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Polis

Polis, plural poleis means city in Greek. It defined the religious city center, as distinct from the rest of the city, it can mean a body of citizens. In modern historiography, polis is used to indicate the ancient Greek city-states, like Classical Athens and its contemporaries, thus is translated as "city-state"; these cities consisted of a fortified city centre built on an acropolis or harbor and controlled surrounding territories of land. The Ancient Greek city-state developed during the Archaic period as the ancestor of city and citizenship and persisted well into Roman times, when the equivalent Latin word was civitas meaning "citizenhood", while municipium applied to a non-sovereign local entity; the term "city-state", which originated in English, does not translate the Greek term. The poleis were not like other primordial ancient city-states like Tyre or Sidon, which were ruled by a king or a small oligarchy, but rather political entities ruled by their bodies of citizens; the traditional view of archaeologists—that the appearance of urbanization at excavation sites could be read as a sufficient index for the development of a polis—was criticised by François Polignac in 1984 and has not been taken for granted in recent decades: the polis of Sparta, for example, was established in a network of villages.

The term polis, which in archaic Greece meant "city", changed with the development of the governance center in the city to signify "state". With the emergence of a notion of citizenship among landowners, it came to describe the entire body of citizens; the ancient Greeks did not always refer to Athens, Sparta and other poleis as such. The body of citizens came to be the most important meaning of the term polis in ancient Greece; the Greek term that meant the totality of urban buildings and spaces is asty. Plato analyzes the polis in The Republic, whose Greek title, Πολιτεία, itself derives from the word polis; the best form of government of the polis for Plato is the one. The philosopher king is the best ruler because, as a philosopher, he is acquainted with the Form of the Good. In Plato's analogy of the ship of state, the philosopher king steers the polis, as if it were a ship, in the best direction. Books II–IV of The Republic are concerned with Plato addressing the makeup of an ideal polis.

In The Republic, Socrates is concerned with the two underlying principles of any society: mutual needs and differences in aptitude. Starting from these two principles, Socrates deals with the economic structure of an ideal polis. According to Plato, there are five main economic classes of any polis: producers, sailors/shipowners, retail traders, wage earners. Along with the two principles and five economic classes, there are four virtues; the four virtues of a "just city" include wisdom, courage and justice. With all of these principles and virtues, it was believed that a "just city" would exist; the basic and indicating elements of a polis are: Self-governance and independence Agora: the social hub and financial marketplace, on and around a centrally located, large open space Acropolis: the citadel, inside which a temple had replaced the erstwhile Mycenaean anáktoron or mégaron Greek urban planning and architecture, public and private Temples and sacred precincts: one or more are dedicated to the poliouchos, the patron deity of the city.

Priests and priestesses, although drawn from certain families by tradition, did not form a separate collegiality or class. Gymnasia Theatres Walls: used for protection from invaders Coins: minted by the city, bearing its symbols Colonies being founded by the oikistes of the metropolis Political life: it revolved around the sovereign Ekklesia, the standing boule and other civic or judicial councils, the archons and other officials or magistrates elected either by vote or by lot, etc. and sometimes punctuated by stasis. They practised direct democracy. Publication of state functions: laws and major fiscal accounts were published, criminal and civil trials were held in public. Synoecism, conurbation: Absorption of nearby villages and countryside, the incorporation of their tribes into the substructure of the polis. Many of a polis' citizens lived in countryside; the Greeks regarded the polis less as a territorial grouping than as a religious and political association: while the polis would control territory and colonies beyond the city itself, the polis would not consist of a geographical area.

Most cities were composed of several tribes or phylai, which were in turn composed of phratries, génea. Social classes and citizenship: Dwellers of the polis were divided into four types of inhabitants, with status determined by birth: Citizens with full legal and political rights—that is, free adult men born legitimately of cit

2020 Major League Rugby season

The 2020 Major League Rugby season is the third season of Major League Rugby, the professional rugby union competition sanctioned by USA Rugby. The regular season schedule was released on September 23, 2019 and the regular season itself began on February 8, 2020. Three teams made their debut in 2020: the New England Free Jacks, Old Glory DC, Rugby ATL; the Seattle Seawolves are the defending champions. With the addition of three teams for the 2020 season, Major League Rugby moved to a two conference format. For the regular season, each team will play against the other teams in their conference twice each and against every team in the opposite conference once each for a total of 16 games; the playoffs have expanded from four teams in 2018 to six teams this year, with the top three teams from each conference qualifying. The second- and third-placed team from each conference will play each other in the conference semifinals, with the winner moving on to play the first-placed team in the conference finals.

The winners of the conference finals will play against each other in the final for the championship. The following are the matches for the 2020 Major League Rugby regular season: Updated to match played on 22 February 2020Colors: Blue: home team win; the top ten try and point scorers during the 2020 Major League Rugby season are:Last updated: February 23, 2020

Powerhouse (White Heart album)

Powerhouse is the seventh album by the Christian rock band White Heart and the first with Brian Wooten on guitars and Anthony Sallee on bass guitar, the band's only album with Mark Nemer on drums. "Independence Day" - 5:37 "Powerhouse" - 4:30 "Desert Rose" - 4:41 "Lovers and Dreamers" - 4:35 "Nailed Down" - 5:09 "Messiah" - 5:19 "A Love Calling" - 6:24 "Answer the Call" - 4:44 "Storyline" - 4:20 "Lay It Down" - 4:57 Riq Florian - lead vocals, background vocals Mark Gersmehl - keyboards, lead vocals, background vocals, co-producer Mark Nemer - drums and percussion Anthony Sallee - bass guitar Billy Smiley - acoustic and rhythm guitars, background vocals, co-producer Brian Wooten - lead and rhythm guitars Carl Marsh - Fairlight programming, percussion Gordon Kennedy - backing vocals Chris Rodriguez - backing vocals Marty McCall - backing vocals Bill Drescher – producer, mixing Darrell Harris – executive producer Malcolm Greenwood – project coordinator, management The Bennett House, Tennessee – recording location Quad Studios, Tennessee – recording location Midtown Tone & Volume, Tennessee – recording location Barry Dixon – assistant engineer Lee Groitzsch – assistant engineer Richard Engstrom – assistant engineer Roy Gamble – assistant engineer Shawn McLean – assistant engineer Studio 55, Los Angeles, California – mixing location Toni Thigpen – art direction Tufts Design Studio – design and layout Bob Forti – cover photography Mark Tucker – back cover photography Powerhouse.

Star Song Records. SSD 8166