Polish Land Forces

The Land Forces are a military branch of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Poland. They contain some 77,000 active personnel and form many components of the European Union and NATO deployments around the world. Poland's recorded military history stretches back a millennium – since the 10th century, but Poland's modern army was formed after the country regained independence following World War I in 1918; when Poland regained independence in 1918, it recreated its military which participated in the Polish–Soviet War of 1919–1921, in the two smaller conflicts. Right after the First World War, Poland had five military districts: Poznań Military District, HQ in Poznań Kraków Military District, HQ in Kraków Łódź Military District, HQ in Łódź Warsaw Military District, HQ in Warsaw Lublin Military District, HQ in Lublin; the Polish land forces as readied for the Polish–Soviet War was made up of soldiers who had served in the various partitioning empires, supported by some international volunteers.

There appear to have been a total of around 30 Polish divisions involved. Boris Savinkov was at the head of an army of 20,000 to 30,000 Russian POWs, was accompanied by Dmitry Merezhkovsky and Zinaida Gippius; the Polish forces grew from 100,000 in 1918 to over 500,000 in early 1920. In August 1920, the Polish army had reached a total strength of 737,767 people. Given Soviet losses, there was rough numerical parity between the two armies. Among the major formations involved on the Polish side were a number of Fronts, including the Lithuanian-Belarusian Front, about seven armies, including the First Polish Army; the German invasion of Poland began on 1 September 1939, the Wehrmacht seized half the country despite heavy Polish resistance. Among the erroneous myths generated by this campaign were accounts of Polish cavalry charging German tanks, which did not, in fact, take place. In the east, the Red Army took the other half of the country in accordance with the Nazi-Soviet Pact. Following the country's fall, Polish soldiers began regrouping in what was to become the Polish Army in France.

Both the Polish Armed Forces in the West and the Polish Armed Forces in the East, as well as interior forces represented by the Home Army had land forces during the Second World War. While the forces fighting under the Allied banner were supported by the Polish Air Force and Navy, the partisan forces were an exclusive land formation; however the army operational today has its roots in the surrogate force formed in support of Soviet interests during the establishment of the People's Republic of Poland after the Second World War. Two Polish armies, the First Army and the Second Army fought with the Red Army on the Eastern Front, supported by some Polish Air Force elements; the formation of a Third Army was begun but not completed. The end of the war found the Polish Army in the midst of intense organisational development. Although the implementation of the Polish Front concept was abandoned, new tactical unit and troop types were created; as a result of mobilisation, troop numbers in May 1945 reached 370,000 soldiers, while in September 1945 440,000.

Military districts were organised in liberated areas. The districts exercised direct authority over the units stationed on the territory administered by them. Returning to the country, the Second Army was tasked with the protection of the western border of the state from Jelenia Gora to Kamien Pomorski, on the basis of its headquarters, the staff of the Poznan Military District was created at Poznań; the southern border, from Jelenia Gora to the Użok railway station was occupied by the First Army. Its headquarters staff formed the basis of the Silesian Military District. In mid-1945, after the end of World War II, the Polish Army, as part of the overall armed forces, the People's Army of Poland, was divided into six districts; these were the Warsaw Military District, HQ in Warsaw, the Lublin Military District, HQ in Lublin, the Kraków Military District, HQ in Kraków, the Lodz Military District, HQ in Lodz, the Poznan Military District, HQ in Poznan, the Pomeranian Military District, HQ in Torun and the Silesian Military District, HQ in Katowice, created in the fall of 1945.

In June 1945 the 1st, 3rd and 8th Infantry Divisions were assigned internal security duties, while the 4th Infantry Division was reorganised for the purpose of creating the Internal Security Corps. The rule was that military units were used against the Ukrainian Insurgent Army, while the Internal Security Corps was used to fight the armed underground independence; however army units fought the underground resistance, vice versa. The culmination of the UPA suppression operation was the so-called'Wisła Action' which took place in 1947. At the same time demobilisation took place. On 10 August 1945 a "decree of the partial demobilisation" of the armed forces was issued; the next demobilisation phase took place in February and December 1946. One of the most important tasks facing the army after the war was national mine clearance. Between 1944 and 1956 the demining operation involved 44 engineering units or about 19,000 sa


Al-Malikiyah is a small Syrian city and the center of an administrative district belonging to Al-Hasakah Governorate. The district constitutes the northeastern corner of the country, is where the Syrian Democratic Council convenes; the town is about 20 km west of the Tigris river which defines the triple border between Syria and Iraq. According to the Syria Central Bureau of Statistics, Al-Malikiyah had a population about 40,000 residents in the 2012 census, it is the administrative center of a nahiyah consisting of 108 localities with a combined population of 125,000. The population enjoys demographic and ethnic diversity, characteristic of most of Al-Hasakah Governorate; the town is inhabited by Kurds, Assyrians and Armenians. In 1957 the town was named "Al-Malikiyah", after a Syrian army officer Adnan al-Malki; the original native name is a matter of controversy. The Kurdish language name Dêrika means tumbleweed, ubiquitous in the region; the alternative name, "Dayrik", is interpreted as a Kurdish deformation of the Syriac-Aramaic word for monastery, "Dayr".

In 1977, a decree was issued to ban all non-Arabic place names. Therefore the Kurdish and Syriac-Aramaic names were banned from being used; the town's indigenous people are Assyrians who trace their ancestry to many Turkish villages in whose inhabitants fled to Syria and established the city after the Assyrian Genocide. Assyrians began to emigrate from the area after the Amuda massacre of August 9, 1937. In 1941, the Assyrians of Malikiya were subjected to a vicious assault. Though it failed, fear and the immigration of Kurds from Turkey led to Malikiya and Amuda becoming predominantly Kurdish; as of 2004, Al-Malikiyah is the fifth largest city in Al-Hasakah governorate. As a result of the ongoing Syrian Civil War, Al-Malikiyah is controlled by the Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria. YPG forces on 21 July captured Al-Malikiyah, located just 10 kilometers from the Turkish border. Although another report stated that fighting was ongoing in the city. On 22 July 2012, it was reported that Kurdish forces were still fighting for Al-Malikiyah where one young Kurdish activist was killed after government security forces opened fire on protesters.

In November 2012 the Syrian government forces withdrew from the city. Kurdish-led authorities installed the "Dêrik prison" for captured Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant members in al-Malikiyah. In April 2019, the prison was the site of a major prison escape attempt by about 200 ISIL detainees, including several French jihadists; the breakout was foiled and some of the prisoners were subsequently distributed to other detention centers. In 2004 the population of Al-Malikiyah was 26,311; the population consists of ethnic Kurds and Assyrians in addition to a significant, large number of Arabs and a smaller number of Armenians. The northern half of the town is inhabited by Muslim Kurds, the southern part by the Assyrians and Armenians; as the economic center of the district, the town is filled with people from the surrounding villages and towns during the morning hours. Al-Malikiyah has seen a dramatic urban expansion and real estate development in recent years which led to many streets being extended to new neighborhoods that are now part of the continually growing town.

As of November 2014, only 200 ethnic Armenians remain in the city out of a pre-civil war figure of 450. Hevrin Khalaf Faia Younan Romeo Saliba

John Dick (politician)

John Dick was an American politician and judge. He represented Pennsylvania as a Whig, a member of the Opposition Party and a Republican in the United States House of Representatives. John Dick was born on June 1794, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. With his parents, he moved to Meadville, Pennsylvania while less than a year old, in December 1794, he received his education at the common schools. He served as major of the First Battalion of the Pennsylvania Militia in 1821. Dick served as colonel of the First Regiment in 1825 before becoming brigadier general of the Second Brigade, Sixteenth Division of the Pennsylvania Militia in 1831. After his militia service, he moved into mercantile business and banking, establishing the banking house J.&J. R. Dick in 1850, he subsequently served as associate judge of Crawford County and was a supporter of the Atlantic and Great Western Railroad. Dick served as a trustee of Allegheny College and president of Crawford Mutual Insurance Company. Dick was elected to the United States House of Representatives as a Whig in 1852 for the 33rd Congress.

He was reelected in 1854 as an Opposition Party candidate to the 34th Congress. In 1856, Dick was reelected as a Republican to the 35th Congress, he was renominated by the Republican Party in 1858 but withdrew his name from the election and resumed business interests. He was married, November 16, 1830, to Jane Torbett, had six children. Son George was as cadet at West Point in 1850, assigned to duty in Texas in Col. Robert E. Lee’s regiment, died in 1856. Son J. Henry died at the age of eighteen, his son, Samuel Bernard Dick, was a Union Colonel in the Civil War. Dick died in Meadville, Pennsylvania on May 29, 1872, was interred in Greendale Cemetery. United States Congress. "John Dick". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress