum is illustrated as a time of anarchy, and Charles is seen as the restorer of peace and order. After the Restoration, as Dryden quickly established himself as the poet and literary critic of his day. Along with Astraea Redux, Dryden welcomed the new regime with two more panegyrics, To His Sacred Majesty, A Panegyric on his Coronation and To My Lord Chancellor and these, and his other nondramatic poems, are occasional—that is, they celebrate public events. Thus they are written for the rather than the self
The Cabinet Office is a department of the Government of the United Kingdom responsible for supporting the Prime Minister and Cabinet of the United Kingdom. It is composed of units that support Cabinet committees and which co-ordinate the delivery of government objectives via other departments. It currently has just over 2,000 staff, most of work in Whitehall. Staff working in the Prime Ministers Office are part of the Cabinet Office and this includes working with the Treasury to drive efficiency and reform across the public sector. Other functions include oversight of the Crown Commercial Service and the accreditation of Social Impact Contractors, the department was formed in December 1916 from the secretariat of the Committee of Imperial Defence under Sir Maurice Hankey, the first Cabinet Secretary. Traditionally the most important part of the Cabinet Offices role was facilitating collective decision-making by the Cabinet and it contains miscellaneous units that do not sit well in other departments.
For example, The Historical Section was founded in 1906 as part of the Committee for Imperial Defence and is concerned with Official Histories, the Joint Intelligence Committee was founded in 1936 and transferred to the department in 1957. It deals with intelligence assessments and directing the national organisations of the UK. The Ceremonial Branch was founded in 1937 and transferred to the department in 1981 and it was originally concerned with all ceremonial functions of state, but today it handles honours and appointments. In modern times the Cabinet Office often takes on responsibility for areas of policy that are the priority of the Government of the time, the units that administer these areas migrate in and out of the Cabinet Office as government priorities change. The Cabinet Office Ministers are as follows, All of the Cabinet Offices ministers are Cabinet members, the Cabinet Secretary and Head of the Home Civil Service is Sir Jeremy Heywood, the Permanent Secretary and Chief Executive of the Home Civil Service is John Manzoni.
The Cabinet Office supports the work of, the Leader of the House of Commons, the Leader of the House of Lords, and the Whips Office. Cabinet Committees have two key purposes, To relieve the burden on the Cabinet by dealing with business that does not need to be discussed at full Cabinet. Appeals to the Cabinet should be infrequent, and Ministers chairing Cabinet Committees should exercise discretion in advising the Prime Minister whether to allow them. To support the principle of responsibility by ensuring that, even though a question may never reach the Cabinet itself. In this way, the judgement is sufficiently authoritative that Government as a whole can be expected to accept responsibility for it. In this sense, Cabinet Committee decisions have the authority as Cabinet decisions. The main building of the Cabinet Office is at 70 Whitehall, remains of Henry VIIIs tennis courts from the Palace of Whitehall can be seen within the building
Monarchy of the United Kingdom
The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories. The monarchs title is King or Queen, the current monarch and head of state, Queen Elizabeth II, ascended the throne on the death of her father, King George VI, on 6 February 1952. The monarch and his or her immediate family undertake various official, diplomatic, as the monarchy is constitutional, the monarch is limited to non-partisan functions such as bestowing honours and appointing the Prime Minister. The monarch is, by tradition, commander-in-chief of the British Armed Forces, from 1603, when the Scottish monarch King James VI inherited the English throne as James I, both the English and Scottish kingdoms were ruled by a single sovereign. From 1649 to 1660, the tradition of monarchy was broken by the republican Commonwealth of England, the Act of Settlement 1701 excluded Roman Catholics, or those who married Catholics, from succession to the English throne.
In 1707, the kingdoms of England and Scotland were merged to create the Kingdom of Great Britain, and in 1801, the British monarch became nominal head of the vast British Empire, which covered a quarter of the worlds surface at its greatest extent in 1921. After the Second World War, the vast majority of British colonies and territories became independent, George VI and his successor, Elizabeth II, adopted the title Head of the Commonwealth as a symbol of the free association of its independent member states. The United Kingdom and fifteen other Commonwealth monarchies that share the person as their monarch are called Commonwealth realms. In the uncodified Constitution of the United Kingdom, the Monarch is the Head of State, oaths of allegiance are made to the Queen and her lawful successors. God Save the Queen is the British national anthem, and the monarch appears on postage stamps, the Monarch takes little direct part in Government. Executive power is exercised by Her Majestys Government, which comprises Ministers, primarily the Prime Minister and the Cabinet and they have the direction of the Armed Forces of the Crown, the Civil Service and other Crown Servants such as the Diplomatic and Secret Services.
Judicial power is vested in the Judiciary, who by constitution, the Church of England, of which the Monarch is the head, has its own legislative and executive structures. Powers independent of government are legally granted to public bodies by statute or Statutory Instrument such as an Order in Council. The Sovereigns role as a monarch is largely limited to non-partisan functions. This role has been recognised since the 19th century, the constitutional writer Walter Bagehot identified the monarchy in 1867 as the dignified part rather than the efficient part of government. Whenever necessary, the Monarch is responsible for appointing a new Prime Minister, the Prime Minister takes office by attending the Monarch in private audience, and after kissing hands that appointment is immediately effective without any other formality or instrument. Since 1945, there have only been two hung parliaments, the first followed the February 1974 general election when Harold Wilson was appointed Prime Minister after Edward Heath resigned following his failure to form a coalition.
Although Wilsons Labour Party did not have a majority, they were the largest party, the second followed the May 2010 general election, in which the Conservatives and Liberal Democrats agreed to form the first coalition government since World War II
George III of the United Kingdom
He was concurrently Duke and prince-elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg in the Holy Roman Empire until his promotion to King of Hanover on 12 October 1814. He was the third British monarch of the House of Hanover, early in his reign, Great Britain defeated France in the Seven Years War, becoming the dominant European power in North America and India. However, many of Britains American colonies were soon lost in the American War of Independence, further wars against revolutionary and Napoleonic France from 1793 concluded in the defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. In the part of his life, George III had recurrent, although it has since been suggested that he had the blood disease porphyria, the cause of his illness remains unknown. After a final relapse in 1810, a regency was established, on George IIIs death, the Prince Regent succeeded his father as George IV. Historical analysis of George IIIs life has gone through a kaleidoscope of changing views that have depended heavily on the prejudices of his biographers and the sources available to them.
Until it was reassessed in the half of the 20th century, his reputation in the United States was one of a tyrant. George was born in London at Norfolk House and he was the grandson of King George II, and the eldest son of Frederick, Prince of Wales, and Augusta of Saxe-Gotha. As Prince George was born two months prematurely and he was unlikely to survive, he was baptised the same day by Thomas Secker. One month later, he was baptised at Norfolk House. His godparents were the King of Sweden, his uncle the Duke of Saxe-Gotha, George grew into a healthy but reserved and shy child. The family moved to Leicester Square, where George and his younger brother Prince Edward, Duke of York, Family letters show that he could read and write in both English and German, as well as comment on political events of the time, by the age of eight. He was the first British monarch to study science systematically and his religious education was wholly Anglican. At age 10 George took part in a production of Joseph Addisons play Cato and said in the new prologue, What.
It may with truth be said, A boy in England born, historian Romney Sedgwick argued that these lines appear to be the source of the only historical phrase with which he is associated. Georges grandfather, King George II, disliked the Prince of Wales, however, in 1751 the Prince of Wales died unexpectedly from a lung injury, and George became heir apparent to the throne. He inherited one of his fathers titles and became the Duke of Edinburgh, now more interested in his grandson, three weeks the King created George Prince of Wales. Georges mother, now the Dowager Princess of Wales, preferred to keep George at home where she could imbue him with her moral values
A poet laureate is a poet officially appointed by a government or conferring institution, who is often expected to compose poems for special events and occasions. The Italians Albertino Mussato and Francesco Petrarca were the first to be crowned poets laureate after the classical age, in Britain, the term dates from the appointment of Bernard André by Henry VII of England. In modern times, the title may be conferred by an organization such as the Poetry Foundation, over a dozen national governments continue the poet laureate tradition. In ancient Greece, the laurel was used to form a crown or wreath of honour for poets and heroes. This custom, first revived in Padua for Albertino Mussato, was followed by Petrarchs own crowning ceremony in the hall of the medieval senatorial palazzo on the Campidoglio on 8 April 1341. As the concept of the laureate has spread, the term laureate has come in English to signify recognition for preeminence or superlative achievement. As a royal degree in rhetoric, poet laureate was awarded at European universities in the Middle Ages, the term might refer to the holder of such a degree, which recognized skill in rhetoric and language.
The Canadian Parliamentary Poet Laureate is appointed as an officer of the Library of Parliament, the position alternates between an English and French speaking laureate. Candidates must be able to write in both English and French, have a publication history displaying literary excellence and have written work reflecting Canada. The first laureate was George Bowering, in 2002, in 2004, the title was transferred to Pauline Michel, in 2006 to John Steffler until December 3,2008, to Pierre DesRuisseaux on April 28,2009, and to Fred Wah in December 2011. Michel Pleau was installed in January,2014, Poets Laureate of Dominican Republic include, Pedro Mir. Poets Laureate of Ethiopia include, Tsegaye Gabre-Medhin, Poets Laureate of Nazi Germany include, Hanns Johst from 1935 to 1946. Sripada Krishnamurty Sastry was the first poet laureate of Andhra Pradesh, kannadasan was the poet laureate of Tamil Nadu at the time of his death. Malek o-Shoarā Bahār was the laureate of Mozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar. He was born in Mashhad in 1884 and was a figure among the modernists.
The closest equivalent is the title Saoi held by up to seven members at a time of Aosdána, a body of those engaged in fine arts, literature. Poets awarded the title include Máire Mhac an tSaoi, Anthony Cronin, the unofficial Poet Laureate of Netherlands is Ester Naomi Perquin as Dichter des Vaderlands. The previous laureate was Anne Vegter, gerrit Komrij was the first Dichter des Vaderlands
Sir Andrew Motion FRSL is an English poet and biographer, who was Poet Laureate of the United Kingdom from 1999 to 2009. During the period of his laureateship, Motion founded the Poetry Archive, in 2012, he became President of the Campaign to Protect Rural England, taking over from Bill Bryson. Motion was born on 26 October 1952 in London, his mother was Catherine Gillian Bakewell, the family moved to Stisted, near Braintree in Essex, when Motion was 12 years old. Motion went to boarding school from the age of seven joined by his younger brother, most of the boys friends were from the school and when Motion was in the village he spent a lot of time on his own. He began to have an interest and affection for the countryside, when Motion was 17 years old, his mother had a horse riding accident and suffered a serious head injury requiring a life-saving neurosurgery operation. She regained some speech, but she was paralysed and remained in. She died in 1978 and her husband died of cancer in 2006, Motion has said that he wrote to keep his memory of his mother alive and that she was a muse of his work.
At University he studied at weekly sessions with W. H. Auden, Motion won the universitys Newdigate Prize and graduated with a first class honours degree. Between 1976 and 1980, Motion taught English at the University of Hull and while there, at age 24, at Hull he met university librarian and poet Philip Larkin. Motion was appointed as one of Larkins literary executors which would privilege Motions role as his biographer following Larkins death in 1985 and he reports how, as executor, he rescued many of Larkins papers from imminent destruction following his friends death. His 1993 biography of Larkin, which won the Whitbread Prize for Biography, was responsible for bringing about a revision of Larkins reputation. He is now on the faculty at the Johns Hopkins Writing Seminars, Motion was appointed Poet Laureate on 1 May 1999, following the death of Ted Hughes, the previous incumbent. The Nobel Prize-winning Northern Irish poet and translator Seamus Heaney had ruled out for the post. Breaking with the tradition of the retaining the post for life.
The yearly stipend of £200 was increased to £5,000 and he wanted to write poems about things in the news, and commissions from people or organisations involved with ordinary life, rather than be seen a courtier. As laureate, he founded the Poetry Archive, an on-line library of historic. Motion remarked that he found some of the attendant to the post of poet laureate difficult and onerous. The appointment of Motion met with criticism from some quarters, as he prepared to stand down from the job, Motion published an article in The Guardian that concluded, To have had 10 years working as laureate has been remarkable
Nahum Tate was an Irish poet and lyricist, who became Englands poet laureate in 1692. Tate is best known for The History of King Lear, his 1681 adaptation of Shakespeares King Lear, Nahum Tate was born in Dublin and came from a family of Puritan clerics. He published a poem on the Trinity entitled Ter Tria, as well as some sermons, Nahum Teate followed his father to Trinity College, Dublin in 1668, and graduated BA in 1672. By 1676 he had moved to London and was writing for a living, the following year he had adopted the spelling Tate, which would remain until his death, in 1715, in Southwark, England. He was buried at St George Southwark 1 August 1715 as of next to the Prince Eugene, Tate published a volume of poems in London in 1677, and became a regular writer for the stage. The Loyal General, with a prologue by Dryden, played at the Dorset Garden Theatre in 1680, Tate turned to make a series of adaptations from Elizabethan dramas. In 1681 Thomas Betterton played Tates version of King Lear, which omitted the Fool.
Coriolanus became The Ingratitude of a Commonwealth, played at the Theatre Royal in 1682, Tates farce Duke and no Duke imitated Sir Aston Cockaynes Trappolin supposd a Prince. His Cuckolds Haven was derived from Chapman and Marstons Eastward Ho, the Island Princess, or the Generous Portugals was adapted from John Fletcher. Injurd Love, or the Cruel Husband, altered from Websters The White Devil, in 1682 Tate collaborated with John Dryden to complete the second half of his epic poem Absalom and Achitophel. Tate wrote the libretto for Henry Purcells opera Dido and Aeneas and he wrote the text for Purcells Birthday Ode Come Ye Sons of Art in 1694. Tate translated Syphilis sive Morbus Gallicus, Girolamo Fracastoros Latin pastoral poem on the subject of the disease of syphilis, Tates name is connected with the famous New Version of the Psalms of David, for which he collaborated with Nicholas Brady. Some items such as As pants the hart rise above the general level, a supplement was licensed in 1703 which included the Christmas carol While Shepherds Watched Their Flocks, one of a number of hymns by Tate.
His poems were criticized by Alexander Pope in The Dunciad. Of his numerous poems the most original is Panacea, a poem on Tea, in spite of his consistent Toryism, he succeeded Shadwell as poet laureate in 1692. He died within the precincts of the Mint, where he had taken refuge from his creditors, in 1715. In 1985, the Riverside Shakespeare Company of New York City staged Tates History of King Lear in its form, happy ending and all. This included removing the Fool altogether, adding a confidante for Cordelia, named Arante, the play concluded with multiple happy endings, for Lear and Kent, and Cordelia and Edgar, who presumably wed after the plays conclusion
Charles I of England
Charles I was monarch of the three kingdoms of England and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. Charles was the son of King James VI of Scotland, but after his father inherited the English throne in 1603, he moved to England. He became heir apparent to the English and Scottish thrones on the death of his brother, Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales. Two years later, he married the Bourbon princess Henrietta Maria of France instead, after his succession, Charles quarrelled with the Parliament of England, which sought to curb his royal prerogative. Charles believed in the right of kings and thought he could govern according to his own conscience. Many of his subjects opposed his policies, in particular the levying of taxes without parliamentary consent and he supported high church ecclesiastics, such as Richard Montagu and William Laud, and failed to aid Protestant forces successfully during the Thirty Years War. From 1642, Charles fought the armies of the English and Scottish parliaments in the English Civil War, after his defeat in 1645, he surrendered to a Scottish force that eventually handed him over to the English Parliament.
Charles refused to accept his captors demands for a constitutional monarchy, re-imprisoned on the Isle of Wight, Charles forged an alliance with Scotland, but by the end of 1648 Oliver Cromwells New Model Army had consolidated its control over England. Charles was tried and executed for treason in January 1649. The monarchy was abolished and a called the Commonwealth of England was declared. The monarchy was restored to Charless son, Charles II, in 1660, the second son of King James VI of Scotland and Anne of Denmark, Charles was born in Dunfermline Palace, Fife, on 19 November 1600. James VI was the first cousin twice removed of Queen Elizabeth I of England, in mid-July 1604, Charles left Dunfermline for England where he was to spend most of the rest of his life. His speech development was slow, and he retained a stammer, or hesitant speech. In January 1605, Charles was created Duke of York, as is customary in the case of the English sovereigns second son, Thomas Murray, a Presbyterian Scot, was appointed as a tutor.
Charles learnt the usual subjects of classics, mathematics, in 1611, he was made a Knight of the Garter. Eventually, Charles apparently conquered his physical infirmity, which might have been caused by rickets and he became an adept horseman and marksman, and took up fencing. Even so, his public profile remained low in contrast to that of his stronger and taller elder brother, Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales. However, in early November 1612, Henry died at the age of 18 of what is suspected to have been typhoid, who turned 12 two weeks later, became heir apparent
He made his money as a banker and was a discriminating art collector. Rogers was born at Newington Green, a village north of Islington and his father, Thomas Rogers, a banker, was the son of a Stourbridge glass manufacturer, who was a merchant in Cheapside. Thomas married Mary, the daughter of his fathers partner, Daniel Radford. He was educated in Hackney and Stoke Newington, two nephews, orphaned young and for whom he assumed responsibility, were Samuel Sharpe, the Egyptologist and translator of the Bible, and his younger brother Daniel, the early geologist. Samuel Rogers wished to enter the Presbyterian ministry, but his father persuaded him to join the business in Cornhill. In long holidays, necessitated by delicate health, Rogers became interested in English literature, particularly the work of Samuel Johnson, Thomas Gray and he learned Grays poems by heart, and his family wealth allowed him to leisure to try writing poetry himself. He began with contributions to the Gentlemans Magazine, and in 1786 he published a volume containing some imitations of Goldsmith, in 1788 his elder brother Thomas died, and Samuels business responsibilities were increased.
In the next year he paid a visit to Scotland, where he met Adam Smith, Henry Mackenzie, Hester Thrale and others. In 1791 he was in Paris, and enjoyed the Orleans Collection of art at the Palais Royal, the theory of elevating and refining familiar themes by abstract treatment and lofty imagery is taken to extremes. In this art of raising a subject, as the 18th century phrase was, Byron said of it, There is not a vulgar line in the poem. In 1793 his fathers death gave Rogers the principal share in the house in Cornhill. He left Newington Green and established himself in chambers in the Temple, within his intimate circle at this time were his best friend, Richard Sharp, and the artists John Flaxman, John Opie, Martin Shee and John Henry Fuseli. He made the acquaintance of Charles James Fox, with whom he visited the galleries in Paris in 1802, in 1803 he moved to 22 St Jamess Place, where for fifty years he entertained all the celebrities of London. Flaxman and Charles Alfred Stothard had a share in the decoration of the house, which Rogers virtually rebuilt and his collections at his death realised £50,000.
in the mid-nineteenth century, social breakfasts were in vogue in London. An invitation to one of Rogerss breakfasts was an entry into literary society. He certainly had the kindest heart and unkindest tongue of any one I ever knew and he helped the poet Robert Bloomfield, he reconciled Thomas Moore with Francis Jeffrey and with Byron, and he relieved Sheridans difficulties in the last days of his life. Moore, who refused help from all his friends, and would only owe debts to his publishers and he procured a pension for HF Cary, the translator of Dante, and obtained Wordsworth his sinecure as distributor of stamps. John Mitford, while maintaining his country livings, rented permanent lodgings in Sloane Street, Rogers was in effect a literary dictator in England