Diksmuide is a Belgian city and municipality in the Flemish province of West Flanders. Most of the area west of the city is a polder riddled with drainage trenches, the major economic activity of the region is dairy farming, producing the famous butter of Diksmuide. The 9th-century Frankish settlement of Dicasmutha was situated at the mouth of a stream near the Yser, the name is a compound of Dutch dijk and muide. By the 10th century, a chapel and market place were already established, the city’s charter was granted two centuries and defensive walls built in 1270. The economy was based mainly on agriculture, with dairy products. From the 15th century to the French Revolution, Diksmuide was affected by the wars between the Netherlands, France and Austria, with a decline in activity. The 19th century was peaceful and prosperous. At the outset of World War I, German troops crossed the Belgian border near Arlon, proceeded hurriedly towards the North Sea to secure the French ports of Calais, the Battle of the Yser started in October 1914.
Thanks to the water the Belgians were able to stop the Germans, at the end of October, they opened the gates holding back the Yser river. As a result, the became a front line throughout the First World War. The city was first attacked on October 16,1914 and defended by Belgian and French troops, colonel Alphonse Jacques led the troops that prevented Diksmuide from being taken by the German Army. Despite the heavy Belgian losses, the press, literary figures, by the time the fighting ended, the town had been reduced to rubble. It was, completely rebuilt in the 1920s, the belfry contains a 30-bell carillon and is one of the several belfries of Belgium and France that are recognized by UNESCO as World Heritage Sites. The City Hall and neighbouring Saint Nicolas Church were completely rebuilt after World War I in the Gothic style of the 14th and 15th centuries, a peace monument, the IJzertoren, was built after the First World War in the twenties. It was demolished in 1946 because during the Second World War it had been the scene of Nazi ceremonies, a new tower was built in the 1950s.
The tower houses a World War I museum owned by the United Nations, the IJzertoren is the scene of the yearly IJzerbedevaart, a celebration of peace and of Flemish political autonomy. During World War II, it was used for Nazi-inspired meetings, after the war it still had problems with neo-Nazis from all over Europe. They were a minority, but the press emphasised this minority participation, after many years the organisers succeeded in banning neo-Nazis
Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by names such as hurricane, typhoon /taɪˈfuːn/, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, and simply cyclone. A hurricane is a storm that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean and northeastern Pacific Ocean, a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, Tropical cyclones typically form over large bodies of relatively warm water. They derive their energy through the evaporation of water from the ocean surface and this energy source differs from that of mid-latitude cyclonic storms, such as noreasters and European windstorms, which are fueled primarily by horizontal temperature contrasts. The strong rotating winds of a tropical cyclone are a result of the conservation of momentum imparted by the Earths rotation as air flows inwards toward the axis of rotation. As a result, they form within 5° of the equator. Tropical cyclones are typically between 100 and 2,000 km in diameter, Tropical refers to the geographical origin of these systems, which form almost exclusively over tropical seas.
Cyclone refers to their nature, with wind blowing counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere. The opposite direction of circulation is due to the Coriolis effect, in addition to strong winds and rain, tropical cyclones are capable of generating high waves, damaging storm surge, and tornadoes. They typically weaken rapidly over land where they are cut off from their energy source. For this reason, coastal regions are vulnerable to damage from a tropical cyclone as compared to inland regions. Heavy rains, can cause significant flooding inland, though their effects on human populations are often devastating, tropical cyclones can relieve drought conditions. They carry heat away from the tropics and transport it toward temperate latitudes. Tropical cyclones are areas of low pressure in the troposphere. On Earth, the pressures recorded at the centers of tropical cyclones are among the lowest ever observed at sea level, the environment near the center of tropical cyclones is warmer than the surroundings at all altitudes, thus they are characterized as warm core systems.
The near-surface wind field of a cyclone is characterized by air rotating rapidly around a center of circulation while flowing radially inwards. At the outer edge of the storm, air may be nearly calm, due to the Earths rotation, as air flows radially inward, it begins to rotate cyclonically in order to conserve angular momentum. At an inner radius, air begins to ascend to the top of the troposphere and this radius is typically coincident with the inner radius of the eyewall, and has the strongest near-surface winds of the storm, consequently, it is known as the radius of maximum winds. Once aloft, air flows away from the center, producing a shield of cirrus clouds
Zoetermeer is a city in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. The municipality covers an area of 37.05 km2 of which 2.50 km2 is water, a small village until the late 1960s, it had 6,392 inhabitants in 1950. By 2013 this had grown to 123,328, making it the third largest population centre in the province of South Holland, after Rotterdam and it is part of the Haaglanden conurbation. The name Zoetermeer refers to the lake north of the town. Because the name translates as sweet lake local residents have dubbed Zoetermeer Sweet Lake City. In the tenth century Zoetermeer was a village, primarily home to farmers. In the 13th century a village centre was formed, which exists as the historic Dorpsstraat. Until the 17th century there was a lake, called the Zoetermeer, until 1935 the village centre was split into two villages and Zegwaard. The standard of living at the time was said to be higher in Zoetermeer than in Zegwaard, Seghwaert, an older way of spelling of Zegwaard, is now the name of a neighbourhood outside the old village centre.
Zoetermeer began to grow slightly when the first train came around 1868. A few decades the Numico factory started near the station, the real growth started in 1966, when there was an urgent need of houses from people around The Hague. From they started to build new quarters around the old centre, so Zoetermeer began to grow. Although Zoetermeer nowadays has the image of a city, there are still remains of the past. Like the old centre with its small houses and the church with late medieval 15th-century clock tower. Lake Dobbe divides the old town from the new city centre, with the village centre on one side of the lake. Every neighbourhood has at least one shopping mall and a tram stop, the area features the historic De Hoop windmill, which unlike many other windmills in the area used for drainage, has always been used as a corn mill. The postcode for Zoetermeer-Dorp is 2712, Driemanspolder was the first area to be developed as part of modern Zoetermeer, and contains mostly large multi-apartment buildings characteristic of the era.
It is next to the A12 motorway, which forms the border of the wijk
North Sea flood of 1953
The 1953 North Sea flood was a major flood caused by a heavy storm that occurred on the night of Saturday,31 January 1953 and morning of Sunday,1 February 1953. The floods struck the Netherlands, Belgium and Scotland, the flood and waves overwhelmed sea defences and caused extensive flooding. Most of the casualties occurred in the province of Zeeland. In England,307 people were killed in the counties of Lincolnshire, Suffolk, twenty-eight people were killed in West Flanders, Belgium. In addition, more than 230 deaths occurred on water craft along Northern European coasts as well as on ships in waters of the North Sea. The ferry MV Princess Victoria was lost at sea in the North Channel east of Belfast with 133 fatalities, realising that such infrequent events could recur, the Netherlands particularly, and the United Kingdom carried out major studies on strengthening of coastal defences. The Netherlands developed the Delta Works, a system of dams. The UK constructed storm surge barriers on the River Thames below London and on the River Hull where it meets the Humber estuary.
On the night of 31 January –1 February 1953, many dykes in the provinces of Zeeland, South Holland and North Brabant proved unable to resist the combination of spring tide, on both the islands and the mainland, large areas of country were flooded. Many people still commemorate the dead on 1 February, at the time of the flood, none of the local radio stations broadcast at night, and many of the smaller weather stations operated only during the day. As a result, the warnings of the KNMI did not penetrate the area in time. People were unable to prepare for the impending flood, as the disaster struck on a Saturday night, many government and emergency offices in the affected area were not staffed. As telephone and telegraph networks were disrupted by flood damage, within hours amateur radio operators went into the areas with their equipment to form a voluntary emergency radio network. Large parts of South Holland and North Brabant were inundated, in North Holland only one polder was flooded. The most extensive flooding occurred on the islands of Schouwen-Duiveland, Sint Philipsland, Goeree-Overflakkee, the highest death tolls were recorded on the islands of Schouwen-Duiveland and Goeree-Overflakkee.
Afterward, the government formed the Delta Commission to study the causes and they estimated that flooding killed 1,835 people and forced the emergency evacuation of 70,000 more. Floods covered 9% of Dutch farmland, and sea water flooded 1,365 km² of land, an estimated 30,000 animals drowned, and 47,300 buildings were damaged, of which 10,000 were destroyed. Total damage is estimated at 1 billion Dutch guilders, the Schielands Hoge Zeedijk along the river Hollandse IJssel was all that protected three million people in the provinces of South and North Holland from flooding
In other words, a floodplain is an area near a river or a stream which floods when the water level reaches flood stage. Flood plains are made by a meander eroding sideways as it travels downstream, when a river breaks its banks and floods, it leaves behind layers of alluvium. These gradually build up to create the floor of the flood plain, floodplains generally contain unconsolidated sediments, often extending below the bed of the stream. These are accumulations of sand, loam, and/or clay, and are often important aquifers, geologically ancient floodplains are often represented in the landscape by fluvial terraces. These are old floodplains that remain relatively high above the present floodplain and it is probable that any section of such an alluvial plain would show deposits of a similar character. The floodplain during its formation is marked by meandering or anastomotic streams, oxbow lakes and bayous, marshes or stagnant pools, and is occasionally completely covered with water. When the drainage system has ceased to act or is diverted for any reason.
The floodplain differs, because it is not altogether flat and it has a gentle slope downstream, and often, for a distance, from the side towards the center. The floodplain is the place for a river to dissipate its energy. Meanders form over the floodplain to slow down the flow of water, in terms of flood management the upper part of the floodplain is crucial as this is where the flood water control starts. Artificial canalisation of the river here will have a impact on wider flooding. This is the basis of flood management. Floodplains can support particularly rich ecosystems, both in quantity and diversity, tugay forests form an ecosystem associated with floodplains, especially in Central Asia. They are a category of riparian zones or systems, a floodplain can contain 100 or even 1,000 times as many species as a river. Microscopic organisms thrive and larger species enter a rapid breeding cycle, opportunistic feeders move in to take advantage. The production of nutrients peaks and falls away quickly, however the surge of new growth endures for some time and this makes floodplains particularly valuable for agriculture.
River flow rates are undergoing change following suit with climate change and this change is a threat to the riparian zones and other flood plain forests. These forests have over time synced their seedling deposits after the peaks in flow to best take advantage of the nutrient rich soil generated by peak flow
An embankment dam is a large artificial dam. It is typically created by the placement and compaction of a complex semi-plastic mound of various compositions of soil, clay and it has a semi-pervious waterproof natural covering for its surface and a dense, impervious core. This makes such a dam impervious to surface or seepage erosion, such a dam is composed of fragmented independent material particles. The friction and interaction of particles binds the particles together into a stable mass rather than by the use of a cementing substance, embankment dams come in two types, the earth-filled dam made of compacted earth, and the rock-filled dam. A cross-section of an embankment dam shows a shape like a bank, most have a central section or core composed of an impermeable material to stop water from seeping through the dam. The core can be of clay, concrete, or asphalt concrete and this dam type is a good choice for sites with wide valleys. They can be built on rock or softer soils. For a rock-fill dam, rock-fill is blasted using explosives to break the rock, the rock pieces may need to be crushed into smaller grades to get the right range of size for use in an embankment dam.
The building of a dam and the filling of the reservoir behind it places a new weight on the floor, the stress of the water increases linearly with its depth. Thus the stress level of the dam must be calculated in advance of building to ensure that its break level threshold is not exceeded, overtopping or overflow of an embankment dam beyond its spillway capacity will cause its eventual failure. The erosion of the material by overtopping runoff will remove masses of material whose weight holds the dam in place. Even a small sustained overtopping flow can remove thousands of tons of soil from the mass of the dam within hours. As the mass of the dam erodes, the force exerted by the reservoir begins to move the entire structure, safety requirements for the spillway are high, and require it to be capable of containing a maximum flood stage. It is common for its specifications to be such that it can contain a five hundred year flood. Recently a number of embankment dam overtopping protection systems have been developed
Groundwater is the water present beneath Earths surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations. A unit of rock or a deposit is called an aquifer when it can yield a usable quantity of water. The depth at which pore spaces or fractures and voids in rock become completely saturated with water is called the water table. Groundwater is recharged from, and eventually flows to, the naturally, natural discharge often occurs at springs and seeps. Groundwater is withdrawn for agricultural and industrial use by constructing and operating extraction wells. The study of the distribution and movement of groundwater is hydrogeology, Groundwater is hypothesized to provide lubrication that can possibly influence the movement of faults. It is likely that much of Earths subsurface contains some water, Groundwater may not be confined only to Earth. The formation of some of the landforms observed on Mars may have influenced by groundwater. There is evidence that water may exist in the subsurface of Jupiters moon Europa.
Groundwater is often cheaper, more convenient and less vulnerable to pollution than surface water, therefore, it is commonly used for public water supplies. For example, groundwater provides the largest source of water storage in the United States. Underground reservoirs contain far more water than the capacity of all surface reservoirs and lakes in the US, many municipal water supplies are derived solely from groundwater. Polluted groundwater is less visible, but more difficult to clean up, than pollution in rivers, Groundwater pollution most often results from improper disposal of wastes on land. An aquifer is a layer of substrate that contains and transmits groundwater. When water can flow directly between the surface and the zone of an aquifer, the aquifer is unconfined. The deeper parts of unconfined aquifers are more saturated since gravity causes water to flow downward. The upper level of this layer of an unconfined aquifer is called the water table or phreatic surface. Below the water table, where in general all pore spaces are saturated with water, is the phreatic zone, substrate with low porosity that permits limited transmission of groundwater is known as an aquitard
Land reclamation, usually known as reclamation, and known as land fill, is the process of creating new land from ocean, riverbeds, or lake beds. The land reclaimed is known as ground or land fill. In a number of jurisdictions, including parts of the United States. In Alberta, for example, reclamation is defined by the government as The process of reconverting disturbed land to its former or other productive uses. In Oceania it is referred to as land rehabilitation. Land reclamation can be achieved with a number of different methods, the most simple method involves simply filling the area with large amounts of heavy rock and/or cement, filling with clay and dirt until the desired height is reached. The process is called infilling and the used to fill the space is generically called infill. Draining of submerged wetlands is often used to land for agricultural use. Deep cement mixing is used typically in situations in which the material displaced by either dredging or draining may be contaminated, the creation of new land was for the need of human activities.
Notable examples include, Much of the coastlines of Mumbai, India and it took over 150 years to join the original seven islands of Mumbai. Much of the coastlines of Mainland China, Hong Kong, North Korea and it is estimated that nearly 65% of tidal flats around the Yellow Sea have been reclaimed. Inland lowlands in the Yangtze valley, including the areas of important cities like Shanghai, Much of the coastline of Karachi, Pakistan. A part of the Hamad International Airport in Qatar, around 36 square kilometres, the entire island of The Pearl-Qatar situated in West Bay, Qatar. The city-state of Singapore, where land is in supply, is famous for its efforts on land reclamation. The Palm Islands, The World and hotel Burj al-Arab off Dubai in the United Arab Emirates The Yas Island in Abu Dhabi and it is one of the six divisions of Malé City. The Eko Atlantic in Lagos, mexico City, the chinampas are a famous example. Parts of Panama City urban and street development are based on reclaimed land, aeroparque Jorge Newbery, in Buenos Aires, Argentina One of the earliest large scale projects was the Beemster Polder in the Netherlands, realized in 1612 adding 70 square kilometres of land.
In Hong Kong the Praya Reclamation Scheme added 20 to 24 hectares of land in 1890 during the phase of construction
Veurne is a city and municipality in the Belgian province of West Flanders. The municipality comprises the town of Veurne proper and the settlements of Avekapelle, Bulskamp, De Moeren, Eggewaartskapelle, Steenkerke, Vinkem and Zoutenaaie. Veurne, in Latin Furna, is first found in 877 as a possession of the Saint Bertin Abbey in Saint-Omer, around 890 AD, it was noted as a fortification against the Viking raids. It soon was placed at the head of the castellany of Veurne, Veurne became a city in the 12th century. During the following century, trade with England flourished, in 1270, the relations with England came to a standstill and the city’s economy went into a long decline, hence the nickname of the Veurne Sleepers. On August 20,1297, the Battle of Veurne was fought in the struggle between the Flemish cities and the French king. The beautiful gothic church of Saint Walburga and the tower of the church of Saint Nicolas, Saint Walburga housed a chapter of canons. Saint Nicholas and Saint Denis were the two parish churches and possessions of the Norbertine abbey of Saint Nicholas.
The 15th century saw the construction of a new city hall, as most of the Westhoek, the city and the neighbourghood strongly recessed during the economic and religious problems around 1566–1583. But when the town and the castellany officially got together, the town flourished, most of the other historic buildings date from this time, the prosperous reign of the Archdukes Albert and Isabella around 1600. In 1644 the Capucines organised a procession, since 1646, this procession was organised by the Sodales, a religious confraternity, that organised a crossway during Advent time, under the leadership of the Norbertine monk Jacob Clou. The hooded Sodales took a cross for penitence and this procession was expanded at the end of the 17th century with scenes from the Bible, and is the only one of his kind, remaining up to now in Flanders. The second half of the 17th century was marked by the miseries brought to the region by Louis XIV’s wars, vauban built heavy fortifications around the city, the outlines of which are still noticeable from the air today.
Joseph II of Austria put them down and closed some of the institutions, putting a temporary end to the penitents’ procession. Those few cloisters that were still operating were closed at the French Revolution, from the Battle of Waterloo until World War I, Veurne could enjoy a century of quiet and prosperity. In 1831, Veurne was the first city to welcome Belgium’s new king, Leopold I, during World War I, Veurne was located within the Yser pocket of Belgian resistance against the German troops. During the Battle of the Yser, the Veurne city hall became the headquarters for the Belgian troops under King Albert I, in 1920, the French President, Raymond Poincaré, came to Veurne to award the city the Croix de guerre with palm. Veurne suffered some damage during World War II, mainly from allied bombing, the city is a regional centre, which gives commercial and educational services to the surrounding communities while enjoying increasing tourist attention
The project involved the damming of the Zuiderzee, a large, shallow inlet of the North Sea, and the reclamation of land in the newly enclosed water using polders. Its main purposes are to improve protection and create additional land for agriculture. The American Society of Civil Engineers declared these works, together with the Delta Works in the South-West of the Netherlands, as among the Seven Wonders of the Modern World. The Netherlands has low flat topography, with half its area less than one metre above sea level. The seventeenth century saw proposals to tame and enclose the Zuiderzee. Plans were developed during the half of the nineteenth century to protect areas from the force of the open sea. Cornelis Lely was an ardent supporter, an engineer and government minister and his 1891 plan was the basis for the development of what were to become the Zuiderzee Works. Two major lanes of water were defined for shipping and drainage. The initial body of water affected by the project was 3,500 square kilometres, opposition came from fishermen along the Zuiderzee who would lose their livelihood, and from others in coastal areas along the more northerly Wadden Sea.
They feared higher water levels as a result of the closure, other critics doubted whether the project was feasible financially. When Lely became Minister of Transport and Public Works in 1913, he used his position to promote the Zuiderzee Works, the government started developing official plans to enclose the Zuiderzee. On January 13 and 14,1916 the dikes at several places along the Zuiderzee broke under the stress of a storm. This flooding provided the impetus to implement the existing plans to tame the Zuiderzee. In addition, a food shortage during the other stresses of World War I added to widespread support for the project. On June 14,1918 the Zuiderzee Act was passed, the Dienst der Zuiderzeewerken, the government body responsible for overseeing the construction and initial management, was set up in May 1919. It decided against building the dam first, proceeding to construct a smaller dam. This was the first step in rejoining the island of Wieringen to the North Holland mainland, the dike, with a length of 2.5 km, was built between 1920 and 1924.
As with dike building, polder construction was tested on a scale at the experimental polder at Andijk
A sea is a large body of salt water that is surrounded in whole or in part by land. More broadly, the sea is the system of Earths salty. The sea moderates Earths climate and has important roles in the cycle, carbon cycle. Although the sea has been traveled and explored since prehistory, the scientific study of the sea—oceanography—dates broadly to the British Challenger expedition of the 1870s. Owing to the present state of continental drift, the Northern Hemisphere is now equally divided between land and sea but the South is overwhelmingly oceanic. Salinity in the ocean is generally in a narrow band around 3. 5% by mass, although this can vary in more landlocked waters, near the mouths of large rivers. About 85% of the solids in the sea are sodium chloride. Deep-sea currents are produced by differences in salinity and temperature, surface currents are formed by the friction of waves produced by the wind and by tides, the changes in local sea level produced by the gravity of the Moon and Sun.
The direction of all of these is governed by surface and submarine land masses, former changes in sea levels have left continental shelves, shallow areas in the sea close to land. The most diverse areas surround great tropical coral reefs, whaling in the deep sea was once common but whales dwindling numbers prompted international conservation efforts and finally a moratorium on most commercial hunting. Life may have started there and aquatic microbial mats are generally credited with the oxygenation of Earths atmosphere, the sea is an essential aspect of human trade, mineral extraction, and power generation. It is the scene of activities including swimming, surfing. However, population growth, industrialization, and intensive farming have all contributed to marine pollution. Atmospheric carbon dioxide is being absorbed in increasing amounts, lowering its pH in a known as ocean acidification. The shared nature of the sea has made overfishing an increasing problem, both senses of sea date to Old English, the larger sense has required a definite article since Early Middle English.
Seas are generally larger than lakes and contain salt water, while the defining elements of size and being bounded are generally used, there is no formally accepted technical definition of sea among oceanographers. In international law, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea states that all the ocean is the sea. Earth is the known planet with seas of liquid water on its surface, although Mars possesses ice caps