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Politics of Antigua and Barbuda

The politics of Antigua and Barbuda takes place in a framework of a unitary parliamentary representative democratic monarchy, wherein the Sovereign of Antigua and Barbuda is the head of state, appointing a Governor-General to act as vice-regal representative in the nation. A Prime Minister is appointed by the Governor-General as the head of government, of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in the two chambers of the Parliament; the bicameral Parliament consists of the House of Representatives. Antigua and Barbuda has a long history of free elections, three of which have resulted in peaceful changes of government. Since the 1951 general election, the party system has been dominated by the Antigua Labour Party, for a long time was dominated by the Bird family Prime Ministers Vere and Lester Bird; the opposition claimed to be disadvantaged by the ALP's longstanding monopoly on patronage and its control of the media in the 1999 general election.

The most recent elections to the House of Representatives were held on 12 June 2014. The Antigua Labour Party government was elected with fourteen seats; the United Progressive Party has three seats in the House of Representatives. Constitutional safeguards include freedom of speech, worship and association. Antigua and Barbuda is a member of the eastern Caribbean court system; the Judiciary is independent of the legislature. Jurisprudence is based on English common law; as head of state, Queen Elizabeth II is represented in Antigua and Barbuda by a governor general who acts on the advice of the prime minister and the cabinet. Antigua and Barbuda elects on national level a legislature. Parliament has two chambers; the House of Representatives has 19 members, 17 members elected for a five-year term in single-seat constituencies, 2 ex-officio member. The Senate has 17 appointed members; the prime minister is the leader of the majority party in the House and conducts affairs of state with the cabinet.

The prime minister and the cabinet are responsible to the Parliament. Elections must be held at least every five years but may be called by the prime minister at any time. There are special legislative provisions to account for Barbuda's low population relative to that of Antigua. Barbuda is guaranteed one member of two members of the Senate. In addition, there is a Barbuda Council; the country is divided into six parishes, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint Paul, Saint Peter, Saint Philip, which are all on the island of Antigua. Additionally, the islands of Barbuda and Redonda are considered dependencies. Antigua and Barbuda is a member of the Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court; this court is headquartered in Saint Lucia, but at least one judge of the Supreme Court resides in Antigua and Barbuda, presides over the High Court of Justice. The current High Court judges are Keith Thom. Antigua is a member of the Caribbean Court of Justice, although it has not yet acceded to Part III of the 2001 Agreement Establishing a Caribbean Court of Justice.

Its supreme appellate court therefore remains the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Indeed, of the signatories to the Agreement, as of December 2010, only Barbados has replaced appeals to Her Majesty in Council with the Caribbean Court of Justice. In addition to the Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court and Barbuda has a Magistrates' Court, which deals with lesser civil and criminal cases. Antigua Trades and Labor Union or ATLU.

Who's That Girl (Madonna song)

"Who's That Girl" is a song by American singer Madonna from the soundtrack album to the 1987 film Who's That Girl. It was released as the album's first single on June 1987, by Sire Records. While shooting for the film called Slammer, Madonna had requested Patrick Leonard to develop an up-tempo song that captured the nature of her film persona, she added the lyrics and vocals to the demo tape developed by Leonard, decided to rename the song as well as the film to "Who's That Girl". Featuring instrumentation from drums and stringed instruments, "Who's That Girl" continued Madonna's fascination with Hispanic culture by incorporating Spanish lyrics and using the effect of double vocals. Critical reception was mixed to positive. "Who's That Girl" became Madonna's sixth single to top the US Billboard Hot 100, while peaking atop the charts in countries like Belgium, Ireland, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. It was nominated for "Best Song from a Motion Picture" at the 1988 Grammy Awards and "Best Original Song" at the 1988 Golden Globe Awards.

The accompanying music video for "Who's That Girl" portrayed a different persona of Madonna, rather than her film character for which it was released. Like the song, it incorporated Hispanic culture and portrayed her dressed in Spanish style as a young lady in search of a treasure. Madonna has performed, it has appeared in compilations and tribute albums. In 1986, Madonna began filming her third motion picture Who's That Girl, known at the time as Slammer. Needing songs for the soundtrack of the movie, she contacted Patrick Leonard and Stephen Bray, who had written and produced her third studio album True Blue in 1986. Madonna explained to them that she needed a downtempo song, she came to the studio one Thursday. He handed over that cassette to Madonna, who went to the backroom and finished the melody and the lyrics of the song, while Leonard worked on the other parts of the song. After finishing the lyrics, Madonna declared that she wanted the song to be named "Who's That Girl" and changed the movie to the same, rather than Slammer, considering it to be a better title.

In Fred Bronson's The Billboard Book of Number 1 Hits book, Leonard explained that the song was recorded in one day with Madonna adding her vocals only once. Additional instrumental tracks with guitars and percussion were included by Bray later. Regarding the development of the music for the film, Madonna further explained "I had some specific ideas in mind, music that would stand on its own as well as support and enhance what was happening on screen and the only way to make that a reality was to have a hand in writing the tunes myself; the songs aren't about Nikki or written to be sung by someone like her, but there's a spirit to this music that captures both what the film and the characters are about, I think." "Who's That Girl" is composed in Madonna's typical style—mingling the drum machine, a bubbling bass synth line, the sound of stringed instruments. The three parts of the song, namely the bridge, where Madonna sings "what can help me now", the chorus and the verse flow together strongly.

The chorus has a haunting effect in it. According to the sheet music published at, the song is composed in the time signature of common time, with a key of A minor and a medium tempo of 104 beats per minute. Madonna's vocals span from the notes of G3 to B4; the song follows a basic sequence of Am9–G–Csus2–Am9–G–Dm as its chord progression. The song epitomizes Madonna's interest with Hispanic culture that continued after the release of "La Isla Bonita", by adding Spanish phrases in the chorus and over the trumpets of the second verse, by the added instrumental break in the middle, it uses the sonic effect brought about by the combination of multiple vocal lines, used by groups like The Beach Boys in their singles "God Only Knows" and "I Get Around" as well as R. E. M.'s singles "Fall on Me" and "Near Wild Heaven". "Who's That Girl" employs this effect on the last chorus where three or four different vocal hooks are intertwined. In his book The Complete Guide to the Music of Madonna, author Rikky Rooksby explained that the song was Madonna's best take on her original music style.

Stephen Thomas Erlewine of Allmusic commented that "Who's That Girl" along with "Causing a Commotion" were not amongst Madonna's best singles. Similar thoughts were shared by Medium's Richard LaBeau. Biographer J. Randy Taraborrelli, in his book Madonna: An Intimate Biography called the song "quintessential Madonna music" and went on to describe it as "funky and melodic, with a Latin accent". Writing for Slant Magazine, Ed Gonzalez hailed it a "calorie-free palate cleanser after the delectable voluptuousness of'La Isla Bonita' the music is catchy without stepping outside any norm". Rolling Stone called it "a bright dance-popper that fared much better than the lackluster film it was tied to". Noah Robischon from Entertainment Weekly opined that with both the song and the movie, Madonna had pushed "synergy over the borderline". From the same magazine, Chuck Arnold wrote: "The most memorable thing about Madonna’s 1987 comedy is the chart-topping title tune of its soundtrack. While it’s not quite in the league of its obvious inspiration,'La Isla Bonita', this tropical delight is pure enchantment".

Online magazine Queerty called it "simple enough for to perform convincingly and catchy enough for fans to rem

Bouncy Castle (cryptography)

Bouncy Castle is a collection of APIs used in cryptography. It includes APIs for the C# programming languages; the APIs are supported by a registered Australian charitable organization: Legion of the Bouncy Castle Inc. Bouncy Castle is Australian in origin and therefore American restrictions on the export of cryptography from the United States do not apply to it. Bouncy Castle started when two colleagues were tired of having to re-invent a set of cryptography libraries each time they changed jobs working in server-side Java SE. One of the developers was active in Java ME development as a hobby and a design consideration was to include the greatest range of Java VMs for the library, including those on J2ME; this design consideration led to the architecture. The project, founded in May of 2000, was written in Java only, but added a C# API in 2004; the original Java API consisted of 27,000 lines of code, including test code and provided support for J2ME, a JCE/JCA provider, basic X.509 certificate generation.

In comparison, the 1.53 release consists of 390,640 lines including test code. It supports the same functionality as the original release with a larger number of algorithms, plus PKCS#10, PKCS#12, CMS, S/MIME, OpenPGP, DTLS, TLS, OCSP, TSP, CMP, CRMF, DVCS, DANE, EST and Attribute Certificates; the C# API supports most of what the Java API does. Some key properties of the project are: Strong emphasis on adaptability. Public support facilities include an issue tracker, dev mailing list and a wiki all available at the website. Commercial support provided under resources for the relevant API listed on the Bouncy Castle websiteOn 18 October 2013, a not-for-profit association, the Legion of the Bouncy Castle Inc. was established in the state of Victoria, Australia, by the core developers and others to take ownership of the project and support the ongoing development of the APIs. The association was recognised as an Australian charity with a purpose of advancement in education and a purpose, beneficial to the community by the Australian Charities and Not-For-Profits Commission on 7 November 2013.

The association was authorised to fundraise to support its purposes on 29 November 2013 by Consumer Affairs Victoria. The Bouncy Castle architecture consists of two main components that support the base cryptographic capabilities; these are known as the'light-weight' API, the Java Cryptography Extension provider. Further components built upon the JCE provider support additional functionality, such as PGP support, S/MIME, etc; the low-level, or'light-weight', API is a set of APIs that implement all the underlying cryptographic algorithms. The APIs were designed to be simple enough to use if needed, but provided the basic building blocks for the JCE provider; the intent is to use the low-level API in memory constrained devices or when easy access to the JCE libraries is not possible. As the light-weight API is just Java code, the Java virtual machine does not impose any restrictions on the operation of the code, at early times of the Bouncy Castle history it was the only way to develop strong cryptography, not crippled by the Jurisdiction Policy files that prevented JCE providers from performing "strong" encryption.

The JCE-compatible provider is built upon the low-level APIs. As such, the source code for the JCE provider is an example of how to implement many of the "common" crypto problems using the low-level API. Many projects have been built using the JCE provider, including an Open Source Certificate Authority EJBCA; the C# and Java releases now have FIPS 140-2 Level 1 certified streams as well. These differ from the regular releases in that, while the modules are designed in a similar fashion to the regular releases, the low-level APIs are quite different – to support the enforcement of controls that FIPS requires when an algorithm is used. In the case of the JCE level of the Java API, the provider is still a drop-in replacement for the regular release; the first FIPS-certified releases were made available in November 2016, with the Java version being assigned certification number 2768 and the C# version being assigned certification number 2792. The Android operating system, as of early 2014, includes a customized version of Bouncy Castle.

Due to class name conflicts, this prevents Android applications from including and using the official release of Bouncy Castle as-is. A third-party project called Spongy Castle distributes a renamed version of the library to work around this issue.. It was assumed a FIPS 140-2 version of Spongy Castle could be done, it turned out due to Android's DEX file processing that for FIPS purposes the provider needs to be installed on the device separate from the application. The FIPS 140-2 release for Android is now called Stripy Castle and is packaged under org.stripycastle. This was needed in order to avoid clashes with Android's version of Bouncy Castle as well as clashes for applications that might be using Spongy Castle and not requiring FIPS 140-2 certified services. Comparison of cryptography libraries Official website

F. Markus Leweke

F. Markus Leweke is a German psychiatrist and psychotherapist, he is a professor and Chair in Youth Depression Studies at the Brain and Mind Centre of the University of Sydney, Australia and a work group leader at the Central Institute of Mental Health in Mannheim, Germany. F. Markus Leweke studied medicine at the University of Cologne and the University of New South Wales in Sydney, he received his neurophysiological training and did his MD thesis at the Institute of Neurophysiology, University of Cologne with Uwe Heinemann. Subsequently, he started his residency in neurology at Alfried Krupp Hospital in Essen with Johannes Noth and Peter Berlit, he moved on to a residency in psychiatry and psychotherapy at the Dept. of Clinical Psychiatry at Hannover Medical School, where he worked with Hinderk Meiners Emrich and started his scientific work on the role of cannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system in psychiatric disorders. After his successful psychiatric training he continued and completed his residency in neurology at the Dept. of Epileptology at Bonn University with Christian E. Elger.

He was appointed as senior psychiatrist and deputy head of the Dept. of Psychiatry III – Addiction Disorders of the Rheinische Kliniken in Düsseldorf. Following a research visit at The Neurosciences Institute in San Diego, where he worked with Daniele Piomelli, he was named senior psychiatrist and later-on deputy head of the Dept. of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy at the University of Cologne, where he established the research group in experimental and clinical neuropsychopharmacology and continued his research with a focus on schizophrenia and affective disorders engaging clinical and psychopharmacological methods to further the understanding of the endocannabinoid systems in physiological and pathophysiological conditions. He qualified for professorship in psychiatry and psychotherapy in 2004 and was appointed as full professor of psychiatry and psychotherapy and associate medical director of the Dept. of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy at the Central Institute of Mental Health and the Medical Faculty Mannheim of Heidelberg University in 2009.

In early 2017 he became a full professor and Chair in Youth Depression Studies at the Brain and Mind Centre of the University of Sydney. F. Markus Leweke co-established the cannabinoid hypothesis of schizophrenia. and his pioneer studies on the role of the endocannabinoid system in schizophrenia led way to the development of new psychopharmacological approaches in psychiatric conditions that target this system. In addition, he contributed extensively to the discovery of early neurochemical biomarker-sets for psychiatric disorder He was founding senior editor of the scientific journal "Neuropsychiatry" and is an associate editor of "Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research". DGPPN-Award for Psychopharmakology 2015 Dissertation Award of the Society for Epilepsy Research 1993 Website Research group Translational Research in Psychiatry at CIMH

2018 Bangka Belitung Indonesia Masters

The 2018 Bangka Belitung Indonesia Masters was a badminton tournament which took place at Sahabudin Sports Hall in Pangkal Pinang, from 18 to 23 September 2018 and had a total purse of $75,000. The 2018 Bangka Belitung Indonesia Masters was the eighth Super 100 tournament of the 2018 BWF World Tour and part of the Indonesia Masters Super 100 championships, held for the first time; this tournament was organized by the Badminton Association of Indonesia with the sanction from the BWF. This international tournament was held at Sahabudin Sports Hall in Pangkal Pinang, Bangka Belitung Islands, Indonesia. Below is the point distribution table for each phase of the tournament based on the BWF points system for the BWF Tour Super 100 event; the total prize money for this tournament was US$75,000. Distribution of prize money was in accordance with BWF regulations. Tournament Link

Tiger Road

Tiger Road is a side-scrolling platform game released in 1987 as a coin-operated arcade game. Home computer versions were released in Europe by U. S. Gold for the Amiga, Amstrad CPC, Atari ST, Commodore 64, DOS and ZX Spectrum. An alternate version for the Commodore 64 was released in the United States by Capcom who published an Amiga 500 port of the game in that region. A remade version for the PC Engine/TurboGrafx 16 was released in 1990 in North America; the original arcade game is included in Capcom Classics Collection Vol. 2 for the PlayStation 2 and Xbox. In Tiger Road, the player is placed in the shoes of a master of the Tiger Technique of Oh-Lin. Before the start of the game, the main character has been attacked by the warriors of the Dragon God, his sworn rivals, his soldiers have been killed, his secrets have been stolen, the children studying Oh-Lin have been kidnapped. To win the game, the player must retrieve the stolen scrolls so that he can use the Double-Headed Tiger Fighting Technique to defeat the Dragon God, rescue the children, reclaim his power.

The Japanese arcade release has additional sound hardware, allowing the game to play digital samples using an additional Z80 and MSM5205 digital sound chip. The World and USA releases had this removed, these releases do not play any samples, lowering the production cost of the PCB; the game was reviewed in 1990 in Dragon #156 by Hartley and Kirk Lesser in "The Role of Computers" column. The reviewers gave the game 4 out of 5 stars. Tiger Road at MobyGames Tiger Road at IGN Tiger Road Strategy Guide at TurboPlay Magazine Archives