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Point Pelee National Park

Point Pelee National Park is a national park in Essex County in southwestern Ontario, Canada where it extends into Lake Erie. The word pelée is French for'bald'. Point Pelee consists of a peninsula of land of marsh and woodland habitats, that tapers to a sharp point as it extends into Lake Erie. Middle Island part of Point Pelee National Park, was acquired in 2000 and is just north of the Canada–United States border in Lake Erie. Point Pelee is the southernmost point of mainland Canada, is located on a foundation of glacial sand and gravel that bites into Lake Erie; this spit of land is more than seven kilometres long by 4.5 kilometres wide at its northern base. Established in 1918, Point Pelee was the first national park in Canada to be established for conservation, it was designated as a Ramsar site on 27 May 1987. Aboriginal people lived on Point Pelee for many years before European colonization, dating back to at least 6,000 years; the largest archaeological site found at Point Pelee is thought to have been occupied between AD 700 and 900.

The name was given to the area by Fathers Dollier and Galinee when they passed through the area in 1670. In the late 1700s, British naval reserves logged the area's white pine for shipbuilding. In 1790, Deputy Indian Agent Alexander McKee negotiated a treaty with Aboriginal communities that ceded a large tract of land, which included Point Pelee, to the Crown; the Caldwell First Nation Chippewa people, who inhabited Point Pelee, were not signatories of that treaty. However, the Crown did not realize this, their land was ceded nonetheless. Subsequently, they were forced off their land, Point Pelee remains unceded aboriginal land; this has been publicly acknowledged by the Department of Northern Affairs Canada. Prior to the creation of the park, the Great Lakes Ornithological Club was established to study bird migration. One of the members, Percy A. Taverner, Canada's first Dominion Ornithologist, recommended Point Pelee be made a national park in 1915. Jack Miner had pushed for the creation of the park by that time.

Point Pelee was made a national park in 1918 at the urging of hunters. Commercial fishing continued in the park until 1969. Point Pelee was the only Canadian national park to allow hunting until duck hunting was ended in 1989; this site was named "Pointe-Pelée". Point Pelee was designated a dark-sky preserve in 2006, having become the first Canadian national park to be designated as such. In March 2006, high winds caused waves that washed away the sand point and all that remained was a platform. In October 2007 the level of Lake Erie dropped enough to reveal the point again extending at least a kilometre out into the water and at least 7 metres wide with a winding curve shape to it. Since that time the sandy tip continues to shift, grow longer or shorter, or detach temporarily, from year to year. Located in the western parts of the St. Lawrence Lowlands, the park is a sandspit formation that extends 15 kilometres into Lake Erie and is up to 70 metres thick. With an area of only 1,564 hectares, it is Canada's smallest national park.

Most of the park (about 1,113 hectares or 70% of the park consists of marsh, dominated by cattails and ponds although forested areas make up a significant portion of the park, covering about 21% of the park. This sandspit is dominated by till plains, formed during the last ice age during the advance and retreat of the Wisconsonian ice on a submerged limestone ridge; as the glacier melted and retreated northward, the Lake Erie basin began to fill with water. The movement of sediments altered the coastline. Subsequently, over the centuries, a thin but rich soil has formed. Mineral soils in the park were mapped as well to drained Eastport sand, which has insignificant profile development; the marshes began to form about 3,200 years ago, based on carbon dating. This was the same time when the sands began to deposit, forming the present day barriers; the marsh has a closed drainage system owing to the separation of it by two barriers along the east and west side, which prevents the free exchange of water.

However, when lake levels are higher, the marsh water levels fluctuate with the lake's water levels. The distinctive triangular shape at the southern tip of Point Pelee is caused by the convergence of these two barriers. Middle Island, located south of the Point Pelee peninsula has an area of 18.5 hectares and is the southernmost point in Canada. All of Middle Island is forested. Owing to its southernly location and the moderating effects of Lake Erie, the climate in the park is warmer than the rest of Canada and many Carolinian faunal species, which are rare in Canada are located here. Examples include the five-lined skink; because of its location at the crossroads of 2 major migration flyways, about 347- 360 different species of migratory birds have been recorded in the park and more than 100 species stay there for breeding. This total includes 102 shorebird species. Dominic Couzen's Top 100 Birding Sites of the World lists Point Pelee as #66. Coyotes and martens are present within this park.

Many Carolinian floral species that are rare in Canada occur within the park boundaries. The park contains more than 750 native plant species, of these 8 species are considered to be rare, endangered or threatened in Canada. Nearby Middle Island is designated provincially as an Area of Natural and Scientific Interest due to its unique and rare assemblages of plants and an

O'Neill v Phillips

O'Neill v Phillips UKHL 24 is a UK company law case on an action for unfair prejudice under s.459 Companies Act 1985. It is the only case thus far in the House of Lords on the provision and it deals with the concept of members of a business having their "legitimate expectations" disappointed. Mr Phillips owned, it specialised in stripping asbestos from buildings. Mr O'Neill started to work for the company in 1983. In 1985, Phillips was so impressed with O'Neill's work that he made him a director and gave him 25% of the shares, they had an informal chat in May 1985, Mr Phillips said that one day, he hoped Mr O'Neill could take over the whole management, would be allowed to draw 50% of the company's profits. This happened, Phillips retired and O'Neill took over management. There were further talks about increasing O'Neill's actual shareholding to 50%, but this did not happen. After five years the construction industry went into decline, so did the company. Phillips took business control, he demoted O'Neill to be a branch manager of the German operations and withdrew O'Neill's share of the profits.

O'Neill was miffed. He started up his own competing company in Germany in 1990 and he filed a petition for unfairly prejudicial conduct against Phillips, for the termination of equal profit-sharing and, for repudiating the alleged agreement for the allotment of more shares; the judge rejected the petition on both grounds. There had been no firm agreement for an increase in shareholding, it was not unfair for Phillips to keep a majority of company shares, it was held that O'Neill suffered nothing in his capacity as a member of the company. His shares were unaffected, it was a dispute about his status as an employee. He had been well rewarded. In the Court of Appeal, Nourse LJ O'Neill won his appeal. Nourse LJ said. Moreover, a global view of the relationship should be taken, so O'Neill did suffer as a member. On further appeal to the House of Lords, the Court of Appeal was overturned, Phillips won. Lord Hoffmann gave the leading judgment, with which Lords Jauncey, Clyde and Hobhouse concurred; the most important feature of the case was that Mr Phillips had never agreed to transfer Mr O'Neill the shares of the company, so it could not be unfair that he had decided not to, because he had never decided to do so.

Lord Hoffmann recanted on his previous use of the terminology of "legitimate expectations". "I meant that it could exist only when equitable principles... would make it unfair for a party to exercise rights under the articles." As to capacity, although irrelevant after deciding that there had been no agreement, disagreeing with the first instance judge, Lord Hoffmann pointed out that O'Neill may have had a claim in his capacity of shareholder because he had invested his money and his time into the company. UK company law Full text of judgment from the Parliamentary Publications website

Focused assessment with sonography for trauma

Focused assessment with sonography in trauma is a rapid bedside ultrasound examination performed by surgeons, emergency physicians, certain paramedics as a screening test for blood around the heart or abdominal organs after trauma. The four classic areas that are examined for free fluid are the perihepatic space, perisplenic space and the pelvis. With this technique it is possible to identify the presence of intraperitoneal or pericardial free fluid. In the context of traumatic injury, this fluid will be due to bleeding; the extended FAST allows for the examination of both lungs by adding bilateral anterior thoracic sonography to the FAST exam. This allows for the detection of a pneumothorax with the absence of normal ‘lung-sliding’ and ‘comet-tail’ artifact. Compared with supine chest radiography, with CT or clinical course as the gold standard, bedside sonography has superior sensitivity, similar specificity, can be performed in under a minute. Several recent prospective studies have validated its use in the setting of trauma resuscitation, have shown that ultrasound can provide an accurate estimation of pneumothorax size.

Although radiography or CT scanning is feasible, immediate bedside detection of a pneumothorax confirms what are ambiguous physical findings in unstable patients, guides immediate chest decompression. In addition, in the patient undergoing positive-pressure ventilation, the detection of an otherwise ‘occult’ pneumothorax prior to CT scanning may hasten treatment and subsequently prevent development of a tension pneumothorax, a deadly complication if not treated and deterioration in the radiology suite. EFAST allows an emergency physician or a surgeon the ability to determine whether a patient has pneumothorax, pleural effusion, mass/tumor, or a lodged foreign body; the exam allows for visualization of the echogenic tissue and lung tissue. Few radiographic signs are important in any trauma and they include the stratosphere sign, the sliding or seashore sign, the sinusoid sign. Stratosphere sign is a clinical medical ultrasound finding in an eFAST examination that can prove presence of a pneumothorax.

The sign is an imaging finding using a 3.5–7.5 MHz ultrasound probe in the 4th and 5th intercostal spaces in the anterior clavicular line using the M-Mode of the machine. This finding is seen in the M-mode tracing as pleura and lung being indistinguishable as linear hyperechogenic lines and is reliable for diagnosis of a pneumothorax. Though the stratospheric sign can be an indication of pneumothorax its absence is not at all reliable to rule out pneumothorax as definitive diagnosis requires X-ray or CT of thorax. Seashore sign is another eFAST finding in the lungs in the M-mode that depicts the glandular echogenicity of the lung abutted by the linear appearance of the visceral pleura; this sign is a normal finding. In absence of a seashore sign or presence of a stratosphere sign, pneumothorax is likely. B-lines or "comet trails" are echogenic bright linear reflections beneath the pleura that are lost with any air between the probe and the lung tissue and therefore whose presence with seashore sign indicates absence of a pneumothorax.

Sinusoid sign is another M-mode finding indicating presence of pleural effusion. Due to the cyclical movement of the lung in inspiration and expiration, the motion-time tracing ultrasound shows a sinusoid appearance between the fluid and the line tissue; this finding indicates a possible pleural effusion, blood in pleural space. FAST is less invasive than diagnostic peritoneal lavage, involves no exposure to radiation and is cheaper compared to computed tomography, but achieves a similar accuracy. Numerous studies have shown, it appears to make emergency department care faster and better. FAST is most useful in trauma patients. A positive FAST result is defined as the appearance of a dark strip in the dependent areas of the peritoneum. In the right upper quadrant this appears in Morison's Pouch; this location is most useful. In the left upper quadrant, blood may collect anywhere around the spleen. In the pelvis, blood pools behind the bladder. A positive result suggests hemoperitoneum. In those with a negative FAST result, a search for extra-abdominal sources of bleeding may still need to be performed.

HEART scan Further readingGillman, Lawrence M. Scandinavian Journal of Trauma and Emergency Medicine. 17: 34. Doi:10.1186/1757-7241-17-34. PMC 2734531. PMID 19660123. Focus On: EFAST - Extended Focused Assessment With Sonography for Trauma: American College of Emergency Physicians eMedicine: Blunt abdominal trauma FAST exam tutorial The FAST examination from Trauma.org, includes tutorial videos. Trauma FAST Exam - LUQ Exam Lung ultrasound: ICU Sonography FOB Doc: Capt Ray Wiss, MD. By a pioneering teacher of FAST to ER and first responders and military