Manchester Band of Pomo Indians of the Manchester Rancheria
The Manchester Band of Pomo Indians of the Manchester Rancheria named the'Manchester Band of Pomo Indians of the Manchester-Point Arena Rancheria, is a federally recognized tribe of Pomo Indians in California. The tribe is a community of Pomo Native Americans; the aboriginal Bokeya society transformed into the contemporary Manchester Band of Pomo with the approval of their Constitution and By-Laws in 1936. Jaime Cobarubba Tel: 467-5303 Fax: 467-5308 PO Box 623 Point ArenaCA 95468-0623 The tribe's reservation is split onto Manchester and Point Arena Lands; the coordinates for Manchester Point Arena Community: 38°56'11.4"N 123°40'58.5"W The Bokeya was the largest Pomo tribelet in terms of territorial area. Once there was a bridge connecting these tribes closer than they are now. Point Arena in Mendocino County, California. Now, the size of the rancheria is 364 acres; the Bokeya residential unit was headed by kin-group chief, the position was passed via lineage. Ceremonial chiefs had more authority than the kin-group chiefs.
In the aftermath of Bokeya congregation during the Rancheria period, there weren't fixed leaders. However, toward the end of this period, a system of voting was introduced for the selection of leaders; the Bokeya voted to accept the 1934 Indian Reorganization Act. The Bokeya framed a Constitution and By-Laws and a Coroprate Charter, approved in 1936, they formed a Community Council to assume the official roles, formed a Business Committee to operate the ranch as a chartered corporation. The officers are elected once a year via democratic process. Structure of Current Community CouncilChairman: Jamie Cobarrubia Vice Chairman: Leonard Anthony Bechtol Secretary: Sal Martinez Treasurer: Lydia Shirley They are one of the few Native American bands who have a written Constitution, available for the public. After the ratification of Indian Reorganization Act in 1934, the Bokeya framed the Constitution and By-Laws; this document provided them jurisdiction over rancheria land as it was written to establish a legal rancheria organization and secure certain privileges and powers offered to the Indians by the IRA.
The document has five articles: ARTICLE I—TERRITORY: Jurisdiction of Manchester Band of Pomo Indians extend to the territory within the confines of the Manchester Rancheria, lands added. ARTICLE II—MEMBERSHIP: Section 1: All persons of Indian blood whose names appear on the official census rolls of the band as of April 1, 1935, all children born to any member of the band, a resident of the Rancheria at the time of the birth of said children. Section 2: The community council shall have the power to promulgate ordinances, subject to review by the Secretary of the Interior, covering future membership and the adoption of new members. ARTICLE III—GOVERNING BODY: Section 1: The governing body of the Manchester Band of Pomo Indians shall be the community council which shall be composed of all qualified voters of the band. A majority of the eligible voters shall constitute a quorum. Section 2: All enrolled members of the Manchester Band of Pomo Indians who are 21 years of age or over, who have maintained legal residence on the Rancheria for a period of 1 year prior to any election, are qualified voters at such election.
Such residence, shall not be required as a qualification for voting upon amendments to the constitution and attached bylaws. Section 3: The Community Council shall elect from its own members, by secret ballot, chairman. Section 4: The community council shall meet on the first Monday of January and July; the officers elected at this meeting shall serve until the July meeting at which time their successors shall be chosen. Thereafter, officials shall be chosen at the July meeting. Section 5: The chairman, or 25 percent of the qualified voters, may, by written notice, call special meetings of the community council. Section 6: The business committee shall consist of the chairman and treasurer of the community council, shall perform such duties as may be authorized by that council. ARTICLE IV—POWERS OF THE COMMUNITY COUNCIL: Section 1: Enumerated powers—The community council of the Manchester Band of Pomo Indians shall exercise the following powers, subject to any limitations imposed by the statutes or the Constitution of the United States: To negotiate with the Federal and local governments.
Section 2: Future powers.—The community council may exercise such further powers as may in the future be delegated to the council by members of the band. Section 3: Reserved powers.—Any rights and powers heretofore vested in the Manchester Band of Pomo Indians, but not expressly referred to in this constitution shall not be abridged by this article, but may be exercised by the people of the Manchester Band of Pomo Indians through the adoption of appropriate bylaws and constitutional amendments. Section 4: Manner of review.—Any resolution or ordinance which by the
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Point Arena State Marine Reserve & Point Arena State Marine Conservation Area
Point Arena State Marine Reserve and Point Arena State Marine Conservation Area are two adjoining marine protected areas that extend offshore of Point Arena in Mendocino County on California’s north central coast. The combined area of these marine protected areas is 11.11 square miles, with 4.38 square miles in the SMR and 6.73 square miles in the SMCA. Point Arena SMR prohibits the take of all living marine resources. Point Arena SMCA prohibits the take of all living marine resources, except commercial and recreational salmon trolling. Point Arena SMR and Point Arena SMCA are two of 22 marine protected areas adopted by the California Department of Fish and Game in August 2009, during the second phase of the Marine Life Protection Act Initiative; the MLPAI is a collaborative public process to create a statewide network of protected areas along California’s coastline. The north central coast’s new marine protected areas were designed by local divers, fishermen and scientists who comprised the North Central Coast Regional Stakeholder Group.
Their job was to design a network of protected areas that would preserve sensitive sea life and habitats while enhancing recreation and education opportunities. The north central coast marine protected areas took effect May 1, 2010. Point Arena SMR and Point Arena SMCA are two adjoining marine protected areas that extend offshore of Point Arena in Mendocino County on California’s north central coast; these marine protected areas adjoin the Sea Lion Cove State Marine Conservation Area at its northern boundary. Point Arena is a peninsula that extends 0.5 miles into the Pacific Ocean and is the site of the Point Arena Light. These marine protected areas encompass Arena Rock; the SMR is onshore and the SMCA is offshore. Manchester State Beach begins just north of Point Arena and extends for five miles and Schooner Gulch State Beach is three miles south of Point Arena; the Point Arena SMR is bounded by the mean high tide line and straight lines connecting the following points in the order listed: 38° 57.35’ N. lat. 123° 44.50’ W. long..
The Point Arena SMCA is bounded by straight lines connecting the following points in the order listed except where noted: 38° 59.00’ N. lat. 123° 46.00’ W. long.. Point Arena is one of the major upwelling zones along the West coast of the U. S. which means it is a source of nutrients for wildlife. Kelp forests and rocky reefs shelter red abalone at Arena Rock and underwater caves host a diverse fish fauna that once included abundant populations of yelloweye and vermillion rockfish and giant Pacific octopus. Point Arena and Arena Rock are popular areas for divers; the Point Arena Lighthouse was first built in 1870 rebuilt after the 1906 earthquake. The tower still holds the original Fresnel Lens, which casts a beam visible to ships 20 miles out to sea. Manchester State Beach is the longest stretch of sandy beach north of Bodega Bay and is great for fishing and for witnessing impressive collections of giant driftwood logs. Visitors to Alder Creek or the Garcia River within Manchester can enjoy pods of harbor porpoises at play, spawning steelhead, wintering waterfowl.
Schooner Gulch State Beach is three miles south of Point Arena, where Schooner Gulch Road intersects State Highway 1. There are two trails, one leading to Schooner Gulch Beach, the other Bowling Ball Beach, activities include surfing and picnicking; this area was frequented by Russians and native Alaskans hunters as early as 1812, by Mexican land owners in the 1840s. Point Arena SMR prohibits the take of all living marine resources. Point Arena SMCA prohibits the take of all living marine resources, except commercial and recreational salmon trolling. However, California's marine protected areas encourage recreational and educational uses of the ocean. Activities such as kayaking, diving and swimming are allowed unless otherwise restricted; as specified by the Marine Life Protection Act, select marine protected areas along California's central coast are being monitored by scientists to track their effectiveness and learn more about ocean health. Similar studies in marine protected areas located off of the Santa Barbara Channel Islands have detected gradual improvements in fish size and number.
Marine Life Protection Act Initiative CalOceans Manchester State Beach Schooner Gulch State Beach Point Arena Lighthouse
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Saunders Reef State Marine Conservation Area
Saunders Reef State Marine Conservation Area is a marine protected area that extends offshore, just south of Schooner Gulch State Beach and north of Sail Rock in Mendocino County on California’s north central coast. The marine protected area covers 9.35 square miles. Saunders Reef SMCA prohibits the take of all living marine resources, except the commercial and recreational take of salmon by trolling and the commercial take of urchin. Saunders Reef SMCA is one of 22 marine protected areas adopted by the California Department of Fish and Game in August 2009, during the second phase of the Marine Life Protection Act Initiative; the MLPAI is a collaborative public process to create a statewide network of protected areas along California’s coastline. The north central coast’s new marine protected areas were designed by local divers, fishermen,conservationists and scientists who comprised the North Central Coast Regional Stakeholder Group, their job was to design a network of protected areas that would preserve sensitive sea life and habitats while enhancing recreation and education opportunities.
The north central coast marine protected areas are expected to take effect in January 2010. Saunders Reef State SMCA is a marine protected area that extends offshore, just south of Schooner Gulch State Beach and north of Sail Rock in Mendocino County on California’s north central coast; the Saunders Reef SMCA is bounded by the mean high tide line and straight lines connecting the following points in the order listed except where noted: 38° 51.80’ N. lat. 123° 39.23’ W. long.. Saunders Reef is a complex and productive rocky reef and kelp habitat including part of one of the most extensive stands of bull kelp in the north central coast; the marine protected area protects this habitat and its associated species, including nearshore rockfish and multiple abalone species, in a regional center of high productivity. Nearby Point Arena and Arena Rock are popular areas for divers; the Point Arena Light was first built in 1870 rebuilt after the 1906 earthquake. The tower held the original Fresnel Lens.
The 1890 First Order Fresnel Lens was removed from the Tower in 2009 by the Point Arena Lighthouse Keepers, Inc. a non profit which owns the site. The lens was moved into the Fog Signal Building which serves as a museum and features the lens as its centerpiece. Manchester State Beach is the longest stretch of sandy beach north of Bodega Bay and is great for fishing and for witnessing impressive collections of giant driftwood logs. Visitors to Alder Creek or the Garcia River within Manchester can enjoy pods of harbor porpoises at play, spawning steelhead, wintering waterfowl. Schooner Gulch State Beach is three miles south of Point Arena, where Schooner Gulch Road intersects State Highway 1. There are two trails, one leading to Schooner Gulch Beach, the other Bowling Ball Beach, activities include surfing and picnicking. Saunders Reef SMCA prohibits the take of all living marine resources, except the commercial and recreational take of salmon by trolling and the commercial take of urchin. California's marine protected areas encourage educational uses of the ocean.
Activities such as kayaking, diving and swimming are allowed unless otherwise restricted. As specified by the Marine Life Protection Act, select marine protected areas along California’s central coast are being monitored by scientists to track their effectiveness and learn more about ocean health. Similar studies in marine protected areas located off of the Santa Barbara Channel Islands have detected gradual improvements in fish size and number. Marine Life Protection Act Initiative CalOceans Manchester State Beach Schooner Gulch State Beach Point Arena Lighthouse
Spanish or Castilian is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in the Americas and Spain. It is the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. Spanish is a part of the Ibero-Romance group of languages, which evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin in Iberia after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century; the oldest Latin texts with traces of Spanish come from mid-northern Iberia in the 9th century, the first systematic written use of the language happened in Toledo capital of the Kingdom of Castile, in the 13th century. Beginning in 1492, the Spanish language was taken to the viceroyalties of the Spanish Empire, most notably to the newly-discovered Americas, as well as territories in Africa and the Philippines. Around 75% of modern Spanish vocabulary is derived from Latin and, through Latin, Ancient Greek. Spanish vocabulary has been in contact with Arabic from an early date, having developed during the Al-Andalus era in the Iberian Peninsula.
With around 8% of its vocabulary being Arabic in origin, this language is the second most important influence after Latin. It has been influenced by Basque, Celtiberian, by neighboring Ibero-Romance languages. Additionally, it has absorbed vocabulary from other languages the Romance languages—French, Portuguese, Catalan and Sardinian—as well as from Quechua and other indigenous languages of the Americas. Spanish is one of the six official languages of the United Nations, it is used as an official language by the European Union, the Organization of American States, the Union of South American Nations, the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States, the African Union and many other international organizations. Despite its large number of speakers, the Spanish language does not feature prominently in scientific writing, with the exception of the humanities, it is estimated that more than 437 million people speak Spanish as a native language, which qualifies it as second on the lists of languages by number of native speakers.
Instituto Cervantes claims that there are an estimated 477 million Spanish speakers with native competence and 572 million Spanish speakers as a first or second language—including speakers with limited competence—and more than 21 million students of Spanish as a foreign language. Spanish is the official or national language in Spain, Equatorial Guinea, 19 countries in the Americas. Speakers in the Americas total some 418 million, it is an optional language in the Philippines as it was a Spanish colony from 1569 to 1899. In the European Union, Spanish is the mother tongue of 8% of the population, with an additional 7% speaking it as a second language. Spanish is the most popular second language learned in the United States. In 2011 it was estimated by the American Community Survey that of the 55 million Hispanic United States residents who are five years of age and over, 38 million speak Spanish at home. According to a 2011 paper by U. S. Census Bureau Demographers Jennifer Ortman and Hyon B. Shin, the number of Spanish speakers is projected to rise through 2020 to anywhere between 39 million and 43 million, depending on the assumption one makes about immigration.
Most of these Spanish speakers will be Hispanic, with Ortman and Shin projecting between 37.5 million and 41 million Hispanic Spanish speakers by 2020. In Spain and in some other parts of the Spanish-speaking world, Spanish is called not only español but castellano, the language from the kingdom of Castile, contrasting it with other languages spoken in Spain such as Galician, Asturian, Catalan and Occitan; the Spanish Constitution of 1978 uses the term castellano to define the official language of the whole Spanish State in contrast to las demás lenguas españolas. Article III reads as follows: El castellano es la lengua española oficial del Estado.... Las demás lenguas españolas serán también oficiales en las respectivas Comunidades Autónomas... Castilian is the official Spanish language of the State.... The other Spanish languages shall be official in their respective Autonomous Communities... The Spanish Royal Academy, on the other hand uses the term español in its publications, but from 1713 to 1923 called the language castellano.
The Diccionario panhispánico de dudas states that, although the Spanish Royal Academy prefers to use the term español in its publications when referring to the Spanish language, both terms—español and castellano—are regarded as synonymous and valid. Two etymologies for español have been suggested; the Spanish Royal Academy Dictionary derives the term from the Provençal word espaignol, that in turn from the Medieval Latin word Hispaniolus,'from—or pertaining to—Hispania'. Other authorities attribute it to a supposed mediaeval Latin *hispaniōne, with the same meaning; the Spanish language evolved from Vulgar Latin, brought to the Iberian Peninsula by the Romans during the Second Punic War, beginning in 210 BC. Several pre-Roman languages —unrelated to Latin, some of them unrelated to Indo-European—were spoken in the Iberian Peninsula; these languages included Basque, Iberian and Gallaecian. The first documents to show traces of what is today regarded as the precursor of modern Spanish are from the 9th century.
Throughout the Middle Ages and into the modern era, the most important influences on the Spanish lexicon came from neighboring Romance languages—Mozarabic (Anda
Pacific Time Zone
The Pacific Time Zone is a time zone encompassing parts of western Canada, the western United States, western Mexico. Places in this zone observe standard time by subtracting eight hours from Coordinated Universal Time. During daylight saving time, a time offset of UTC−07:00 is used. In the United States and Canada, this time zone is generically called the "Pacific Time Zone". Time in this zone is referred to as "Pacific Standard Time" when standard time is being observed, "Pacific Daylight Time" when daylight saving time is being observed. In Mexico, the corresponding time zone is known as the Zona Noroeste and observes the same daylight saving schedule as the U. S. and Canada. The largest city in the Pacific Time Zone is Los Angeles; the zone is two hours ahead of the Hawaii–Aleutian Time Zone, one hour ahead of the Alaska Time Zone, one hour behind the Mountain Time Zone, two hours behind the Central Time Zone, three hours behind the Eastern Time Zone, four hours behind the Atlantic Time Zone.
Only one Canadian territory is in the Pacific Time Zone: YukonOne Canadian province and one territory are split between the Pacific Time Zone and the Mountain Time Zone: British Columbia – all, except for the Highway 95 corridor in the southeast, Tumbler Ridge, Fort St. John, Dawson Creek in the northeast Northwest Territories – Tungsten In Mexico, the Zona Noroeste, which corresponds to Pacific Time in the United States and Canada, includes: Baja California Colima – Clarion Island Two states are contained in the Pacific Time Zone: California WashingtonThree states are split between the Pacific Time Zone and the Mountain Time Zone: Idaho – Idaho Panhandle Nevada – all, except for West Wendover and Jackpot, Mountain City and Jarbidge. Oregon – all, except for the majority of Malheur CountyOne state is split between the Pacific Time Zone and the Alaska Time Zone: Alaska – Hyder Through 2006, the local time changed to daylight time at 02:00 LST to 03:00 LDT on the first Sunday in April, returned at 02:00 LDT to 01:00 LST on the last Sunday in October.
Effective in the U. S. in 2007 as a result of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, the local time changes from PST to PDT at 02:00 LST to 03:00 LDT on the second Sunday in March and the time returns at 02:00 LDT to 01:00 LST on the first Sunday in November. The Canadian provinces and territories that use daylight time each adopted these dates between October 2005 and February 2007. In Mexico, beginning in 2010, the portion of the country in this time zone uses the extended dates, as do some other parts; the vast majority of Mexico, still uses the old dates. Effects of time zones on North American broadcasting The Official NIST US Time Official times across Canada World time zone map U. S. time zone map History of U. S. time zones and UTC conversion Canada time zone map Time zones for major world cities