Politics of Vietnam
The politics of Vietnam are defined by a single-party socialist republic framework, where the General Secretary of the Communist Party of Vietnam is the Party leader and head of the Politburo, holding the highest position in the one-party system. The President of Vietnam is the head of state, the Prime Minister of Vietnam is the head of government in a one-party system led by the Communist Party of Vietnam. Executive power is exercised by the President of Vietnam. Legislative power is vested in the National Assembly of Vietnam; the Judiciary is independent of the executive. The parliament adopted the current Constitution of Vietnam; the President is elected by National Assembly for a five-year term and acts as the commander-in-chief of the Vietnam People's Armed Forces and Chairman of the Council for Defence and Security. Moreover, the president has the right to decide on executive brands; the government, the main executive state power of Vietnam, is headed by the Prime Minister, who has several Deputy Prime Ministers and several ministers in charge of particular activities.
The executive branch is responsible for the implementation of political, cultural, national defence and external activities of the state. The National Assembly is a unicameral legislative body; the National Assembly has 500 members, elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms. The legislature is, according to the highest organ of the state, its powers includes the amendment of the constitution and laws. The Vietnamese constitution and legislation provide for regular elections for the office of the President of the Socialist Republic, the National Assembly and the People's Councils. Vietnam has a judicial system governed by the Constitution of Vietnam and national legislation enacted by National Assembly; the Supreme People's Court is the highest court of appeal in Vietnam. There are other specialised courts in Vietnam, including the Central Military Court, the Criminal Court, the Civil Court and the Appeal Court; the Supreme People's Procuracy observes the implementation of state organs and makes sure that Vietnamese citizens follow the law.
Vietnam is a one-party socialist republic. The current Vietnamese state traces its direct lineage back to the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and the 1945 August Revolution led by Hồ Chí Minh; the current constitution was adopted on 15 April 1992 by the National Assembly of Vietnam. There have been three other constitutions in Vietnamese history: the 1946, 1959 and 1980 constitutions; the current constitution has been amended once, during the 10th session of the National Assembly on 25 December 2001. The Communist Party of Vietnam, the leading non-State organ, operates in accordance with the laws. Government powers in Vietnam are divided into legislative and judiciary powers. Vietnam's legal system is based upon socialist legality according to Article 12 of the constitution. Vietnam is a socialist republic with a one-party system led by the Communist Party of Vietnam; the CPV espouses Marxism–Leninism and Hồ Chí Minh Thought, the thoughts of the late Hồ Chí Minh. The two ideologies function as a firm ideological basis and serve as guidance for the activities of the Party and state.
According to the Constitution, Vietnam is "in the period of transition to socialism". Marxism–Leninism was introduced to Vietnam in the 1920s and 1930s, Vietnamese culture has been led under the banner of patriotism and Marxism–Leninism. Hồ Chí Minh's beliefs were not systematised during his life, nor following his death. Trường Chinh's biography of "Chairman Hồ" in 1973 emphasised his revolutionary policies; the thoughts of Hồ Chí Minh were systematised under the leadership of Nguyễn Văn Linh. Hồ Chí Minh Thought, alongside Marxism–Leninism, became the official ideology of the CPV and the state in 1991; the CPV's claim to legitimacy was retained following the collapse of communism in 1989 and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 by its commitment to the thoughts of Hồ Chí Minh, according to Sophie Quinn-Judge. According to Pierre Brocheux, the author of Ho Chi Minh: a Biography, the current state ideology is Hồ Chí Minh Thought, with Marxism–Leninism playing a secondary role. While some claim that Hồ Chí Minh Thought is used as a veil for the Party leadership since they, according to this version, have stopped believing in communism, this is false when considering that Hồ Chí Minh was an avid supporter of Vladimir Lenin and the dictatorship of the proletariat.
Others see Hồ Chí Minh Thought as a political umbrella term whose main function is to smuggle in non-socialist ideas and policies without challenging socialist legality. Since its foundation, the key ideology has been Marxism–Leninism, but since the introduction of a mixed economy in the late 1980s and 1990s, it has lost its monopolistic ideological and moral legitimacy. Marxism–Leninism, a class-based ideology, lost its legitimacy because of the mixed economy; as became clear because of the Đổi Mới reforms, the Party could not base its rule on defending only the workers and the peasants, referred to as the "working class-peasant alliance". In the constitution introduced in 1992, the State represented the "workers and intellectuals". In recent years, the Party has stopped representing a specific class, but instead the "interests of the entire people", which includes entrepreneurs; the final class barrier was removed in 2002, when party members were allowed t
A plenary session is a session of a conference which all members of all parties are to attend. Such a session may include a broad range of content, from keynotes to panel discussions, is not related to a specific style of presentation or deliberative process; the term has been used in the teaching profession to describe. This encourages class participation; the Congress of Vienna is an example of a congress. Floor
Vương Đình Huệ
Vương Đình Huệ is a Vietnamese politician, Professor in Economics. He is Deputy Prime Minister of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, he was Minister of Finance and head of the PCC Economic Commission, a central committee consulting agency for economic policies and strategies. He is a member of the 10th, 11th and 12th Central Committee of the Communist Party of Vietnam
State Bank of Vietnam
The State Bank of Vietnam is the central bank of Vietnam. It holds an about 65% stake of VietinBank - the country's largest listed bank by capital; when Indochina was under French rule, the colonial government governed the Indochinese monetary system through Indochinese Bank, which acted as a commercial bank in French Indochina. After the August Revolution in 1945, the government of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam attempted to exercise a monetary system independent from France. On 6 May 1951, president Hồ Chí Minh signed decree 15/SL on establishment of National Bank of Vietnam. On 21 January 1960, the governor of the bank signed an ordinance on behalf of the prime minister to rename the bank State Bank of Vietnam. After the fall of Saigon, the two Vietnams were united but not until July 1976 did the two countries’ administrations and institutions unite. In July 1976, the National Bank of Vietnam was merged into the State Bank of Vietnam. In the Doi moi liberalisation era, the banking system of Vietnam was reformed.
New banks were created, starting with the Industrial and Commercial Bank of Vietnam and the Vietnam Bank for Agriculture in 1988, the role of the State Bank was narrowed to that of a central bank. In 1990, an ordinance reorganised the state bank and redefined its function as: "on behalf of the State, of managing money and banking operations throughout the country in order to stabilize a value of money, is the only agency with power to circulate the currency of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam" While the State Bank continued to lend to state-owned enterprises in the following years, it has now been superseded in the respect by other state-owned banks and by private banks; the former prime minister, Nguyễn Tấn Dũng, was a governor while he held the post of senior deputy prime minister, but bestowed the governor’s post upon Le Duc Thuy. There has been criticism of the printing quality of the new polymer đồng banknotes. Controversy surrounded the purchase of the state house by governor Le Duc Thuy when he bought a house belonging to the bank one tenth of the market value.
However, the government stopped the deal. The State Bank of Vietnam is a ministry-level body under the administration of the government; the governor is nominated by the prime minister subject to the approval of the National Assembly. Vice governors are appointed by the prime minister on the recommendation of the governor. Both governor and vice governors serve a 5-year term; the State Bank of Vietnam defines its principal roles as: Promote monetary stability and formulate monetary policies. Promote institutions’ stability and supervise financial institutions. Provide banking facilities and recommend economic policies to the government. Provide banking facilities for the financial institutions. Manage the country’s international reserves. Print and issue banknotes. Supervise all commercial banks’ activities in Vietnam. Lend the state money to the commercial banks. Issue government bonds, organise bond auctions. Be in charge of other roles in monetary management and foreign exchange rates List of banks in Vietnam Economy of Vietnam Vietnamese đồng State Bank of Vietnam official website
Vũ Đức Đam
Vũ Đức Đam is a Vietnamese politician who served as Minister of Government Office, is one of four Deputy Prime Ministers of Vietnam since 2013. He governs Science and Technology and Communication, Tourism and Sports, he is a Member of the Party Central Committee XII. He is chairman of the National Committee for AIDS, prevention of drug addiction, prostitution. Vũ Đức Đam was born in Hải Dương Province and is considered to be one of the more promising members' of the Vietnamese Government, having a good command of the English language and possessing exemplary communication skills. October, 1988 – October, 1990: an engineer of the Post Technical Trading and Service Company under the General Department of Post, he graduated in 1988 from the Université Libre de Bruxelles with a PhD in Economics. He is fluent in English
Ho Chi Minh Thought
Ho Chi Minh Thought is the political philosophy of the Communist Party of Vietnam. Since 1991, the contents of Ho Chi Minh's thought were formed and developed in association with the periods of Ho Chi Minh's activities in the revolutionary movement of Vietnam and internationally as integral to the curriculum of fundamental instruction for civil servants in Vietnam. At the beginning and the middle of the 20th century, Ho Chi Minh thought was the crystallization of Vietnamese culture, French revolutionary ideas, liberal ideas, Marxist–Leninist communist ideals and Ho Chi Minh's personal qualities. Ho Chi Minh Thought considered the peasantry to be the most popular force of the nationalist movement, the basis for the struggle for national liberation, with the blood of the working class, oppressed by the colonialists and the minions, ready to stand up with workers in the developing proletarian revolution. In the Party's Revolutionary Strategy, Ho Chi Minh wrote: "The Party must recruit the majority of the peasants and rely on the poor peasants to make a revolutionary land, to build the landlords and feudal lords.
The workers and the peasants from being under the power and influence of the national capitalists, the Party must communicate with the capitalist, middle-class". Ho Chi Minh Thought is an ideology that adapts Marxism–Leninism to the specific social and economic conditions of the Vietnamese people by Ho Chi Minh, the leader of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam; the tenets of Ho Chi Minh Thought are constructed from the political statements and attitudes of Ho Chi Minh. Ho Chi Minh Thought has been identified as a legitimate ideology of the Communist Party of Vietnam alongside Marxism–Leninism, formally launched from the party's Seventh Party Congress; the Communist Party, the Vietnam state and the legitimate views of Vietnam today agree that Ho Chi Minh Thought is a creative use of Marxism–Leninism in Vietnam's context, considering Ho Chi Minh's thought has become a valuable spiritual asset of the Communist Party and the people of Vietnam. The Communist Party of Vietnam identified Marxism–Leninism and Ho Chi Minh's thought as the guideline for all actions and victories of the Vietnamese revolution.
Vietnamese schools always follow Ho Chi Minh Thought in all walks of life. From its establishment in 1944 his death in 1969 Ho Chi Minh operated the People's Army of Vietnam leading a decades long nonlinear war against the colonial Republic of France, The Empire of Japan in the Pacific theater of World War Two and United States up until the early 1970s. Ho as Chairman of the Vietnamese Communist Party organized a revolutionary war based on the principals of guerilla warfare, Ho's military thought is expressed in several published works, such as, "Twelve Recommendations, Instructions Given at the "Conference Reviewing the Second Le Hong Phong Military Campaign", "To Wage a Resistance War". Ho Chi Minh's tactical strategies bear strong resemblance to several contemporaries such as Chinese leader Mao Zedong, Cuban revolutionaries Fidel Castro and Ernesto "Che" Guevara, the who both waged protracted revolutionary wars against a more well equipped military structure, emphasizing popular support by the peasantry and working class to overthrow reactionary and colonial states.
Ho evokes concepts similar to Mao's Peoples war. Ho shows a military as well as political influence from Bolshevik revolutionary Vladimir Lenin, in utilizing the Leninist political strategy of dual power, wherein peasant and worker based governments are established to contest the legitimacy of the formal state. Ho maintained a strong opposition to Trotskyism. Vietnam from the 1930s up to the late 1940s had a considerable Trotskyist influence within the Marxist and Anti-Imperialist community. Writer Pierre Rosette describes communist figure Ngyuen An Ninh as one of the most considerable figures within the Vietnamese Left Opposition. Following Nikita Khrushchev's Secret Speech to the Central Committee Secret Speech to the 20th Party Congress denouncing his predecessor Joseph Stalin, Ho Chi Minh supported Khrushchev's position in the August 3, 1956 article "Development of Ideological Unity Among Marxist–Leninist Parties". In the article Ho support's the Soviet policy of Peaceful coexistence, denouncing Stalin's Cult of personality and reaffirming the Communist Party of Vietnam's adherence to the concept of Self-criticism.
This is in contrast to the Anti-revisionist position of Mao Zedong and The People's Republic of China. Filipino Marxist activist Walden Bello is critical of the concept of "Ho Chi Minh Thought", stating that Ho Chi Minh at no point set out to develop a structural Marxist framework, writing "Ho left no significant theoretical innovations, much less an integrated body of theory; this has, of course, not prevented some in the Vietnamese Communist Party from claiming that Ho left behind'Ho Chi Minh Thought', described as a new development in Marxist Leninist theory. " "Twelve Recommendations" Anti-imperialism Anti-revisionism Communism in Vietnam Juche Maoism Sino-Soviet split Vietnam War Vietnamese nationalism Ho Chi Minh: Down with Colonialism!. Verso, 2007. Introduction and editing by Walden Bello. Ho Chi Minh: Selected Articles and Speeches, 1920-1967, International Publishers, 1970. Minh, Ho Chi. Selected Writings 1920-1969, University Press of the Pacific, 2001. Website of the Communist Party of Vietnam Bao Dien tu Dang Cong san Viet Nam
President of Vietnam
The President of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam is the head of state of Vietnam. Since Vietnam is a single-party state, the President is considered to hold the second highest position in the political system, after the General Secretary of the Communist Party of Vietnam. In addition, the president appoints the head of the Prime Minister; as head of state, the President represents Vietnam both domestically and internationally, maintains the regular and coordinated operation and stability of the national government and safeguards the independence and territorial integrity of the country. The President appoints the Vice President, Prime Minister and other officials with the consent of the National Assembly; the President is furthermore the Supreme Commander-in-chief of the Vietnam People's Armed Forces, Chairman of the Council for Defense and Security. Moreover, Member of Political Bureau, Standing Member of the Central Military Commission and the Central Police Party Committee. Since September 2011, the President is the Head of the Central Steering Committee for Judicial Reform.
The tenure of the President is five years, a president can only serve three terms. If the President becomes unable to discharge duties of office, the Vice President assumes the office of acting president until the President resumes duty, or until the election of a new president; the powers and prestige of the office of President have varied over the years. For instance, while the inaugural president, Hồ Chí Minh, was the Chairman of the Communist Party, making him the first ranking member of the Politburo, the highest decision-making body in Vietnam, his successor, Tôn Đức Thắng, served as a symbolic figure along with the General Secretary Lê Duẩn. Since Trường Chinh's ascension to the presidency, the President has been ranked 1st or 2nd in the order of precedence of the Communist Party's Politburo except President Nguyễn Minh Triết ranked fourth and President Võ Chí Công ranked third; the current President is Nguyễn Phú Trọng, elected by the National Assembly in October 2018 after former President Trần Đại Quang died in office.
Trọng is the third person to concurrently serve as head of the Party and State, with the other two people to have done so being Hồ Chí Minh and Trường Chinh. Hồ Chí Minh was appointed Vietnam's first president in 1946 by the National Assembly. Both the 1946 and 1959 Constitutions stated that the National Assembly had the power to appoint and dismiss the President; the President represented Vietnam both internally and externally. The powers and responsibilities of the President remained unchanged in the 1959 constitution; the 1980 constitution transformed the office of head of state dramatically. The office of President was abolished and replaced with the office of Chairman of the Council of State; the CC chairmanship was modelled after the Soviet office of Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet. The Council of State, as with the Council of Ministers, was a collective decision-making body. Both the Council of State and the Council of Ministers were part of the executive branch; the duties and responsibilities of the Council of State were taken from the Standing Committee of the National Assembly, which lost most of its powers and prestige in the 1980 Constitution.
The members of the Council of State were elected by the National Assembly and consisted of a chairman, deputy chairmen, a General Secretary and other members. Council of State members could not concurrently be members of the Council of Ministers; the Chairman of the Council of State was concurrently Chairman of the National Defense Council and commander-in-chief of the Vietnam People's Armed Forces. The Council of State supervised the works of other institutions, most notably the Council of Ministers, the Supreme People's Organ for Control and the People's Councils at all levels, it presided over the elections of the National Assembly. The office of Chairman of the Council of State, the head of state, was abolished in the 1992 Constitution and replaced by the office of President; the importance of the President has not remained constant throughout Vietnamese history. For instance, while Hồ Chí Minh was ranked as first member of the Politburo, the highest decision-making body in Vietnam, his successor, Tôn Đức Thắng, was a symbolic figure with little power.
The post of head of state was strengthened in the 1980 Constitution by the appointment of Trường Chinh who was, by order of precedence, the second-highest-ranking member in the Politburo, behind Lê Duẩn. The office of President retained the second highest rank in the Politburo order of precedence until Nguyễn Minh Triết was appointed in 2006; the Politburo elected in the aftermath of the 11th National Party Congress by the Central Committee elected Trương Tấn Sang, the current President, the first-ranking member of the Politburo. This was the first time in Vietnamese history where the highest-ranking member of the Politburo does not hold post of either General Secretary or Chairman of the party. Since Trương Tấn Sang is first-ranked member of the Politburo, he is the body's unofficial head. Politburo meetings are held regularly; the President is selected for a term of office of five years. The term of office of the incumbent president continues until the President-elect takes