Politics is the set of activities that are associated with the governance of a country, state or an area. It involves making decisions, it refers to achieving and exercising positions of governance—organized control over a human community a state. The academic study of politics is referred to as political science. In modern nation-states, people form political parties to represent their ideas. Members of a party agree to take the same position on many issues and agree to support the same changes to law and the same leaders. An election is a competition between different parties; some examples of political parties worldwide are: the African National Congress in South Africa, the Democratic Party in the United States, the Conservative Party in the United Kingdom, the Christian Democratic Union in Germany and the Indian National Congress in India which has the highest number of political parties in the world. Politics is a multifaceted word, it has a set of specific meanings that are descriptive and nonjudgmental, but does colloquially carry a negative connotation.

The word has been used negatively for many years: the British national anthem as published in 1745 calls on God to "Confound their politics", the phrase "play politics", for example, has been in use since at least 1853, when abolitionist Wendell Phillips declared: "We do not play politics. Politics is exercised on a wide range of social levels, from clans and tribes of traditional societies, through modern local governments and institutions up to sovereign states, to the international level. During the past decade two tendencies made it possible to overlook comparative politics. A political system is a framework; the history of political thought can be traced back to early antiquity, with seminal works such as Plato's Republic, Aristotle's Politics, the works of Confucius and Arthashastra and Chanakya neeti by Chanakya in 3rd Century BCE. The word comes from the same Greek word; the book title was rendered in Early Modern English in the mid-15th century as "Polettiques". The singular politic first attested in English 1430 and comes from Middle French politique, in turn from Latin politicus, the Latinization of the Greek πολιτικός, meaning amongst others "of, for, or relating to citizens", "civil", "civic", "belonging to the state", in turn from πολίτης, "citizen" and that from πόλις, "city".

Formal politics refers to the operation of a constitutional system of government and publicly defined institutions and procedures. Political parties, public policy or discussions about war and foreign affairs would fall under the category of Formal Politics. Many people view formal politics as something outside of themselves, but that can still affect their daily lives. Semi-formal politics is politics in government associations, such as neighborhood associations, or student governments where student government political party politics is practiced. Student Union & Activities promotes student success by offering a variety of programs, activities and facilities that, when taken together, represent a well-considered plan for the development of a school environment. Informal politics is understood as forming alliances, exercising power and protecting and advancing particular ideas or goals; this includes anything affecting one's daily life, such as the way an office or household is managed, or how one person or group exercises influence over another.

Informal Politics is understood as everyday politics, hence the idea that "politics is everywhere". The history of politics is reflected in the origin and economics of the institutions of government; the origin of the state is to be found in the development of the art of warfare. Speaking, all political communities of the modern type owe their existence to successful warfare. Kings and other types of monarchs in many countries including China and Japan, were considered divine. Of the institutions that ruled states, that of kingship stood at the forefront until the American Revolution put an end to the "divine right of kings"; the monarchy is among the longest-lasting political institutions, dating as early as 2100 BC in Sumeria to the 21st century AD British Monarchy. Kingship becomes an institution through the institution of hereditary monarchy; the monarch even in absolute monarchies, ruled their kingdom with the aid of an elite group of advisors, a council without which they could not maintain power.

As these advisors and others outside the monarchy negotiated for power, constitutional monarchies emerged, which may be considered the germ of constitutional government. The greatest of the monarch's subordinates, the earls and dukes in England and Scotland, the dukes and counts in Continental Europe, always sat as a right on the council.. India during the reign of the Gupta empire followed a decentralized system in which great autonomy was given to the governors of the provinces. Ancient China on the other hand

Robin Klein

Robin McMaugh Klein is an Australian author of books for children. She was born on 28 February 1936, in Kempsey, New South Wales and now resides near Melbourne. Robin Klein was one of nine children, she had her first short story published at the age of sixteen. She worked in number of jobs before becoming an established writer, including tea lady at a warehouse, bookshop assistant, copper enamelist, program aide at a school for disadvantaged children. In 1981 she was awarded a Literature Board grant for writing, since she has had more than twenty books published. Robin Klein was educated at Newcastle Girls' High School. Several of her books have been short-listed for the CBCA Children's Book of the Year Award, including Hating Alison Ashley and Halfway Across the Galaxy and Turn Left. Klein's novel Came Back to Show You I Could Fly won a Human Rights Award for Literature in 1989 and won the 1990 CBCA Children's Book of the Year Award: Older Readers, it was filmed as Say a Little Prayer in 1993.

Several of her other books have received awards in Australia, including the South Australian Festival Award for Literature, which she won in 1998 with The Listmaker. Many others including Boss of the Pool have won or been short listed. Robin Klein suffered an aneurysm rupture, while she survived, since 2005 she has lived in a nursing home and is no longer able to write or do significant publicity work for her books. Special mention – Critici in Erba Prize at Bologna for The Giraffe in Pepperell Street Won – CBCA Children's Book of the Year Award: Younger Readers for Thing Won – Human Rights Literature and Awards Won – CBCA Children's Book of the Year Award: Older Readers for Came Back to Show You I Could Fly Won – Canberra's Own Outstanding List: Fiction for Older Readers Award for People Might Hear You Dromkeen Medal Won – Canberra's Own Outstanding List: Fiction for Older Readers Award for Came Back to Show You I Could Fly Ratbags and Rascals: Funny Stories, illustrated by Alison Lester Snakes and Ladders: poems about the ups and downs of life, illustrated by Ann James Tearaways All in the Blue Unclouded Weather illustrated by Ann James Penny Pollard's Diary Penny Pollard's Letters Penny Pollard in Print Penny Pollard's Passport Penny Pollard's Guide to Modern Manners Penny Pollard's Scrapbook Thing illustrated by Alison Lester Thingnapped!

Thing Finds a Job, illustrated by Alison Lester Thing's Concert, illustrated by Alison Lester Thing's Birthday, illustrated by Alison Lester Thingitis, illustrated by Alison Lester The Giraffe in Pepperell Street, illustrated by Gill Tomblin Junk Castle, illustrated by Rolf Heimann People Might Hear You Oodoolay, illustrated by Vivienne Goodman Brock and the Dragon, illustrated by Rodney McRae Hating Alison Ashley Thalia, the Failure, illustrated by Rhyll Plant The Enemies, illustrated by Noela Young Halfway Across the Galaxy and Turn Left Serve Him Right!, illustrated by John Burge You're on Your Own! Good For Something Separate Places, illustrated by Astra Lacis Games, illustrated by Melissa Webb Boss of the Pool The Princess who Hated It, illustrated by Maire Smith Robin Klein's Crookbook, illustrated by Kristen Hilliard Don't Tell Lucy Birk, the Berserker, illustrated by Alison Lester The Lonely Hearts Club, with Max Dann I Shot an Arrow, illustrated by Geoff Hocking Christmas, illustrated by Kristen Hilliard Laurie Loved Me Best Jane's Mansion, illustrated by Melissa Webb The Kidnapping of Clarissa Montgomery, illustrated by Jane Wallace-Mitchell Against the Odds, illustrated by Bill Wood Honoured Guest Came Back to Show You I Could Fly The Ghost in Abigail Terrace, illustrated by Margaret Power Boris and Borsch, illustrated by Cathy Wilcox Dresses of Red and Gold Amy's Bed, illustrated by Coral Tulloch Seeing Things Turn Right for Zyrgon The Sky in Silver Lace The Listmaker Barney's Blues, illustrated by David Cox The Goddess, illustrated by Anne Spudvilas Gabby's Fair, illustrated by Michael Johnson Anything Happens Tor Atar Gu Thing Penny Pollard's Diary Halfway Across the Galaxy and Turn Left, adapted by Michael Harvey and John Reeves Hating Alison Ashley: The Play, adapted by Richard Tulloch Boss of the Pool, adapted by Mary Morris Say a Little Prayer, based on Came Back to Show You I Could Fly and directed by Richard Lowenstein Hating Alis

SQL Database Studio

SQL Database Studio is professional client for Microsoft SQL Server developed by Jan Prochazka in Czech Republic. SQL Database Studio is used by database developers for designing database and by average users for browsing data. SDS comes in two version. EXPRESS version is free for commercial purposes but lacks some features that are in PRO version. SDS allows visualization of GPS data, it is built using WPF application running on Microsoft. NET Framework 4.5. GPS Visualization allows showing location data in map and exporting map SQL Query Designer Support for SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE queries Specific join operators - WHERE NOT EXISTS, CROSS APPLY, OUTER APPLY Database schema visualization Table column's filter Database projects SQL Editor with auto complete Run SQL commands in transaction Run SQL commands on multiple connections Import and export to/from formats MS Excel, CSV, DBF Saving SQL scripts in projects not affecting database Database configuration with setting risk levels Data widgets Database Jobs designer Switching between various GUI layouts DbShell Console is opensource project for database operation automation) Microsoft SQL Server 2005, 2008, 2012, 2014, 2018