In motorsport the pole position is the position at the inside of the front row at the start of a racing event. This position is given to the vehicle and driver with the best qualifying time in the trials before the race; this number-one qualifying driver is referred to as the pole sitter. Grid position is determined by a qualifying session prior to the race, where race participants compete to ascend to the number 1 grid slot, the driver, pilot, or rider having recorded fastest qualification time awarded the advantage of the number 1 grid slot ahead of all other vehicles for the start of the race; the fastest qualifier was not the designated pole-sitter. Different sanctioning bodies in motor sport employ different qualifying formats in designating who starts from pole position. A starting grid is derived either by current rank in the championship, or based on finishing position of a previous race. In important events where multiple qualification attempts spanned several days, the qualification result was segmented or staggered, by which session a driver qualified, or by which particular day a driver set his qualification time, only drivers having qualified on the initial day eligible for pole position.
In a phenomenon known as race rigging, where race promoters or sanctioning bodies invert their starting grid for the purpose of entertainment value, the slowest qualifier would be designated as pole-sitter. In contrast to contemporary motorsport, where only a race participant is designated pole-sitter, prior to World War II, the pace car was designated as official pole-sitter for the Indianapolis 500; the term has its origins in horse racing, in which the fastest qualifying horse would be placed on the inside part of the course, next to the pole. In Grand Prix racing, grid positions, including pole, were determined by lottery among the drivers. Prior to the inception of the Formula One World Championship, the first instance of grid positions being determined by qualifying times was at the 1933 Monaco Grand Prix. Since the FIA have introduced many different qualifying systems to Formula One. From the long-standing system of one session on each of Friday and Saturday, to the current knockout-style qualifying leaving 10 out of 20 drivers to battle for pole, there have been many changes to qualifying systems.
Between 1996 and 2006, the FIA made 6 significant changes to the qualifying procedure, each with the intention of making the battle for pole more interesting to viewers at home. Traditionally, pole was always occupied by the fastest driver due to low-fuel qualifying; the race-fuel qualifying era between 2003 and 2009 changed this. Despite the changing formats, drivers attempting pole were required between 2003 and 2009 to do qualifying laps with the fuel they would use to start the race the next day. An underfuelled slower car and driver would therefore be able to take pole ahead of a better but heavier-fueled car. In this situation, pole was not always advantageous to have in the race as the under-fueled driver would have to pit for more fuel before their rivals. With the race refueling ban introduced, low-fuel qualifying returned and these strategy decisions are no longer in play; when Formula One enforced the 107% rule between 1996 and 2002, a driver's pole time might affect slower cars posting times for qualifying, as cars that could not get within 107% of the pole time were not allowed start the race unless the stewards decided otherwise.
Since the reintroduction of the rule in 2011, this only applies to the quickest first session time, not the pole time. From 2014 to 2017, the FIA awarded a trophy to the driver who won the most pole positions in a season without sponsorship. From 2018, the FIA Pole Trophy has been renamed the Pirelli Pole Position Award, with the polesitter at each race winning a Pirelli wind tunnel tyre with the name of the polesitter and their time; the driver with the most pole positions at the end of the season wins a full-size engraved Formula 1 tyre. indicates that the driver won the World Championship in the same season. IndyCar uses four formats for qualifying: one for most oval tracks, one for Iowa Speedway, one for the Indianapolis 500, another for road and street circuits. Oval qualifying is like the Indianapolis 500, with two laps, instead of four, averaged together with one attempt, although with just one session. At Iowa, each car takes one qualifying lap, the top six cars advance to the feature race for the pole position.
Positions from 7th onward are assigned to their races, based on time, with cars in the odd-numbered finishing order starting in one race, cars in the even-numbered finishing order starting in the second race. The finishing order for the odd-numbered race starts on the inside, starting in Row 6, even-numbered race on the outside based on finishing position, again from Row 6, except for the top two in each race, which start in the inside and outside of the race for the pole position; the result of the feature race determines positions 1–10. All three races are 50 laps. On road and street courses, cars are drawn randomly into two qualifying groups. After each group has one twenty-minute session, the top six cars from each group qualify for a second session; the cars that finished seventh or worse are lined up by their times, with the best of these times starting 13th. The twelve remaining cars run a 15-minute session, after which the top six cars move on to a final 10-minute session to determine positions one through six on the grid.
The Iowa format was instituted in 2012 with major modifications (times set based on open qualifying session in second pract
Theodore Schwan was a Union Army officer during the American Civil War who received the Medal of Honor for his actions at the Battle of Peebles' Farm. He served with distinction during the Spanish–American and Philippine–American Wars. Theodore Schwan was the son of Rev. Georg Heinrich Christian Schwan and his second wife, Dorette Polemann, the half-brother of Rev. Heinrich Christian Schwan. Schwan was born in Wulsdorf, now a neighborhood in the city of Bremerhaven, Germany, but in 1841 part of the Kingdom of Hanover, received his initial schooling in Germany, he immigrated to the United States in 1857, arriving at New York on 30 May 1857 on the sailing ship Ariel. On 12 June 1857, Schwan enlisted as a Private in the Regular Army, four weeks before his 16th birthday, served in the 10th U. S. Infantry; when the Civil War broke out, he served with his regiment, rising from Private to Quartermaster Sergeant by October 1863, when he was commissioned as a Second Lieutenant. He was promoted to First Lieutenant in April 1864 and received the Medal of Honor for dragging a wounded Union officer to the rear and preventing him from being captured at the October 1864 Battle of Peebles Farm.
He remained in the Regular Army after the close of the Civil War and was promoted to captain on March 14, 1866. From May 1866 to May 1867 he was commanding a company as chief quartermaster for the Quartermaster Department of the District of Minnesota at Fort Snelling, Minnesota, he was on leave of absence from May to October, 1867. Captain Schwan was assigned to Eleventh U. S. Infantry regiment December, 1869. During the Red River War, 1874-76 he again was commanding Company G, at Fort Griffin. On February 5, 1874, detachments of Companies A and G, Eleventh Infantry, attacked a camp of hostile Qua ha dee Comanches on the Double Mountain Fork Brazos River, killed eleven Indians and captured sixty-five horses. One enlisted. In August and September, 1876, He was sent with the Eleventh Infantry from the Department of Texas to the Department of Dakota for field service in connection with the Great Sioux War of 1876-77 in the Dakota Territory and in Montana. Captain Schwan served at Cheyenne River Agency, D.
T. Fort Custer, M. T. Fort Bennett, D. T. and Fort Sully, D. T. 1876–80. On May 16, 1877, Lt. Gen. Sheridan directed his brother Lt. Col. Michael V. Sheridan to retrieve the bodies of Custer and his officers. On June 20, 1877, About 7 o'clock Company I, Seventh Cavalry, reached the north bank of the Yellowstone, having been detached as the escort of Colonel Sheridan, to proceed to the Little Bighorn for the purpose of securing the bodies of the officers who fell in the Custer fight. In the day Colonel Sheridan passed up the river on the steamer Fletcher, being accompanied by Captain Schwan, Company G, Eleventh Infantry. Headquarters of the Military District of Dakota Territory, March 15, 1878, designated Capt. Theodore Schwan to act as Indian agent at the Cheyenne Agency, Dakota Territory. On June 20, the commissioner of Indian Affaires instructed Captain Schwan to form an Indian police force on the Cheyenne River Agency in order to reduce the need of a military force at the agency, he was on recruiting service at David's Island N.
Y. Harbor 1880–82. Captain Schwan was an instructor on the staff of the United States School of Application for Cavalry and Infantry, at Fort Leavenworth, Kan. 1882–86. Captain Theodore Schwan, of the 11th Infantry, to be assistant adjutant general with the rank of major, July 6, 1886, vice Benjamin, deceased. Maj. Theodore Schwan, assistant adjutant-general, detailed as acting inspector-general, Department of Dakota, July 17, 1894, per Special Orders, No. 140, Adjutaut-General's Office, 1894. 75, Adjutant-General's Office, current series. He was promoted to colonel and assistant adjutant-general, May 18, 1898; the Adjutant-General's Department was Adjt.-Gen'l, Brig.-Gen. H. C. Corbin. Assistants, Col. Theodore Schwan, Col. Thos. Ward, Lieut.-Col. W. H. Carter, Maj. H. O. S. Heistand, Maj. J. A. Johnston and Maj. W. A. Simpson. Two weeks before his last promotion in the regular army he was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers, in accordance with the Act of Congress, approved March 2, 1899, he will retain that rank until July 1, 1901.
He was brevetted several times. When the Spanish–American War erupted, Lt. Col. Schwan was appointed brigadier general of volunteers and colonel in the Regular Army in May 1898, making him one of the only foreign-born generals in the Spanish–American War, he assumed command of the First Division of the Fourth Army Corps, which had mustered in at Mobile, Alabama before moving to the Tampa assembly area in early June and Miami, Florida on June 20. That unit was exchanged with the First Division, Seventh Army Corps on June 27, at the beginning of July, Schwan was relieved of that command by the War Department, freeing him for service with the Puerto Rican invasion. Schwan sailed for Puerto Rico. On August 10, his brigade won the Battle of Silva Heights; the Spanish moved up for another attack on Schwan, but a cease fire was enacted befo
Jervis Bay Marine Park is a marine protected area established by the Government of New South Wales in 1998. and the current zoning plan has been in place since 1 October 2002. The marine park is 210 km2 in area and spans over 100 km of coastline from Kinghorn Point in the north to Sussex Inlet; the marine park is zoned to conserve biological diversity in marine habitats and to provide a range of recreational and commercial activities. Maps and descriptions of the current zoning of the Jervis Bay Marine Park can be found in the following references; the Australian Government ratified the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity on 29 December 1993. The Convention requires member states to meet the following requirements: Development of strategies, plans or programs for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity. For Australia to meet the requirements of the treaty, conservation strategies need to be integrated into the development process, including land-use planning and coastal zone planning, forest management plans, environmental impact assessment.
To address the requirements of the treaty, the Government of New South Wales established marine parks with zoning that allows or prohibits particular activities with the aim of conserving the diversity of marine life and ensuring that marine resources are managed for use and enjoyment now and in the future. On 25 May 2011, Government of New South Wales proposed to undertake a scientific audit of the effectiveness of the current marine park zones. On 26 May 2011, the new zoning plan implemented by the former government on 1 March 2011 was abolished and the original zoning plan in place since 2002 restored because of "concerns about the consultation process" and pending the outcomes of the audit; the aim of the audit is to review the effectiveness of the zones and the current measures in place to prevent threats to the marine environment such as pollution, coastal development and the introduction of diseases and pest species. NSW Protected Areas