click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Pola Negri

Pola Negri was a Polish stage and film actress and singer who achieved worldwide fame during the silent and golden eras of Hollywood and European film for her tragedienne and femme fatale roles. Raised in the Congress Kingdom of Poland, Negri's childhood was marked by several personal hardships: After her father was sent to Siberia, she was raised by her single mother in poverty, suffered tuberculosis as a teenager. Negri recovered, went on to study ballet and acting in Warsaw, becoming a well-known stage actress there. In 1917, she relocated to Germany, where she began appearing in silent films for the Berlin-based UFA studio, her film performances for UFA came to the attention of Hollywood executives at Paramount Pictures, who offered her a film contract. Negri signed with Paramount in 1922, making her the first European actress in history to be contracted in Hollywood, she spent much of the 1920s working in the United States appearing in numerous films for Paramount, establishing herself as one of the most popular actresses in American silent film.

In the 1930s, during the emergence of sound film, Negri returned to Europe where she appeared in multiple films for Pathé Films and UFA, began a career as a recording artist. She made only two films with her last screen credit in Walt Disney's The Moon-Spinners. Negri spent her life outside the public sphere, she became a naturalized U. S. citizen in 1951, spent the remainder of her life living in San Antonio, where she died of pneumonia secondary to a brain tumor for which she refused treatment, in 1987, aged 90. Negri was born Apolonia Chałupec on 3 January 1897 in Lipno, Congress Poland, Russian Empire, the only surviving child of a Polish mother, Eleonora Kiełczewska. According to Negri, her mother came from impoverished Polish nobility, with her family having lost their fortune over support of Napoléon Bonaparte. Negri's father, Juraj Chałupec, was an itinerant Romani-Slovakian tinsmith from Nesluša. After her father was arrested by the Russian authorities for revolutionary activities and sent to Siberia and her mother moved to Warsaw, where they lived in poverty, with her mother supporting them working as a cook.

Chałupec was raised Catholic by her mother, a lifelong practicing Catholic. In her youth, Chałupec was accepted into Warsaw's Imperial Ballet Academy, her first dance performance was in the danse des petits cygnes in Tchaikovsky's Swan Lake. However, a bout with tuberculosis forced her to stop dancing. During her three-month convalescence, she adopted the pseudonym Pola Negri, after the Italian novelist and poet Ada Negri. After Negri returned from the sanatorium, she auditioned for the Warsaw Imperial Academy of Dramatic Arts. Alongside her formal schooling at the Academy, she took private classes outside with renowned Polish stage actress and professor Honorata Leszczyńska, she made her theatrical debut before her graduation at The Small Theatre in Warsaw on 2 October 1912. She made her stage debut in 1913 in Gerhardt Hauptmann's Hannele in Warsaw and appeared the following year in her first film, Niewolnica zmysłów, she continued to perform there while finishing her studies at the Academy, graduating in 1914.

Her graduating performance was as Hedwig in Ibsen's The Wild Duck, which resulted in offers to join a number of the prominent theatres in Warsaw. By the end of World War I, Negri had established herself as a popular stage actress, she made an appearance at the Grand Theatre in Sumurun, as well as in the Small Theatre, at the Summer Theatre in the Saxon Garden. She debuted in film in 1914 in Slave to her Senses, she appeared including Bestia, Room No. 13, His Last Gesture and The Wife. Negri's popularity in Poland provided her with an opportunity to move to Berlin, Germany in 1917, to appear as the dancing girl in a German revival of Max Reinhardt's theatre production of Sumurun. In this production, she met Ernst Lubitsch, who at the time was producing comedies for the German film studio UFA. Negri was first signed with Saturn Films, making six films with them, including Wenn das Herz in Haß erglüht. After this, she signed to UFA's roster. In 1918, Lubitsch convinced UFA to let him create a large-scale film with Negri as the main character.

The result was Die Augen der Mumie Ma, a popular success and led to a series of Lubitsch/Negri collaborations, each larger in scale than the previous film. The next was Carmen, followed by Madame DuBarry. Madame DuBarry became a huge international success, brought down the American embargo on German films, launched a demand that threatened to dislodge Hollywood's dominance in the international film market. Negri and Lubitsch made three German films together after this, Die Bergkatze, Die Flamme, UFA employed Negri for films with other directors, including Vendetta and Sappho, many of w

Kurów

Kurów is a village in south-eastern Poland, located in the historic province of Lesser Poland, between Puławy and Lublin, on the Kurówka River. It is capital of a separate gmina called Gmina Kurów, within Lublin Voivodeship; the village has 2,817 inhabitants. Kurów was firstly mentioned in the Gesta principum Polonorum of Gall Anonim as castrum Galli, what is interpreted as the Castle of the Kurowie; the earliest historical mention of Kurów comes from a document issued in 1185, which mentions a church dedicated to Saint Giles existing in the place. Sometime between 1431 and 1442 the village was granted city rights based on the Magdeburg Law; as a private town, it was the centre for the trade in food from the surrounding area. Several fur and leather factories were located here. In the 16th century, Kurów was one of the centres of Calvinism, since many of the Polish Brethren settled there. By 1660, most of the inhabitants had converted to Arianism. At that time, Kurów was one of the most important urban centers of Lublin Voivodeship, one of three voivodeships of historic Lesser Poland.

After 1660, the town shares its history with the rest of the region. In 1795, after the third partition of Poland, Kurów was annexed by Austria. In 1809, it became part of the Duchy of Warsaw. In 1815, Kurów became part of the Kingdom of Poland. During the November Uprising, in February 1831, the minor Battle of Kurów took place, when the Polish forces under general Józef Dwernicki defeated a Russian army. In 1870, a few years after the January Uprising, the town lost its city charter, which has not yet been regained. Since 1918, Kurów was once more part of Poland. On September 9, 1939, during the Polish Defensive War, the name in Poland for the start of World War II, the town was bombed by the German Luftwaffe. Among the targets destroyed was a civilian hospital, where many victims perished. During World War II, Germany set up two slave labour camps in the town. In 1942, a minor ghetto was established. However, most of the Poles imprisoned in Kurów escaped and joined the Polish Home Army units operating from the nearby forests.

2,000 Jews lived in Kurów when the Second World War began. The Jewish population of Kurów came to end with the slaughter that ensued; the Germans bombed the synagogue, from they machine gunned the people fleeing the bombing. The Jews attempted to set up their lives to live under the domination of the German regime but there was no way to accommodate it. Many of the Jews ran to the forests and attempted to take shelter there but the Polish partisans killed them for any reason. Many times, the Polish population helped the Jews risking their own lives. Thanks to Mieczysław Kutnik, Adam Turczyk or Wacław Mańko several Jews survived the war. A greater portion of the Jewish population were transported to Sobibor where they were murdered outright. Just a few of the Kurów Jews managed to survive the selections of the first days in that camp and those Jews were able to help organize and execute the revolt in Sobibor which resulted in the destruction of the camp by the Germans themselves. A number of Jewish Kurovites were decorated by the Russians for their valor as partisans during the war.

Those who were successful were hiding in Garbów forests, where a Jewish partisan unit was active, headed by Kaim Elizer Wurman. Many former Jewish residents of Kurów emigrated to America, Argentina, France before World War II and other points elsewhere, wherever they could find refuge. There was a Kurów burial society in New York. St. Michael's Church with the grave of the Zbąski family and sculptures by Santi Gucci Bell tower Gate Rectory Vicar's building and parish school World War I Cemetery Commune Hall Post office Thermae Some monuments The S12 and S17 expressways run through the north of Kurów since 2013, allowing Lublin–Warsaw traffic to bypass the village. Garbarnia FC KTS Topspin Wojciech Jaruzelski – general, former Polish president Czesław Janczarski – poet, writer of fairy tales for children Klemens Kurowski – Polish nobleman and senator, owner of Kurów Grzegorz Piramowicz – priest in Kurów, philosopher Ignacy Potocki – nobleman, owner of Kurów

La Felguera

La Felguera is a parish of Langreo, the most important district in the municipality of Langreo in northern Spain, with 21.000 inhabitants. It is located 18 minutes by car to the capital of Asturias. La Felguera is close to the Nalón River. In the 19th and first half of the 20th century, La Felguera was one of the most important metallurgical centers in Spain located inside the mining region of Asturias. In 1858, Pedro Duro founded the Felguera Factory one of the most influential coal and iron enterprises in Spain; the town was the first production site in Spain for: sheet steel for shipbuilding, refractory bricks, chemical products derived from ethylene and synthetic ammonia. It had the largest blast furnace in Spain in 1943, it was an important place at the workers' struggle. In addition, La Felguera was declared the greatest cultural point of Europe by UNESCO in 1961. Before the 19th century, La Felguera was a group of small villages dedicated to livestock and agriculture. Important buildings are the church of San Pedro, the chapel El Llungéru, the former facilities of the ancient Factory Duro Felguera, engineers' houses in the street Count Sizzo, former College of La Salle, the Engineers' Chalet, Pedro Duro's statue, the Urquijo neighborhood, railway station, the market and three parks.

It has an art gallery, Pinacoteca Eduardo Úrculo. The International Tales Competition is one of the most important in the Spanish language. Today, it shelters the center of new companies and technologies Valnalón and the Museum of the Siderurgy. Villa de La Felguera

British Aerospace 146

The British Aerospace 146 is a short-haul and regional airliner, manufactured in the United Kingdom by British Aerospace part of BAE Systems. Production ran from 1983 until 2002. Manufacture of an improved version known as the Avro RJ began in 1992. A further-improved version with new engines, the Avro RJX, was announced in 1997, but only two prototypes and one production aircraft were built before production ceased in 2001. With 387 aircraft produced, the Avro RJ/BAe 146 is the most successful British civil jet airliner programme; the BAe 146/Avro RJ is a high-wing cantilever monoplane with a T-tail. It has four turbofan engines mounted on pylons underneath the wings, has retractable tricycle landing gear; the aircraft has quiet operation, has been marketed under the name Whisperjet. It sees wide usage at city-based airports such as London City Airport. In its primary role, it serves as a regional jet, short-haul airliner, or regional airliner, while examples of the type are in use as private jets.

The BAe 146/Avro RJ is in wide use with several European-based carriers such as CityJet. The largest operator of the type, Swiss Global Air Lines, retired its last RJ100 in August 2017; the BAe 146 was produced in -200 and -300 models. The equivalent Avro RJ versions are designated RJ70, RJ85, RJ100; the freight-carrying version carries the designation "QT", a convertible passenger-or-freight model is designated as "QC". A "gravel kit" can be fitted to aircraft to enable operations from unprepared airstrips. In August 1973, Hawker Siddeley launched a new 70-seat regional airliner project, the HS.146, to fill the gap between turboprop-powered airliners such as the Hawker Siddeley HS.748 and the Fokker F.27 and small jet airliners such as the BAC One-Eleven and Boeing 737. The chosen configuration had a high wing and a T-tail to give good short-field performance, while the aircraft was to be powered by four 6,500 lbf thrust Avco Lycoming ALF 502H turbofan engines. There were several reasons. A major factor would have been that no manufacturer was producing a 13,000-lbf-thrust-class high-bypass ratio turbofan engine at the time.

The programme was launched with backing from the UK government, which agreed to contribute 50% of the development costs in return for a share of the revenues from each aircraft sold. In October 1974, all work on the project was halted as a result of the world economic downturn resulting from the 1973 oil crisis. Low-key development proceeded, in 1978, British Aerospace, Hawker Siddeley's corporate successor, relaunched the project. British Aerospace marketed the aircraft as a quiet, low-consumption, turbofan aircraft, which would be effective at replacing the previous generation of turboprop-powered feeder aircraft; the first order for the BAe 146 was placed by Líneas Aéreas Privadas Argentinas in June 1981. Prior to the first flight, British Aerospace had forecast that the smaller 146-100 would outsell the 146-200 variant. By 1981, a large assembly line had been completed at British Aerospace's Hatfield site, the first completed aircraft flew that year followed by two more prototypes. Initial flight results showed climb performance.

In 1982, British Aerospace stated that the sale of a total 250 aircraft was necessary for the venture to break even. The BAe 146 received its Certificate of Airworthiness on 8 February 1983. Upon its launch into service, it was hailed as being "the world's quietest jetliner". Early production aircraft were built at Hatfield, a de Havilland factory; the Avro RJ family of aircraft was assembled at the Avro International BAE Systems Regional Aircraft Centre, at Woodford Aerodrome in Greater Manchester, England. Production of various sections of the aircraft was carried out at different BAE plants; the rear fuselage section was manufactured at BAE Systems' former Avro site at Chadderton, Greater Manchester. The centre fuselage section was manufactured at the Filton BAE site; the vertical stabilizer came from Brough, the engine pylons were made at Prestwick. The nose section was manufactured at Hatfield, where the assembly line for the early aircraft was located; some manufacturing was subcontracted outside the UK.

Due to the sales performance of the BAe 146, British Aerospace announced a development project in early 1991 to produce a new variant of the type, powered by two turbofan engines instead of four, offered to airlines as a regional jet aircraft. Dubbed the new regional aircraft, other proposed alterations from the BAe 146 included the adoption of a new enlarged wing and a lengthened fuselage. In 1993, the upgraded Avro RJ series superseded the BAe 146. Changes included the replacement of the original Lycoming ALF 502 turbofan engines by higher-thrust LF 507 turbofan engines, which were housed in redesigned nacelles; the Avro RJ series featured a modernised cockpit with EFIS replacing the analogue ADI, HSI, engine instrumentation. An arrangement between British Aerospace and Khazanah Nasional would have opened an Avro RJ production line in Malaysia, but this deal collapsed in 1997. In 2000, British Aerospace announced that it was to replace the Avro RJ series with a further-improved Avro RJX series.

Production of the Avro RJ ended with the final four aircraft being delivered in late 2003. British Aerosp

Revenue stamps of Seychelles

Revenue stamps of Seychelles were first issued in 1893, when the islands were a dependency of the British Crown Colony of Mauritius. The first stamps were Mauritius Internal Revenue stamps depicting Queen Victoria overprinted for use in Seychelles, Bill stamps were similarly overprinted. Postage stamps depicting Victoria or Edward VII were overprinted for fiscal use at various points between 1894 and 1904, while surcharges on Bill stamps were made in around 1897–98. New stamps depicting Edward VII and George V were issued in 1915 respectively; some postage stamps were overprinted once again in the 1920s, but unoverprinted postage stamps were used for fiscal purposes. In the 1980s, a single stamp was issued to pay the Passenger Service Fee, this was replaced passenger coupons in the 1990s. Impressed duty stamps and embossed stamp papers were used from the 1900s to the 1960s, but have not been recorded as issued stamps. One pre-printed cheque stamp is known to have been used in the late 1960s. Most Seychelles revenue stamps are scarce.

The first essay for a Seychelles revenue stamp was produced in 1889, it depicted Queen Victoria and had a key type design. It was accepted and colour trials were produced in 1892, but stamps in this design were never printed or issued; the first revenue stamps of Seychelles were subsequently issued in 1893, when seven Internal Revenue stamps of Mauritius depicting Queen Victoria were overprinted SEYCHELLES over the original country name. Two more values were added to this set in 1894 and 1903. Between 1894 and 1902, some postage stamps of Seychelles were overprinted or additionally surcharged for fiscal use. In 1904, a 30c postage stamp depicting the new monarch Edward VII was overprinted 4 cents Revenue for fiscal use. A new set depicting the king was issued in 1906; the design was based on the unissued key type of 1889–92, but depicting Edward VII instead of Victoria. In 1915, a 4c value was issued with the same key type design but with the portrait of George V. In the 1920s, postage stamps depicting the king were locally overprinted Issued by the Stamp Office or Revenue Stamp Duty, the latter being additionally surcharged, for fiscal purposes.

On, regular unoverprinted postage stamps were valid for fiscal purposes. Five bill stamps of Mauritius were overprinted for use in Seychelles in the 1890s; the earliest recorded use is 1896, but they might have been issued in 1893 along with the first revenue stamps. In 1897–98, provisional surcharges were made in a number of different styles on bill stamps of both Seychelles and Mauritius. Essays for Bill of Exchange stamps depicting Edward VII were never issued. All of the above issues were three-part stamps, inscribed FIRST, SECOND or THIRD OF EXCHANGE and printed se-tenant. A 50r stamp depicting a Boeing 747 passenger jet was issued in the 1980s to pay for the Passenger Service Fee. In the late 1990s this fee was paid using passenger coupons depicting a pattern with the coat of arms of Seychelles in the background. Essays for a set of twelve impressed duty stamps are known dated 1904. Embossed stamp papers with five different denominations were sent to Seychelles between 1922 and 1963. No examples of any of these have been recorded, although it is that they were issued and used on the islands.

A pre-printed revenue stamp was used to pay cheque duty in the late 1960s. Postage stamps and postal history of Seychelles Revenue stamps of Mauritius Revenue Reverend

Graymatics

Graymatics is a cognitive media processing company based in Santa Clara, United States and in Singapore. The company is most well known for its digital video analysis and image-recognition technology, a platform capable of identifying the brands of products within images or video content. Citrix Systems was the initial investor in Graymatics, providing financial backing through its investment group, the Citrix Startup Accelerator. Graymatics has offices in Santa Clara and Singapore. Aware of the untapped market potential of online video content, Abhijit Shanbhag founded Graymatics in 2010. While still in stealth mode, the Citrix Startup Accelerator invested in Graymatics. In addition to the backing from Citrix, Graymatics counts the office of Singapore’s Prime Minister among its investors. Graymatics offers a suite of products that implement its video analysis and image recognition technology; the company’s core product is ContextConnect, an automated, cloud-based technology that identifies and analyzes products within available visual content and provides users with brand and purchasing information.

The ContextConnect technology works by identifying and matching relevant visual information with content from its database of scanned images from the Web. Once a product has been identified and tagged within the visual field, the user is provided with a link to an appropriate online retailer from which the product may be purchased. Graymatics offers ImageAssurance, TubeScan, InterestInsights. ImageAssurance is designed to recognize objectionable content such as violence. TubeScan allows content publishers to extract data from videos viewed online. InterestInsights provides a publisher with a platform to create viewer profiles. Graymatics won the Techventure 2012 award for Rising Star Innovator. Official Website