The politics of Andorra take place in a framework of a parliamentary constitutional diarchy, a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government, with the Head of Government of Andorra as chief executive. Legislative power is vested in both the parliament; the judiciary is independent of the legislature. Before 1993, Andorra's political system had no clear division of powers into executive and judicial branches. A constitution ratified and approved in 1993 establishes Andorra as a sovereign parliamentary democracy that retains the president of France and bishop of Urgell as co-princes and heads of state. However, the head of government retains executive power; the two co-princes serve coequally with limited powers that do not include an individual veto over government acts. They are each represented in Andorra by a personal representative; the fundamental impetus for this political transformation was a recommendation by the Council of Europe in 1990 that, if Andorra wished to attain full integration in the European Union, it should adopt a modern constitution that guarantees the rights of those living and working there.
A Tripartite Commission – made up of representatives of the co-princes, the General Council, the Executive Council – was formed in 1990 and finalized the draft constitution in April 1991, making the new constitution a fact. One remaining, though symbolic, legacy of Andorra's special relationship with France and Spain, is that the principality has no postal service of its own – French and Spanish postal services operate side by side, although each of them issues separate stamps for Andorra, instead of using their own. Under the 1993 constitution, the co-princes continue as heads of state, but the head of government retains executive power; the two co-princes serve coequally with limited powers that do not include veto over government acts. Both are represented in Andorra by a delegate, although since 1993, both France and Spain have their own embassies; as co-princes of Andorra, the President of France and the Bishop of Urgell maintain supreme authority in approval of all international treaties with France and Spain, as well as all those that deal with internal security, Andorran territory, diplomatic representation, judicial or penal cooperation.
Although the institution of the co-princes is viewed by some as an anachronism, the majority sees them as both a link with Andorra's traditions and a way to balance the power of Andorra's two much larger neighbors. The way the two princes are chosen makes Andorra one of the most politically distinct nations on earth. One co-prince is the current sitting President of France Emmanuel Macron; the other is the current Roman Catholic bishop of the Catalan city of La Seu d'Urgell Joan Enric Vives i Sicilia. As neither prince lives in Andorra, their role is entirely ceremonial. In 1981, the Executive Council, consisting of the Cap de Govern and seven ministers, was established; every four years, after the general elections, the General Council elects the head of government, who, in turn, chooses the other members of the Executive Council. Andorra's main legislative body is the 28-member General Council; the sindic, the subsindic and the members of the Council are elected in the general elections to be held every four years.
The Council meets throughout the year on certain dates as required. At least one representative from each parish must be present for the General Council to meet. Within the General Council, four deputies apiece from each of the seven individual parishes have provided representation; this system allowed parishes with as few as 350 voters the same number of representatives as larger parishes with up to 2,600 voters. To correct this imbalance, a provision in the new constitution modifies the structure and format for electing Council members. Under the new format, half of the representatives are chosen by the traditional system, the other half selected from nationwide lists. A sindic and a subsindic are chosen by the General Council to implement its decisions, they may be reappointed once. They receive an annual salary. Sindics have no discretionary powers, all policy decisions must be approved by the Council as a whole; the judicial system is independent. Courts apply the customary law of Andorra, supplemented with customary Catalan law.
Civil cases are first heard by the Court of Batlles – a group of four judges, two chosen by each co-prince. Appeals are heard in the Court of Appeals; the highest body is the five-member Superior Court of Justice. More info: Andorran parliamentary election, 2011 Andorra is formed by seven parishes; the Government of Andorra maintains a small ceremonial Army, a well-equipped modernized Police Corps, a Fire Brigade, a Mountain Rescue Service, the GIPA, a para-military unit trained in hostage and counter-terrorism roles. Andorra's young democracy is in the process of redefining its political party system. Three out of the five parties that dominated the political scene in past years have dissolved; the Liberal Union tried to reshape itself and change its name to that of the Liberal Party of Andorra to offer a political umbrella to small parties and groups that have not yet found their place. Another party, the Social Democratic Party of Andorra, has been formed, it was designed to attract parties previously
Disability affects many people living in Zimbabwe. Disabled people are one of the most marginalised and poorest groups in Zimbabwean society. People with disabilities in Zimbabwe are treated as second-class citizens, it is estimated about 900 000–1.4 million people have some sort of disability in Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe is a State Party to the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, it is estimated that disability in Zimbabwe is 7% out of the total population which prevails in Zimbabwe. Disability exists in Zimbabwe due to diseases, war conflicts, accidents, abnormal births, hereditary characteristics, etc. A large population of individuals with disabilities are young people. About 53% of people living with disability population in Zimbabwe became disabled before the age of 20 years. Around 27% of disability with population from the birth while 9% disability exists between the ages limit of 1–5; the disability population of males is estimated about 56% while the disability population of women is around 44% as of 2013.
About 600 000 children live with disabilities in Zimbabwe according to the Department of International Development Zimbabwe as of 2013. Around 52% of the disabled children in Zimbabwe have no access to education although Zimbabwe having a record of 93% literacy rate among its school-going children, the best in the African continent. On the other hand, it was evident that about 34% of disabled women did not attend the school while 22% of disabled men did not attend the school. In Zimbabwe, children with disabilities live under difficult, challengeable circumstances and are vulnerable as they live with negative attitudes, customs, etc. According to statistics, around 83% of women have been unemployed who have disabilities while about 74% of disabled men population have been unemployed, it is a common perception within Zimbabwe that disabled people are passive, economically inactive and unproductive and therefore constitute a "burden" upon the society. Zimbabwe was one of the first countries in the world to enact disability discrimination legislation.
Zimbabwe ratified the CRPD and its Optional Protocol on 23 September 2013, thereby becoming the 135th state party to ratify the Convention and its protocol. Zimbabwe is the State Party to the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and to the Rights of the Child; the Disabled Persons Act is the primary law. This act provides for rehabilitation of PWDs; the mental health provides for the consolation and amendment of the law relating to the care and aftercare of persons with mental disabilities for the purpose of treatment. Many disabled individuals are unable to access health care due to the limited number of clinics and the distances they need to travel in order to get to a doctor; some public transport providers force wheelchair users to pay extra to ride. There are a few organisations in Zimbabwe which advocate for disabled people, they are Alive Albinism Initiative, looks out for the welfare of Persons With Albinism in Zimbabwe. The organization aims to ensure. Association of the Deaf in Zimbabwe -Representative organisation for Persons with deafness and speech functional disabilities.
Council for Blind - This council plays a role with regards to persons with visual impairments. Danhiko Project - Educational and vocational training institution for persons with disabilities. Disabled Women Support Organisation - Advocates for rights of women with disabilities. Zimbabwe has been competing at the Paralympic Games since independence in 1980. Zimbabwe was absent from the Games in 1988 and 1992, returning in 1996 with a two-man delegation, has competed at every edition of the Summer Paralympics since then, it has never entered the Winter Paralympics. Zimbabwe competed at the Deaflympics only once with making their debut at the 1993 Summer Deaflympics; the delegation consisted only 2 athletes from Zimbabwe to take part in its maiden Deaflympic appearance. Zimbabwe has never won a medal at the Deaflympics
The Flaeming Air FA 04 Peregrine is a German ultralight and light-sport aircraft and produced by Flaeming Air of Zellendorf, Brandenburg. The aircraft is supplied as a complete ready-to-fly-aircraft; the aircraft was designed to comply with the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale microlight rules and US light-sport aircraft rules, with different models for each category. It features a cantilever low-wing, a two-seats-in-side-by-side configuration enclosed cockpit under a bubble canopy, fixed tricycle landing gear, or optionally conventional landing gear and a single engine in tractor configuration; the aircraft is made from composites, with its fuselage, wing spars and rudder made from carbon fibre. Its 10.05 m span wing has an area of 9.27 m2. The standard engines available are the 100 hp Rotax 912ULS, 120 hp Jabiru 3300 and the 100 hp Continental O-200 four-stroke powerplants; the FA 04 can be used for aero-towing gliders up to 750 kg gross weight. FA 01 Smaragd Initial model with a gross weight of 472.5 kg.
FA 02 Kit aircraft with a gross weight of 650 kg. FA 04 Peregrine Light-sport model with a gross weight of 600 kg. FA 04 SL Super-light model with an empty weight including a ballistic parachute. Data from Bayerl and Flaeming AirGeneral characteristics Crew: one Capacity: one passenger Length: 6.15 m Wingspan: 9.27 m Wing area: 10.05 m2 Empty weight: 278 kg Gross weight: 472.5 kg Fuel capacity: 120 litres Powerplant: 1 × Rotax 912ULS four cylinder and air-cooled, four stroke aircraft engine, 75 kW Performance Maximum speed: 230 km/h Cruise speed: 220 km/h Stall speed: 65 km/h Never exceed speed: 270 km/h Range: 1,150 km Rate of climb: 6 m/s Official website
The Tajikistan Insurgency was a military conflict which took place in eastern Tajikistan between the Tajik Army and Islamist militants, led by numerous leaders from the Tajikistani Civil War. The conflict evolved in 2010 and climaxes with the defeat of main rebel forces. Other incidents took place in September 2015, when former deputy defense minister Abduhalim Nazarzoda led an armed uprising, suspected with ties to the Islamic Renaissance Party. On 19 September, more than 25 Tajik soldiers were killed in an ambush by suspected Islamist fighters, allied with the Islamic movement of Uzbekistan; the soldiers were part of a 75-man convoy moving through the Rasht Valley, in eastern Tajikistan. They were ambushed while searching for members of the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan who escaped from a detention prison in Dushanbe on 25 August; the military column was ambushed by gunmen around midday local time, while passing through the mountainous Rasht Valley 250 km east of the capital. The column sustained heavy fire from machine-guns and grenade launchers, in the mountains from above.
Initial reports indicated that 40 soldiers were killed but the Tajik minister of defense denied this. Five Tajik officers were among the dead. None of the attackers were reported to have been wounded. On 4 October, 5 Tajik soldiers along with two insurgents were killed during a military operation in Rasht Valley; the incident occurred, when a vehicle was stopped at a military checkpoint on the road between Garm and Dushanbe. As the soldiers approached the car, gunmen opened fire killing five of them and wounding an additional three more; the soldiers retaliated opening fire at the vehicle. Among the dead was a high ranked Tajik officer. Meanwhile, dozens of caches of heavy weapons including grenade launchers, as well as food and medication were discovered in an abandoned Islamist hideout. Twelve military checkpoints were set on the roads leading from the administered region of Rasht to the capital Dushambe. On 7 October, 28 servicemen from the Presidential National Guard were killed when their helicopter crashed during an operation in Rasht Valley near the towns of Ezgand and Tavildara.
The helicopter became caught in power lines and crashed while attempting to land, leaving no survivors. The helicopter was bringing service men from the capital Dushanbe to the Rasht Valley to take part in the operation; the same day, 6 other soldiers were killed in a separate incident caused by an accidental mine explosion. On 18 October, three suspected insurgents were killed by Tajik soldiers on the outskirts of Garm, located near the Afghan border during a military operation. On 1 December, gunmen shot and killed 3 Tajik soldiers in the village of Dulona-Maidon in the Buljuvon Region, 150 kilometers southeast of Dushanbe. On 27 December, 2 Tajik soldiers were killed when a group of thirty Islamists tried to enter Tajikistan from the Afghan border. After three hours of fighting, a combat helicopter arrived, opening fire on the intruders forcing them to retreat into Afghanistan. Local residents said that three Tajik soldiers were killed with two being the victims of friendly-fire from the helicopter.
The Tajik military however claims. Several Islamists were killed in the attack. On 4 January, Tajik authorities claimed Alovuddin Davlatov was killed along with seven other insurgents when Tajik security forces launched a special joint operation on his hideout in the town of Runob. On 14 April, Mullah Abdullah a key opposition commander, along with ten other Islamists were killed by Tajik soldiers during a search operation for militants in the village of Samsolid, 135 kilometers east of Dushanbe. On 21 July, the head of the Tajik Intelligence agency was assassinated by insurgents in the city of Ishkashim; the Tajik government launched a joint military operation on the 25 July in the city of Khorog with the aim of capturing Tolib Ayombekov, said to be behind the 21 July killing and the 19 September ambush. More than 800 Tajik soldiers and several combat helicopters took part in the operation that lasted one day until Tajik president Emomali Rahmon halted all immediate operations in the area on the 25th.
At the end of the day, more than 20 Tajik soldiers were killed and countless numbers were wounded. It's unknown the exact number of militants and civilians killed but military sources claimed more than 30 insurgents along with 30 civilians were killed; the operation was considered to be a success with Ayombekov and his army surrendering themselves to Tajik authorities in August. In 2015, massive clashes with the rebels suspected of ties with the Islamic Renaissance Party of Tajikistan Party in the country resulted in 47 deaths
Christopher Wren, of Wroxall Abbey, Warwickshire was a Member of Parliament and the son of the architect Sir Christopher Wren. Wren was the second but first surviving son of Sir Christopher Wren and his first wife, Faith Coghill, daughter of Sir John Coghill of Bletchingdon, he was educated at Eton and Pembroke Hall, which he entered in 1691, but left without a degree. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1693, he entered the Middle Temple in 1694. On his return, Wren worked for his father as a clerk-of-works, he became Chief Clerk of Works in 1702. In 1708, he laid the last stone of the lantern which surmounts the dome of St Paul's Cathedral in the presence of his father. In 1711 he was appointed a Commissioner to organise the building of 50 new churches, he represented Windsor in Parliament from 1713 to 1715. Re-elected in 1715 he lost his seat on petition, he lost his post as Clerk of Works in 1716 and thereafter retired to live as a country squire at the Wroxall Abbey estate in Warwickshire, acquired by his father in 1713.
Wren collected documents about the life of his father, which were published after his own death as the Parentalia by his son Stephen in 1750. His portrait, engraved by Faber, forms the frontispiece of the Parentalia. Two letters written to him by Sir Christopher while he was quite a youth, were printed in Miss Phillimore's Life, that show their relationship was of an affectionate character; the younger Christopher was a numismatist of some repute, he published Numismatum Antiquorum Sylloge in 1708. Wren died in London on 24 August 1747, his first wife was daughter of Philip Musard, jeweler of Queen Anne. His second wife, daughter of Sir Thomas Middleton, widow of Sir Roger Burgoyne, Bt. died on 23 May 1734. He left two surviving sons, who inherited Wroxall Abbey, Stephen. Francis Cranmer Penrose, "Christopher Wren", Dictionary of National Biography, 1885–1900, Volume 63 D. Hayton, E. Cruickshanks, S. Handley, "WREN, Christopher, of St. James’s Street, Mdx. and Wroxall, Warws.", The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1690-1715, at historyofparliamentonline.org, retrieved 28 August 2012 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Wren, Christopher".
Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900
The following is a list of the east–west arterial thoroughfares in Toronto, Canada. The city is organized in a grid pattern dating back to the plan laid out by Augustus Jones between 1793 and 1797. Most streets are aligned in the north–south or east–west direction, based on the shoreline of Lake Ontario. In other words, major north–south roads are perpendicular to the Lake Ontario shoreline and major east–west roads are parallel to the lake's shoreline; the Toronto road system is influenced by its topography as some roads are aligned with the old Lake Iroquois shoreline, or the deep valleys. Minor streets with documented history or etymology are listed in a separate section. Roads are listed south to north; the Frederick G. Gardiner Expressway, known locally as "the Gardiner", is an expressway connecting downtown with the western suburbs. Running close to the shore of Lake Ontario, it now extends from the junction of Highway 427 and the Queen Elizabeth Way in the west to the foot of the Don Valley Parkway in the east, just past the mouth of the Don River.
East of Dufferin Street, the roadway is elevated, running above Lake Shore Boulevard east of Bathurst Street. Elevated sections east of the Don were integrated into Lake Shore Boulevard; the highway is named for the first chair of the now-defunct Metropolitan Toronto Council, Frederick G. Gardiner; the six-lane section east of the Humber River was built in segments from 1955 until 1964 by the Metropolitan Toronto government with provincial highway funds. The ten-lane section west of the Humber was part of the QEW and is now wholly owned and operated by the municipal government of Toronto; when the Gardiner was built, it passed through industrial lands, now converted to residential lands. Extensive repairs became necessary in the early 1990s, since the Gardiner has been the subject of several proposals to demolish it or move it underground as part of downtown waterfront revitalization efforts. One elevated section east of the Don River was demolished in 2001, a study is underway to demolish that part of the elevated section east of Jarvis Street to the Don.
King's Highway 401, colloquially referred to as the four-oh-one, opened between December 1947 and August 1956, was known as the Toronto Bypass at that time. Although it has since been enveloped by suburban development, it still serves as the primary east–west through route in Toronto and the surrounding region. East of the Don Valley Parkway, it is known as the Highway of Heroes, in reference to the funeral processions travelling between CFB Trenton and the Ontario Coroners Office in Downtown Toronto. Highway 401 crosses, it was formerly known as the Macdonald–Cartier Freeway. Highway 401 is the busiest freeway in North America. Ontario Highway 409 or Belfield Expressway opened in 1978 to provide access to Toronto Pearson International Airport from westbound Highway 401 at Islington; the section east of Highway 427 is within Toronto, while the remaining sections west are within the City of Mississauga. The expressway is maintained by the Ministry of Transportation of Ontario and the Greater Toronto Airports Authority.
The alternate name is taken from nearby Belfield Road, which begins from the westbound off-ramps for Kipling Avenue. Queens Quay begins west of Bathurst Street at Stadium Road and ends at Lake Shore Boulevard East, where it continues north as Parliament Street; the roadbed is built on infill and is the closest road to Lake Ontario throughout the downtown core. Though once abutted by industrial and transportation uses from end to end, much of its length is now lined with recreational and residential uses; the 509 Harbourfront streetcar line now travels in a dedicated streetcar right-of-way in the median from Bay Street to Bathurst Street. The length east of Yonge retains some industrial uses, although this is changing with the development of residential and commercial uses. In 2015, Waterfront Toronto announced its plans to turn Queens Quay into a grand lakefront boulevard by placing streetcar lanes in the center, traffic only on the north side and a bicycle and pedestrian focussed space on the south side.
The plan reduces the number of traffic lanes on Queens Quay to two, to the north side of the streetcar tracks. Additionally, the plan calls for the beautification and extension of the Harbourfront streetcar line along Queens Quay East between Yonge and Cherry streets; the newly modified Queen's Quay was completed in 2015 from Bathurst to Bay Street. Lake Shore Boulevard misspelled as Lakeshore Boulevard, is so named because of its course along the Lake Ontario shoreline. Although the route west of the Humber River has existed for more than a century, much of the remainder of the route was created during massive shoreline reclamation projects carried out by the Harbour Commission between 1900 and 1915. Lake Shore Road travelled as far east as Roncesvalles. Incorporating various side streets such as Laburnam Avenue, Starr Avenue and Dominion Street, the route was pushed east to Bathurst Street on January 28, 1924. From there, it continued as Fleet Street to Cherry Street. Keating Street continued east from a point just south of that intersection to Woodbine Avenue.
These two streets were reconstructed to form a continuous roadway, renamed as part of Lake Shore Road on August 25, 1959. Mill Street runs from Parliament Street to Bayview Avenue. Now associated with the heritage Distillery District, Corktown and Mill Street Brewery, the road was named in reference to the Toronto Rolling Mills, a rail-making plant founded by Sir Casimir Gzowski in 1857, once located at Rolling Mills Road until 18