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Politician

A politician is a person active in party politics, or a person holding or seeking office in government. Politicians propose and create laws or policies that govern the land and, by extension, its people. Broadly speaking, a "politician" can be anyone who seeks to achieve political power in any bureaucratic institution. Politicians are people who are politically active in party politics. Positions range from local offices to executive and judicial offices of regional and national governments; some elected law enforcement officers, such as sheriffs, are considered politicians. Politicians are known for their rhetoric, as in speeches or campaign advertisements, they are known for using common themes that allow them to develop their political positions in terms familiar to the voters. Politicians of necessity become expert users of the media. Politicians in the 19th century made heavy use of newspapers and pamphlets, as well as posters. In the 20th century, they branched into radio and television, making television commercials the single most expensive part of an election campaign.

In the 21st century, they have become involved with the social media based on the Internet and smartphones. Rumor has always played a major role in politics, with negative rumors about an opponent more effective than positive rumors about one's own side. Once elected, the politician becomes a government official and has to deal with a permanent bureaucracy of non-politicians. There has been a subtle conflict between the long-term goals of each side. In patronage-based systems, such as the United States and Canada in the 19th century, winning politicians replace the bureaucracy with local politicians who formed their base of support, the "spoils system". Civil service reform was initiated to eliminate the corruption of government services that were involved. However, in many less developed countries, the spoils system is in full-scale operation today. Mattozzi and Merlo argue that there are two main career paths which are followed by politicians in modern democracies. First, come the career politicians.

They are politicians. Second, are the "political careerists"; these are politicians who gain a reputation for expertise in controlling certain bureaucracies leave politics for a well-paid career in the private sector making use of their political contacts. Numerous scholars have studied the characteristics of politicians, comparing those at the local and national levels, comparing the more liberal or the more conservative ones, comparing the more successful and less successful in terms of elections. In recent years, special attention has focused on the distinctive career path of women politicians. For example, there are studies of the "Supermadre" model in Latin American politics. Many politicians have the knack to remember thousands of names and faces and recall personal anecdotes about their constituents—it is an advantage in the job, rather like being seven-foot tall for a basketball player. United States Presidents George W. Bush and Bill Clinton were renowned for their memories. Many critics attack politicians for being out of touch with the public.

Areas of friction include the manner in which politicians speak, described as being overly formal and filled with many euphemistic and metaphorical expressions and perceived as an attempt to "obscure and confuse". In the popular image, politicians are thought of as clueless, selfish and corrupt, taking money in exchange for goods or services, rather than working for the general public good. Politicians in many countries are regarded as the "most hated professionals". Political campaign Political party Media related to Politicians at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of politician at Wiktionary Quotations related to Politician at Wikiquote

Harristown State High School Buildings

Harristown State High School Buildings is a heritage-listed collection of state high school buildings at Harristown State High School at 341-367 South Street, Toowoomba, Toowoomba Region, Australia. It was built in 1954, Block B, it was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 19 August 2016. Harristown State High School opened on its present site in 1955, due to post-World War II growth in the population of Toowoomba and its suburb of Harristown; as at 2016, Harristown SHS retains seven buildings constructed during 1954–61, some with extensions. These include: Block B Block L Block K the northern section of the administration block Block C an Oslo lunch canteen Block D The school retains its: 1950s site planning covered links between the administration block and Blocks B and C, between Blocks B, K and L early brick or concrete flower boxes adjacent to the administration block, Blocks B, C and K curved driveway from South Street and pedestrian gates from Hennessy Street sports oval; the school has been in continuous operation since establishment.

The establishment and growth of Harristown SHS is a direct result of the growth of Toowoomba, Queensland's largest inland city. European settlement of the Toowoomba area, traditional country of the Giabal and Jarowair people, commenced in 1840 when squatters occupied pastoral runs on the Darling Downs. At the junction of two routes to Gorman's and Hodgson's gaps through the Main Range, the small settlement of Drayton evolved from 1842 as a stopping place for pastoralists and travellers. Six kilometres to its north-east was an area known as "The Swamp" – renamed Toowoomba by 1859 –, first surveyed in 1849 as 12 suburban allotments of Drayton. Toowoomba grew due to its superior land and water supply, support from squatters and land speculators, from 1855, an easier route to Brisbane via the Toll Bar Road. Toowoomba was declared a municipality in July 1860, by the 1861 census it was clear that Toowoomba had eclipsed Drayton; the Main Line railway arrived in 1867, Toowoomba's economy diversified to include numerous small-scale manufacturing outlets, while the majority of administrative and other government and education functions for the surrounding region were centred on the town.

Toowoomba was popular as a summer retreat for the colony's elite. It was declared the City of Toowoomba in 1904. Toowoomba was an early centre for education, with the first National School opening in 1865. National schools, established in 1848 in New South Wales, were continued in Queensland following the colony's separation in 1859. Following the introduction of the Education Act 1860, Queensland's national and public schools grew from four in 1860 to 230 by 1875; the State Education Act 1875 provided for free and secular primary education and established the Department of Public Instruction. Schools became a community focus, a symbol of progress, a source of pride, with enduring connections formed with past pupils and teachers. To help ensure consistency and economy, the Queensland Government developed standard plans for its school buildings. From the 1860s until the 1960s, Queensland school buildings were predominantly timber-framed, an easy and cost-effective approach that enabled the government to provide facilities in remote areas.

Standard designs were continually refined in response to changing needs and educational philosophy and Queensland school buildings were innovative in climate control and ventilation. Standardisation produced distinctly similar schools across Queensland with complexes of typical components; the first school in Harristown was a state school, located about 2 kilometres southwest of the centre of Toowoomba, opened in 1911, south of South Street. At this time Toowoomba's population was 10,636. Harristown had been established when subdivisions from the Harristown Estate were sold from 1902. Overcrowding at Harristown State School soon led to the opening of an open air annex building at the school in 1915, the school was increased to five acres in size in 1919. Harristown State School's enrolment continued to rise after WWII, increasing from 237 in 1947, when the school was overcrowded, to 630 in 1960; this reflected Toowoomba's post-war population, which rose by 30% between 1947 and 1957, from 35,194 to 45,900.

Toowoomba's municipal boundaries expanded. Growth in its primary and secondary industries increased, construction projects provided a boom for the local building industry, tourist numbers grew. Improvements to the Toowoomba central business district, delayed by WWII, began in earnest in the 1950s; the Department of Public Instruction was unprepared for the enormous demand for state education that began in the late 1940s and continued well into the 1960s. This was a nationwide occurrence resulting from immigration and the unprecedented population growth now termed the "baby boom". Queensland schools were overcrowded and, to cope, many new buildings were constructed and existing buildings were extended. In 1953, the Acting Head Teacher at Harristown State School reported to the Department of Public Instruction (renamed th

Pegomya hyoscyami

Pegomya hyoscyami, the beet leafminer or spinach leafminer, is a grey fly about 6 millimetres long. It emerges in April–May and lays eggs on the undersides of leaves of beet, spinach and other greens. Eggs develop into larvae that burrow into the leaf hollowing out large patches of the leaf between leaf surfaces killing large parts of the leaf. Two to five white cylindrical eggs are laid on the underside of the leaf and hatch four to six days later; the larvae burrow into the leaf creating a thin trail at first and a blotch or "blister." The larvae are mature seven to sixteen days and drop into the ground where they pupate. Larvae may move from leaf to leaf before entering the soil. Larvae may pupate in the leaf itself; the adult fly emerges in two to four weeks and repeats the cycle, creating several generations each year. Control is cultural, creating a barrier by using floating row covers or removing infestations as soon as they appear and destroying the damaged leaves off site. Yellow sticky traps may be used to trap adults.

Pesticides are ineffective as the maggots, are protected inside the leaf. Http://www.ag.ndsu.edu/pubs/plantsci/rowcrops/e1288.pdf