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Political fiction

Political fiction employs narrative to comment on political events and theories. Works of political fiction, such as political novels "directly criticize an existing society or present an alternative fantastic, reality"; the political novel overlaps with the social novel, proletarian novel, social science fiction. Plato's Republic, a Socratic dialogue written around 380 BC, has been one of the world's most influential works of philosophy and political theory, both intellectually and historically; the Republic is concerned with justice, the order and character of the just city-state, the just man. Other influential politically-themed works include Thomas More's Utopia, Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels, Voltaire's Candide, Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin. Political fiction employs satire in the utopian and dystopian genres; this includes totalitarian dystopias of the early 20th century such as Jack London's The Iron Heel, Sinclair Lewis' It Can't Happen Here, George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four.

The Greek playwright Aristophanes' plays are known for their political and social satire in his criticism of the powerful Athenian general, Cleon, in plays such as The Knights. Aristophanes is notable for the persecution he underwent. Aristophanes' plays turned upon images of disease, his bawdy style was adopted by Greek dramatist-comedian Menander, whose early play, contains an attack on the politician, Callimedon. Jonathan Swift's A Modest Proposal is an 18th-century Juvenalian satirical essay in which he suggests that the impoverished Irish might ease their economic troubles by selling their children as food for rich gentlemen and ladies; the satirical hyperbole mocks heartless attitudes towards the poor, as well as British policy toward the Irish in general. George Orwell's Animal Farm is an allegorical and dystopian novella which satirises the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the Soviet Union's Stalinist era. Orwell, a democratic socialist, was a critic of Joseph Stalin and was hostile to Moscow-directed Stalinism—an attitude, shaped by his experiences during the Spanish Civil War.

The Soviet Union, he believed, had become a brutal dictatorship, built upon a cult of personality and enforced by a reign of terror. Orwell described his Animal Farm as "a satirical tale against Stalin", in his essay "Why I Write" he wrote that Animal Farm was the first book in which he tried, with full consciousness of what he was doing, "to fuse political purpose and artistic purpose into one whole." Orwell's most famous work, however, is Nineteen Eighty-Four, many of whose terms and concepts, such as Big Brother, thoughtcrime, Room 101, telescreen, 2 + 2 = 5, memory hole, have entered into common use. Nineteen Eighty-Four popularised the adjective "Orwellian", which describes official deception, secret surveillance, manipulation of recorded history by a totalitarian or authoritarian state; the poet Jan Kochanowski's play, The Dismissal of the Greek Envoys, the first tragedy written in the Polish language, recounts an incident leading up to the Trojan War. Its theme of the responsibilities of statesmanship resonates to the present day.

The political comedy, The Return of the Deputy, by Julian Ursyn Niemcewicz—Polish poet, playwright and comrade-in-arms of Tadeusz Kościuszko—was written in about two weeks' time while Niemcewicz was serving as a deputy to the historic Four-Year Sejm of 1788–92. The comedy's premiere in January 1791 was an enormous success, sparking widespread debate, royal communiques, diplomatic correspondence; as Niemcewicz had hoped, it set the stage for passage of Poland's epochal Constitution of 3 May 1791, regarded as Europe's first, the world's second, modern written national constitution, after the United States Constitution implemented in 1789. The comedy pits proponents against opponents of political reforms: of abolishing the destabilizing free election of Poland's kings. Romantic interest is provided by a rivalry between a reformer and a conservative for a young lady's hand—which is won by the proponent of reforms. An early example of the political novel is The Betrothed by Alessandro Manzoni, an Italian historical novel.

Set in northern Italy in 1628, during the oppressive years of direct Spanish rule, it has been seen sometimes as a veiled attack on the Austrian Empire, which controlled Italy at the time the novel was written. It has been called the most famous and read novel in the Italian language. In the 1840s British politician Benjamin Disraeli wrote a trilogy of novels with political themes. With Coningsby. Coningsby was followed by Sybil; the last of Disraeli's political-novel trilogy, Tancred.


Kulilay Amit, better known by her stage name A-Mei, is a Taiwanese Puyuma singer and record producer. In 1996, she released her album, Sisters, her albums, Truth and Faces of Paranoia, each won her a Golden Melody Award for Best Mandarin Female Singer, made her one of the singers who won the category the most times. Having sold more than 50 million records, she has achieved success in Mandarin-speaking world, she is referred to as the "Queen of Mandopop". A-Mei was born in a Puyuma family in Beinan, Taiwan. In 1992, A-Mei moved to Taipei and took part in the Five Lights Star Singing Contest presented by the Taiwanese TV program Five Lights Awards. In 1993, she won. After that, she started to perform in pubs in Taipei, her pub performance impressed Taiwanese music producer Chang Yu-sheng and Chang Hsiao-yen, the head of Taiwanese record label Forward Music of the time. In March 1996, she signed a recording deal with Forward Music. After she signed a recording deal with Forward Music, A-Mei's voice appears on Chang Yu-sheng's album, Red Passion, which released in July 1996, she sang a duet song titled Love Most Hurt Most.

In December 1996, she released Sisters. The title song featured A-Mei's mother and sisters as background vocals. In June 1997, A-Mei released Bad Boy; the album earned her two Golden Melody Award nominations for Best Pop Vocal Album and Best Mandarin Female Singer. In January 1998, A-Mei embarked on her first solo concert tour, which visited Taiwan, Hong Kong and Singapore, released a cover album in April 1998, which included many classic songs she planned to perform during the tour. In October 1998, she released her third studio album, Holding Hands, in which she collaborated with Taiwanese singer-songwriter David Tao; the album earned her a Golden Melody Award nomination for Best Mandarin Female Singer. In June 1999, A-Mei released her fourth studio album, Can I Hug You, Lover?. The album earned her a Golden Melody Award nomination for Best Mandarin Female Singer. In July 1999, A-Mei embarked on her second concert tour, which visited Taiwan, mainland China, Hong Kong and Malaysia. In April 2000, she released a live album titled Time to Say A-Mei Hong Kong Live.

In May 2000, she sang the National Anthem of the Republic of China at the presidential inauguration ceremony of Chen Shui-bian, angering the government of the People's Republic of China which subsequently banned her from visiting mainland China for a few years. In December 2000, she released her fifth studio album, the last studio album released by Forward Music; the album earned her a Golden Melody Award nomination for Best Mandarin Female Singer. After she signed a recording deal with Warner Music Taiwan in June 2001, A-Mei released her sixth studio album, Truth, in October; the album earned her two Golden Melody Award nominations for Best Pop Vocal Album and Best Mandarin Female Singer and won Best Mandarin Female Singer. In September 2001, Forward Music released a compilation album, which includes all unreleased songs A-Mei recorded when she was signed under Forward Music. In August 2002, she released her seventh studio album, Fever; the album earned her two Golden Melody Award nominations for Best Pop Vocal Album and Best Mandarin Female Singer.

In the same month, she embarked on her third concert tour, A-Class Entertainment World Tour, which visited Taiwan, mainland China, Hong Kong, Malaysia and United States. In the same year, she won a MTV Asia Award for Favorite Artist Taiwan. In June 2003, she released Brave. In September 2004, A-Mei released her ninth studio album, Maybe Tomorrow; the album earned her a Golden Melody Award nomination for Best Mandarin Female Singer. The music video of the song, Love Is the Only Way. In 2005, she decided to take a short break and headed to Boston for a three-month language study through Boston University's Center for English Language & Orientation Programs. In late 2005, she performed a medley at the Golden Horse Awards Ceremony. In February 2006, she released her tenth studio album, I Want Happiness?. The album earned her a Golden Melody Award nomination for Best Mandarin Female Singer. In December 2006, she produced a musical, In Love with Carmen, performed twice at Taipei Arena. In April 2007, A-Mei signed a three-year recording deal with EMI Taiwan.

In August 2007, she released Star. The album earned her three Golden Melody Award nominations for Best Mandarin Album, Best Mandarin Female Singer, Song of the Year for A Moment, a duet song with Taiwanese singer Jam Hsiao. In November 2007, she embarked on her fourth solo concert tour, Star Tour, which visited Taiwan, Mainland China, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Japan and United States. In March 2008, she embarked on an opera tour, Turandot, in Japan. In June 2009, A-Mei released Amit; the album won four Golden Melody Awards for Best Mandarin Album, Best Mandarin Female Singer, Best Album Producer, Song of the Year for Bold for My Love. The music video of Bold for My Love was nominated for Best Music Video of the Year. In November 2009, she embarked on her fifth concert tour, Amit First Tour, which visited Taiwan, Mainland China, Hong Kong, Japan and Malaysia. In April 2011, she released her thirteenth studio album, R U Watching?. The album earned her a Golden Melody Award nominati

Tokushinhō Motohisa

Motohisa Tokushinhō, known by his shikona Tokushinhō is a Japanese sumo wrestler from the city of Matsusaka in Mie Prefecture. His sumo stable is Kise, his real name is Motohisa Shiratsuka. His height is 193 cm and his peak weight is 224 kg. From elementary school he did karate, but he became interested in sumo at Mie High School and began entering sumo competitions, he was an amateur wrestler at Asahi University and reached the top 16 in the Inter Collegiate and second place in the Western Japan College Tournament. He was a contemporary of Tosayutaka, he joined Kise stable in March 2007 at the age of 23. He was only the third former member of Asahi University's small sumo club to turn professional, he weighed 182 kilograms upon his debut. He fought under his own surname of Shiratsuka. In March 2009 he switched to the shikona of Tokushinhō and won the makushita division championship or yūshō with a 6–1 record, he was promoted to the jūryō division for the first time in September 2009. He has spent a total of 27 tournaments ranked in jūryō with a win/loss record of 187–218.

He has never reached the top makuuchi division. His last appearance in jūryō to date was in November 2015, his career results are 351 wins against 334 losses over 68 tournaments as of July 2018. His peak weight of 224 kilograms means he ranks twelfth in the list of heaviest sumo wrestlers, is the sixth-heaviest Japanese sumo wrestler after Yamamotoyama, Susanoumi and Hidenoumi; when fighting on the mawashi or belt Tokushinhō favours a migi-yotsu grip. He regularly uses tsuki/oshi techniques, his most common winning kimarite are yori kiri and oshi dashi, which together account for over 60 per cent of his career wins. Glossary of sumo terms List of active sumo wrestlers Tokushinhō Motohisa's official biography at the Grand Sumo Homepage

The End of Silence

The End of Silence is the fifth release and the third full-length album by Rollins Band, led by former Black Flag singer Henry Rollins. The album's cover features a stylized drawing of the sun identical to the one tattooed on Rollins' back; the album's liner notes credit the artwork to California tattoo artist Rick Spellman. In Metal Hammer's list of the Top 10 Albums of 1992, they describe the album as "Taut, withering" and that it is "the record that took Rollins from hardcore punk renaissance man to bona fide alt-rock icon." "Low Self Opinion" – 5:18 "Grip" – 4:50 "Tearing" – 4:58 "You Didn't Need" – 5:30 "Almost Real" – 8:03 "Obscene" – 8:50 "What Do You Do" – 7:22 "Blues Jam" – 11:46 "Another Life" – 4:39 "Just Like You" – 10:57The album was recorded in Dover, New Jersey

Catalogue of Oriental Manuscripts, Xylographs etc. in Danish Collections, COMDC

Catalogue of Oriental Manuscripts, Xylographs etc. in Danish Collections, COMDC, is an international scholary catalogue describing the manuscripts from Asia and North Africa in the Royal Danish Library, the National Museum of Denmark and a few other Danish collections. It is published in collaboration between the Royal Library and the University of Copenhagen, with support from the Carlsberg Foundation; the interest the Oriental culture is stretching back to the 17th century. Since Danish expeditions and Danish travelers brought home a substantial number of Oriental and North African manuscripts that are of interest to scholars, for book history, for the research in Eastern religions and culture and for researchers dealing with language and history. Denmark holds today in some areas collections. An example is the Mongolian collection of manuscripts and block prints, which were supplemented during the second Danish Central Asian Expedition 1938-39, a collection of scrolls acquired in 1915 from a Buddhist temple in Dunhuang and the Tibetan collection, containing sources of a language and a culture, under severe pressure.

1846-1857 the Royal Library published a first overview of acquired manuscripts in three volumes with the title Codices Orientales Bibliothecae Regiae Havniensis, published by N. L. Westergaard and A. F. Mehren; the collection of Oriental manuscripts grew in Denmark during the following hundred years, in 1952 the philologist, professor dr. phil. Kaare Grønbech, University of Copenhagen, in close cooperation with the Royal Danish Library initiated a new edition. Kaare Grønbech was the first editor. Head of the Oriental Department at the Royal Library Stig T. Rasmussen has since 1992 been the main editor of the edition; the edition is aims at the international research community. The edition therefore offers not only a catalogue of each manuscript, but a more detailed description of the manuscripts with representations of texts, the cultural background and the historical significance; these descriptions are complemented by photographic reproductions, in order for international researchers to get a pretty good idea of what each manuscript contains.

The volumes Codices Orientales Bibliothecae Regiae HavniensisPars 1, Codices Indici, N. L. Westergaard, 1846 Link to digital edition Pars 2, Codices Hebraici et Arabici, 1851 Link to digital edition Pars 3, Codices Persici, Hindustanici variique alii, A. F. Mehren, 1857 Link to digital editionCatalogue of Oriental Manuscripts, Xylographs etc in Danish Collections, COMDCVol. 1. Catalogue of Ceylonese Manuscripts / C. E. Godakumbura, 1980. Link to digital edition Vol. 2.1. Catalogue of Cambodian and Burmese Pāli manuscripts / C. E. Godakumbura, assisted by U Tin Lwin, 1983. Link to digital edition Vol. 2.2. Catalogue des Manuscrits en Pali, Laotien et Siamois provenant de la Thaïlande / Georges Cœdès, 1966. Link to digital edition Vol. 3. Catalogue of Mongol Books and Xylographs / Walther Heissig, assisted by Charles Bawdin, 1971. to digital edition Vol. 4.1. Catalogue of Indonesian Manuscripts. Part 1. / P. Voorhoeve, with a contribution by Carl Schuster, 1975. Link to digital edition Vol. 4.2. Catalogue of Indonesian Manuscripts.

Part 2. / Th. Pigeaud, F. H. van Naerssen and P. Voorhoeve, 1977. Link to digital edition Vol. 5.1. Catalogue of Arabic Manuscripts, Codices Arabici & codices Arabici additamenta / Ali Abdalhussein Alhaidary and Stig T. Rasmussen, 1995. Vol. 5.2. Catalogue of Arabic manuscripts, Codices Arabici & codices Arabici additamenta / Irmeli Perho, 2003. Vol. 5.3. Book 1-3. Catalogue of Arabic manuscripts, Codices Arabici & codices Arabici additamenta / Irmeli Perho, 2007. Vol. 6.1-2. Catalogue of Tibetan Manuscripts and Xylographs / Hartmut Buescher and Tarab Tulku, 2000. Vol. 7.1 Catalogue of Sanskrit Manuscripts / Hartmut Buescher, 2011. Vol. 8.1. Catalogue of Persian manuscripts / Irmeli Perho, 2014. Vol. 9. Catalogue of Chinese manuscripts and rare books / Bent Lerbæk Pedersen, 2014. Vol. 10.1. Catalogue of Japanese manuscripts and rare books / Merete Pedersen, 2015. Vol. 10.2. Catalogue of Korean manuscripts and rare books / Bent Lerbæk Pedersen, 2014; the COMDC-publications presented by NIAS Press Publishers


Kondazhy is a Grama Panchayat & village in Thrissur district in the state of Kerala, India. As of 2001 India census, i Kondazhy had a population of 9800 with 5205 females. Kondazhi is a Panchayath, situated South side of Ottapalam. Economy depends on agriculture and inward remittances from gulf region. Majority of population is Hindus Schedules Casts, Thandan, Chettiyar & others casts. Fewer population of Christians & Muslims are seen. In the Kondazhy Chirankara, Kondazhy & Chelakkode are the main towns of Kondazhy Grama Panchayat. Various government offices & establishments such as the Grama Panchayat Office,S. V. U. P. School,Kondazhy-Mayannur Group Village Office, Agricultural Office, Post Office, Govt. Primary Health Center, Ayurveda Dispensary, Kondazhy Service Co-Operative Bank, Milk Producers Co-operative Society, Telephone Exchange, Akhaya Center, Ration Shops etc. are situated in Paramelpadi. Saraswathi Vilasam UP school situated in paramelpadi, it is the oldest educational institution of Kondazhy.

It was established in 1919. The Thrissur district's one & only Kendhreeya Navodaya Vidhyalaya is in Kondazhy Panchayat and this school is situated at Mayannur, near the Chirankara town; the other main school in Kondazhy is St. Thomas Higher Secondary School; this school is situated at Koottilmukku, a scenic & beautiful landmark where two rivers. Other importance of Koottilmukku is it shares borders with the Ottapalam Municipality on the north and the Thiruvillwamala Grama Panchayat on the East. Thali Temple is one of the historic temple situated in South Kondazhi. Mayannur Kaavu, Konnakkal Vishnu Temple, Kiratha Parvathi temple, Mariamman Kovils are other major temples in Kondazhy. St. Marys Church is situated at Kondazhi,Mayannur. Most of the younger generation is away, now the village is an abode of elders. Http:// Kondazhy - Mayannur Group Mayannur Citizen Forum