Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai
Baton Rouge, Louisiana
Baton Rouge is the capital of the U. S. state of Louisiana. Located on the eastern bank of the Mississippi River, it is the parish seat of East Baton Rouge Parish, the most populous parish in Louisiana, it is the 99th most populous city in the United States, second-largest city in Louisiana after New Orleans. It is the 16th most populous state capital; as of the U. S. Census Bureau's July 2017 estimate, Baton Rouge had a population of 227,549, down from 229,493 at the 2010 census. Baton Rouge is the center of Greater Baton Rouge, the second-largest metropolitan area in Louisiana, with a population of 834,159 as of 2017, up from 802,484 in 2010 and 829,719 in 2015; the city of Baton Rouge is a major industrial, medical, motion picture, growing technology center of the American South. It is the location of Louisiana State University, the LSU System's flagship university and the largest institution of higher education in the state, it is the location of Southern University, the flagship institution of the Southern University System, the only black college system in the nation.
The Port of Greater Baton Rouge is the 10th-largest in the United States in terms of tonnage shipped, is the farthest upstream Mississippi River port capable of handling Panamax ships. The Baton Rouge area owes its historical importance to its strategic site upon the Istrouma Bluff, the first natural bluff upriver from the Mississippi River Delta at the Gulf of Mexico; this allowed development of a business quarter safe from seasonal flooding. In addition, the city built a levee system stretching from the bluff southward to protect the riverfront and low-lying agricultural areas; the city is a culturally rich center, with settlement by immigrants from numerous European nations and African peoples brought to North America as slaves or indentured servants. It was ruled by seven different governments: French and Spanish in the colonial era. Human habitation in the Baton Rouge area has been dated to 12000–6500 BCE, based on evidence found along the Mississippi and Amite rivers. Earthwork mounds were built by hunter-gatherer societies in the Middle Archaic period, from the fourth millennium BCE.
The speakers of the Proto-Muskogean language divided into its descendant languages by about 1000 BCE. The Eastern Muskogean language began to diversify internally in the first half of the first millennium AD; the early Muskogean societies were the bearers of the Mississippian culture, which formed around 800 CE and extended in a vast network across the Mississippi and Ohio valleys, with numerous chiefdoms in the Southeast, as well. By the time the Spanish made their first forays inland from the shores of the Gulf of Mexico in the early 16th century, by some evidence many political centers of the Mississippians were in decline, or abandoned. At the time, this region appeared to have been occupied by a collection of moderately sized native chiefdoms, interspersed with autonomous villages and tribal groups. Other evidence indicates these Mississippian settlements were thriving at the time of the first Spanish contact. Spanish expeditions encountered the remains of groups who had lost many people and been disrupted in the aftermath of infectious diseases, chronic among Europeans, unknowingly introduced by the first expedition.
French explorer Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville led an exploration party up the Mississippi River in 1698. The explorers saw a red pole marking the boundary between the Houma and Bayogoula tribal hunting grounds; the French name le bâton rouge is the translation of a native term rendered as Istrouma a corruption of the Choctaw iti humma. According to Pénicaut, From there we went five leagues higher and found high banks called écorts in that region, in savage called Istrouma which means red stick, as at this place there is a post painted red that the savages have sunk there to mark the land line between the two nations, namely: the land of the Bayagoulas which they were leaving and the land of another nation—thirty leagues upstream from the baton rouge—named the Oumas; the location of the red pole was at Scott's Bluff, on what is now the campus of Southern University. It was a 30-foot-high painted pole adorned with fish bones; the settlement of Baton Rouge by Europeans began in 1721 when French colonists established a military and trading post.
Since European settlement, Baton Rouge has been governed by France, Spain, the Republic of West Florida, the United States, the Confederate States, the United States again. In 1755, when French-speaking settlers of Acadia in Canada's Maritime provinces were expelled by British forces, many took up residence in rural Louisiana. Popularly known as Cajuns, the descendants of the Acadians maintained a separate culture. During the first half of the 19th century, Baton Rouge grew as the result of steamboat trade and transportation. Baton Rouge was incorporated in 1817. In 1822, the Pentagon Barracks complex of buildings was completed; the site has been used by the Spanish, British, Confederate States Army, United States Army and was part of the short-lived Republic of West Florida. In 1951, ownership o
Louisiana Highway 1
Louisiana Highway 1 is a state highway in Louisiana. At 431.88 miles, it is the longest numbered highway of any class in Louisiana. It runs diagonally across the state, connecting the oil and gas fields near the island of Grand Isle with the northwest corner of the state, north of Shreveport; the part south of U. S. Highway 90 near Raceland is a National Highway System High Priority Corridor. From Alexandria to Shreveport, the LA 1 corridor was used for Interstate 49. Between New Roads and the interchange with Interstate 49 at Alexandria, Louisiana, LA 10 forms part of the Zachary Taylor Parkway; the southern terminus of LA 1 is at a dead end in Grand Isle on the south bank of Bayou Rigaud. It heads southwest and west through Grand Isle, turning northwest where it meets LA 3090. At Leeville the road crosses Bayou Lafourche on the Leeville Bridge and begins to parallel the bayou on its west bank, heading through towns such as Golden Meadow, Lockport, Thibodaux and Paincourtville. At Donaldsonville, where the bayou meets the Mississippi River, LA 1 turns northwest to parallel the river.
From Donaldsonville to Port Allen, across the Mississippi from Baton Rouge, LA 1 parallels the Mississippi River. It takes a straight inland route, bypassing the curves of the river followed by LA 405 and LA 988. At Port Allen, it meets U. S. Highway 190 at the west end of the Huey P. Long Bridge, turns west with US 190 to past Erwinville. There it turns back north, running along several back channels and oxbows of the Mississippi to New Roads, heading west from New Roads to Morganza with LA 10. From Morganza to Lettsworth, LA 1 heads northwest near the Mississippi. LA 1 heads inland through such towns as Simmesport and Marksville to Alexandria, where it meets the Pineville Expressway. LA 1 turns southwest along its frontage roads - Fulton Street and Casson Street - along with LA 28 Business and U. S. Highway 167 Business to its end at Interstate 49, continues southwest on Mason Street and northwest on Bolton Avenue. From Alexandria to Shreveport, LA 1 parallels Interstate 49, including a bypass around Natchitoches.
Louisiana Highway 1 Business runs through downtown Natchitoches before rejoining the original highway just northwest of the city limits. It passes through Shreveport on Youree Drive, Spring Street and Market Street, running concurrently with U. S. Highway 71 from Interstate 20 downtown to a split north of downtown. From Shreveport to the border with Texas, where LA 1 becomes State Highway 77, LA 1 passes through towns such as Oil City and Rodessa. In the original Louisiana Highway system in use between 1921 and 1955, LA 1 was part of several shorter routes, including: State Route 620 from Grand Isle to Golden Meadow. After traveling concurrent with US 190 to a point west of Erwinville, LA 1 followed Route 93 to New Roads. All were designated by various acts of the state legislature between 1921 and 1930; the routes were joined together under the single designation of LA 1 when the Louisiana Department of Highways renumbered the state highway system in 1955, creating a continuous route diagonally across the entire state.
The Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development is converting LA 1 from Golden Meadow to Port Fourchon into an elevated toll expressway called the Louisiana Highway 1 Bridge. These improvements are in order to facilitate in evacuations of Port Fourchon and Grand Isle in the event of a hurricane, as LA 1 in this area is vulnerable to flooding, regardless of strength of storm; when completed, the Gateway to the Gulf Expressway will be a 19-mile-long elevated toll road from Golden Meadow to the Gulf of Mexico. Prior to mid-June 2012, tolls were collected using "open road tolling" technology. Travelers using the facilities were required to pre-pay either online, by phone, or at one of five kiosks north of the expressway, or use the "GeauxPass", an electronic toll collection transponder that collects tolls electronically; the GeauxPass is compatible with the Crescent City Connection and all future Louisiana toll roads and the Lake Pontchartrain Causeway, but not the ferries. Beginning in June 2012, a toll plaza was opened at the access ramp in Leeville.
Vehicle drivers must now pay before accessing the expressway and the pre-pay kiosks have been removed from their respective sites. The toll plaza accepts credit/debit cards. GeauxPass is still accepted. Funding for the project through taxes and grants was not available, leading to the requirement to pay for the construction via collecting tolls. By law, LA 1 toll revenues may only be utilized to repay construction loan debts for the expressway; the first portion of this project, a two-lane toll bridge over Bayou Lafourche, opened on July 8, 2009. Tolling of the new bridge began on August 3, 2009; the two-lane section from Leeville to Port Fourchon opened on December 9, 2011. Funding is being secured for the section between Leeville and Golden Meadow with the eventual widening of the entire corridor to four lanes. In Natchitoches, LA 1 Bus. follows the original route of LA 1 b
Louisiana's 6th congressional district
Louisiana's 6th congressional district is a congressional district in the U. S. state of Louisiana. Located in south-central Louisiana, the district contains most of the state capital of Baton Rouge, the bulk of Baton Rouge's suburbs, continues south to Houma, it includes the western shores of Lake Pontchartrain. The district is represented by Republican Garret Graves. Since the 6th Congressional District's creation, its boundaries have migrated from a position astraddle the Mississippi River to east of the Mississippi River and more astraddle the river again. For decades prior to 1974, the district was coterminous with the Florida Parishes centered on Hammond. In 1974, the 6th Congressional District shed St. Tammany Parish to the 1st Congressional District, since several redistrictings have incrementally moved the 6th Congressional District's boundaries westward so that it has shed both Washington and Tangipahoa parishes. Washington and Tangipahoa parishes switched, like St. Tammany Parish, to the Republican 1st Congressional District.
For most of its existence, the district's lines followed parish lines. In the 1990s redistricting, most of the district's black voters were transferred to the black-majority 4th District; those lines, were thrown out in 1995 when the 4th was ruled to be an unconstitutional racial gerrymander, for the 1996 election the 6th included all of Baton Rouge. After the 2010 redistricting, a gash in western Baton Rouge, including most of the city's black precincts, was transferred to the New Orleans-based 2nd District. Louisiana's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
U.S. Route 190
U. S. Route 190 is an east -- west United States Highway in Texas. Segments of US 190 will be upgraded to Interstate 14, the first 24.8-mile segment was opened on January 26, 2017. The western terminus is at a point where US 190 intersects with I-10, a few miles east of Bakersfield and 20 mi west of the town of Iraan, in the middle of Pecos County, it runs east through Texas Hill Country speckled with sage brush, intersecting with State Highway 305, crossing into Schleicher County, intersecting with US 277 in Eldorado. Just outside Eldorado was. US 190 continues east into Menard County, intersecting State Highway 864, passing a few miles north of Fort McKavett State Historic Site, entering Menard and intersecting with US 83 north a short distance. Continuing on a northeastward route US 190 enters McCulloch County and into Brady; as the closest city to the geographical center of Texas, the city proclaims itself the "True Heart of Texas", "where five major highways meet, making it a major gateway to all regions of the state".
US 190 enters Brady from the south merging and running concurrently with north US 377 and US 87 through town, intersecting Farm to Market Road 2028, FM 2309 splitting with US 87 and US 377, before exiting the city heading east. US 190 goes through Rochelle, enters San Saba County, through Richland Springs where it intersects FM 45, the communities Algerita, Harkeyville, into San Saba, the birthplace of actor Tommy Lee Jones, an intersection with SH 16. Continuing east US 190 enters Lampasas County, entering Lometa and running concurrently with US 183 south into the city of Lampasas. Splitting from US 183 and continuing east, US 190 runs through Kempner and into the extreme southern corner of Coryell County and Copperas Cove, located on the southwestern edge of Fort Hood. On the east side of Copperas Cove, a concurrency with I-14 begins. US 190 traverses through part of Fort Hood, into Bell County and Killeen. Being directly adjacent to the main cantonment of Fort Hood, both Killeen and Copperas Cove depend on the fort and those stationed there.
US enters Temple, where I-14 ends. The highway merges and runs concurrently with SH 36 south. Continuing east and south, US 190 passes through Rogers and enters Milam County Cameron and merges with US 77 south for a distance. A few miles south of Cameron, US 190 runs concurrently with US 79 north. In Hearne, US 190 splits with US 79 and merges to run concurrently with SH 6 south, entering Brazos County, through Benchley, into Bryan, considered the heart of the Brazos Valley, is part of the Bryan-College Station metropolitan area. US 190 splits with SH 6, turning northeast and merging with SH 21 north, entering Kurten, entering Madison County passing through North Zulch and into Madisonville, before merging with I-45 south and into Walker County entering Huntsville, where US 190 splits heading into Eastern Texas. Continuing east, US 190 enters San Jacinto County, passing north of Oakhurst and Point Blank, crossing Lake Livingston, entering Polk County and into Onalaska. US 190 from the west makes a semi-loop up over Lake Livingston and down to Livingston, intersecting US 59 and Business US 59 and through Alabama-Coushatta Indian Reservation, entering Tyler County, merging with FM 256 and into Woodville.
East of Woodville, FM 256 splits north and US 190 crosses BA Steinhagen Lake, into Jasper County, intersecting with SH 63 east, in the center of Jasper intersecting with US 96. Continuing east, US 190 travels through Holly Springs and enters Newton County, proceeding into Newton. In Newton, US 190 turns south through Bon Wier, crosses the Louisiana line. In Newton County, US 190 has been designated one of the routes on the Great Texas Coastal Birding Trail. US 190 crosses the Sabine River and enters the western portion of Louisiana in swampy bayou terrain three miles west of Merryville, Louisiana. Merryville is the location of the old Coushatta Indian village. From Merryville the highway heads north by northeast to the community of Junction, Louisiana referred to as "The Junction". Junction is where Louisiana Highway 111 and US 190 intersect and is the site of a roadside marker and the joining of two Indian trails. From Junction, US 190 heads east to DeRidder, where it runs concurrently with US 171 south and passes several sites on the National Register of Historic Places, such as the Beauregard Parish Jail, Beauregard Parish Courthouse, the DeRidder Commercial Historic District.
US 190 runs concurrently with US 171 to Ragley. From Ragley, the two-lane highway heads nearly due east parallel to I-10 until Opelousas. US 190 crosses the northern reach of the Atchafalaya Basin near the Morganza Spillway en route to Baton Rouge. From Baton Rouge, US 190 passes, in places divided, through Denham Springs, Hammond, Goodbee, Mandeville, before reaching the eastern terminus at Slidell; the stretch between I-12 south of Covington and the intersection with LA 22 at Mandeville is multilane divided with controlled access. The highway's eastern terminus is in the bayous near Slidell, at an intersection with US 90; this junction was once known as the "White Kitchen" after a restaurant, once located there. Acadiana Trail / Evangeline Highway — US 190 in Louisiana Earl Rudder Freeway and Central Texas Expressway — US 190 in Texas In the original 1926 plan, US 190 served the purpose of modern-day I-12, as the road around the north side of Lake Pontchartrain
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol