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Politics of Austria

Politics in Austria reflects the dynamics of competition among multiple political parties, which led to the formation of a Conservative-Green coalition government for the first time in January 2020, following the snap elections of 29 September 2019, the election of a former Green Party leader to the presidency in 2016. Austrian politics takes place within the constitutional framework of a federal parliamentary republic, with a President serving as head of state and a Chancellor as head of government. Governments, both local and federal, exercise executive power. Federal legislative power is vested both in the Federal Government and in the two chambers of Parliament; the Judiciary of Austria is independent of legislative branches of government. Following the end the Second World War and re-establishment of Austria as a sovereign state, the conservative Austrian People's Party and the centre-left Social Democratic Party of Austria dominated politics and public life for decades, with only one additional party—the FPÖ—playing a significant role at the national level.

More the pattern of two-party dominance withered with the rise of newer parties, such as the Greens and the NEOS. The ethnically and culturally heterogeneous nation-state of Austria is one of the many remnant states of Austria-Hungary, a vast multinational empire that ceased to exist in 1918; the Austrian Republic was preceded by a constitutional monarchy, whose legislative body was elected by, as The New York Times put it, "quasi-universal suffrage" for the first time in 1897. Austria's first attempt at republican governance after the fall of the monarchy in 1918 was hampered by the crippling economic burden of war reparations required by the victorious Allies. Austria's First Republic made some pioneering reforms in the 1920s in Vienna, that served as models for the social-welfare states of post-World War I Europe. However, the Republic developed into the Austrofascist dictatorship between 1933-1934 under Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss, assassinated by Nazi party agents in 1934; the First Republic ended with the Anschluss to Nazi Germany in 1938.

Following the defeat of the German Reich in 1945 Austria resumed its republican government, after it regained its independence from the occupying Allied Powers. Austria's political system after re-establishment of democracy and self-determination is referred to as the Second Republic; the beginning of the 21st century marked, for Austria, a half-century of a stable government under a constitutional federal republican system. It is governed according to the rule of law; the constitutional framework of the politics of Austria and the marrow of the constitution's practical implementation are agreed to be robust and adequately conducive to peaceful change. The Economist Intelligence Unit rated Austria a "full democracy" in 2019. Austria's constitution characterizes the republic as a federation consisting of nine autonomous federal states. Both the federation and all its states have written constitutions defining them as republican entities governed according to the principles of representative democracy.

Aside from the fact that the states of Austria lack an independent judiciary on the one hand and that their autonomy is notional on the other hand, Austria's government structure resembles that of larger federal republics such as Germany. Austria's head of state is the Federal President, elected by popular vote for a term of six years and limited to two consecutive terms of office. Former president Heinz Fischer was elected for a second term on 25 April 2010, he was succeeded by President Alexander Van der Bellen, elected on 4 December 2016. The office of the Federal President is ceremonial, although the constitution allows the president to dismiss the cabinet as a whole or to dissolve the National Council and call new elections; the Federal Chancellor is appointed by the Federal President. Although he is head of government, he has no power to direct other members of the government. Following the Ibiza affair, on 30 May 2019, President Van der Bellen appointed President of the Constitutional Court Brigitte Bierlein to serve as Federal Chancellor of an technocratic interim government until the formation and installation of a new political government following the parliamentary elections to be held that year.

The federal cabinet consists of the Federal Chancellor appointed by the president and a number of ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the chancellor. The federal cabinet answers to the National Council and can be forced to resign through a motion of no confidence. Brigitte Bierlein's cabinet consisted of current and retired jurors. Clemens Jabloner was Vice-chancellor. Based on the results of the 29 September 2019 National Council elections, in which the ÖVP emerged as the strongest party, the president asked Sebastian Kurz to form a new coalition government. Van der Bellen a leader of the Green Party, expressed the wish for high inclusion of women in the new cabinet. Women had parity in the caretaker government; the Parliament of Austria consists of two chambers. The National Council has 183 members, elected for a five-year term by proportional representation, it is the predominant one of the two chambers. To be represented in the National Council, a party needs to either win at least four percent of votes across the nation or win a seat in one of the 43 regional constituencies.

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Deansgate Square

Deansgate Square known as Owen Street, is a skyscraper cluster development nearing completion on the southern edge of Manchester City Centre, consisting of four skyscrapers, the highest is 201 metres tall. The site is just south of Deansgate railway station and north of the Mancunian Way, bounded by Old Deansgate, Pond Street, Owen Street and the River Medlock. Manchester City Council adopted a framework in the early 2000s, known as the Great Jackson Street Development Framework, which earmarked the site as an acceptable location for high-rise buildings; the framework was enacted to encourage building development as the site had been vacant for many years and was perceived to be isolated as it was bounded by major arterial roads. In 2016, the scheme was revived with a planning application for a cluster of four skyscrapers – the tallest being the South Tower at 201 metres. Although incomplete, the topped out concrete core and floor plates of the South Tower surpassed the 169-metre Beetham Tower as the tallest building in Manchester in November 2018.

It will be the 5th tallest building in the United Kingdom after The Shard, One Canada Square, Heron Tower and the Leadenhall Building – all of which are in London. Construction on the tower complex began in July 2016, with developer Renaker beginning construction on the South and West Towers which will be 201 and 140 metres tall. In October 2017, construction commenced on the North and East Towers, which will be 122 and 158 metres tall, with these two towers continuing to rise in 2019 as interior fit out commences on the South and West Towers; as of June 2019, additional towers are under construction in the adjacent vicinity as part of the Great Jackson Street Development Framework, including the 152 metre Elizabeth Tower. The 2007 scheme consisted of five high-rise buildings containing nearly 1,100 residential units, 100 serviced apartments, a hotel, parking and retail space, community facilities; the tallest skyscraper planned was “Block D”, which would have been 49 storeys — two storeys more than Manchester's tallest building, Beetham Tower — and 150 metres high.

A planning application was submitted to Manchester City Council in 2007 and was approved early in 2008. Permission to extend the time limit for building on the site was sought from the Council in early 2011, a request, granted in September 2011; the revised scheme, proposed by developers Renaker Build and designed by SimpsonHaugh and Partners, was made public in January 2016 with a planning application to seek permission for the construction of four skyscrapers submitted in April. The proposed towers range from 122 to 200+ metres high – the South Tower is 64 floors and 200.5 metres tall, the East Tower is 50 floors and 157.9 metres tall, the North Tower is 37 floors and 122 metres tall and the West Tower is 44 floors and 140.4 metres tall. The scheme was approved by Manchester City Council on 30 June 2016. Construction on the tower complex began in July 2016, with developer Renaker starting construction on the South and West Towers. Piling works on the West Tower were complete by November 2016.

Both towers would continue to rise for another two years before "topping out" in mid-2018. By October 2017, as both the South and West Towers continued to rise, construction on the foundation and podium for the North and East Towers commenced. By July 2018, the West Tower "topped out" having reached the 45th floor - its highest floor level. By November 2018, the South Tower – the tallest tower of the approved scheme at 201 metres – had "topped out" having reached the 65th floor, its highest floor level. In August 2018, institutional investor Legal & General acquired the 140 metre West Tower with the intention to rent the tower out once complete. Although this deal for the West tower was undisclosed, its estimated real estate value was believed to be in the region of £200 million according to Estates Gazette; as of February 2020 the West Tower is complete and occupied, the South and East Towers are complete and soon to be occupied, the North Tower has topped out and is complete. Deansgate Square Construction Progress Beetham Tower – the former tallest completed building in Manchester at 169 metres.

South Tower at 201 metres became the tallest building in Manchester and outside London in the United Kingdom. List of tallest buildings in the United Kingdom – the cluster of four towers will be the 5th, 14th, 22nd and 38th tallest in the United Kingdom. Tallest buildings in Manchester Official website Owen Street at Renaker Build Owen Street at SimpsonHaugh and Partners 1, 2 and 3 bedroom apartments for rent with exceptional services, owned by Legal & General

Nikolay Baransky

Nikolay Nikolayevich Baransky was a Soviet economic geographer, founder of Soviet Rayon school of economic geography, corresponding member of Soviet Academy of Sciences. Nikolay Baransky was born in Tomsk into the family of a teacher. In 1898 he joined Russian Social Democratic Labour Party. In 1899 he graduated from grammar school with a gold medal and entered law department of Tomsk University. During his studies he continued to be engaged in public work. In 1901 he was excluded from university for participation in a student demonstration. Soon after that he wrote his first geographical work, concerning the property stratification of immigrants in the villages of the Barnaul district. In 1902 joined Siberian social-democratic group, which joined the Siberian Social-Democratic Union–RSDLP Committee. In 1906-08 he was engaged in revolutionary activity, has been three times arrested, long time was in custody. After release from prison, he lived in Ufa. In years 1910-1914 Baranskiy studied at economic branch of Moscow commercial institute.

After graduation he worked in the Zemgor committee. In 1917 he joined the ranks of Mensheviks-internationalists. In 1919-20 he worked in Supreme Soviet of the National Economy. Baransky led research in geography of cities. Baransky is the author of several textbooks on economic geography of the USSR for high schools, works on social and economic geography and economic cartography. Nikolay Baransky was awarded three Orders of two other orders and medals, he died in Moscow, is buried on Novodevichy Cemetery. In Tomsk, memorial plaque is placed on the house. Volcano on Iturup island and street in Alma-Ata are named in his honour. In 1920-21 taught at the Siberian higher party school, in 1921 has moved to Moscow where taught in a number of educational institutions: 1921-29 — the Higher party school 1927-30 — 2nd Moscow university, chair of economic geography founded by S. V. Bernstein-Koganom 1929 — Baranskiy has organized Department of economic geography of the USSR at Moscow State University geographical faculty, was its manager in 1929—1941 and 1943—1946 1933-38 professor at Institute of the world economy and world politics.

Chair of economic geography 1936-40 professor in 2nd Moscow State University, Chair of economic geographyIn 1939 Baranskiy was elected corresponding member of Soviet Academy of Sciences. In 1946 he was nominated for election to full member of Soviet Academy of Sciences, but refused the nomination and supported Lev Berg. Under the direction of Baransky Soviet regional school became dominating field in the Soviet economic geography. Baransky authored several textbooks on economic geography of the USSR for high schools, works on social and economic geography and economic cartography. Hero of Socialist Labour, the Order of Lenin and the gold medal "Hammer and Sickle" - for outstanding achievements in the development of economic geography Three Orders of Lenin Order of the Red Banner of Labour Order of the Badge of Honour Honoured Scientist of RSFSR Stalin Prize Gold Medal of PP Semenov-Tyan-Shan-Union Geographical Society. Economic geography of the USSR: the review on State Planning Committee areas.

М. М. Geography of the USSR: the Textbook for high school. М: Учпедгиз, 1933. Economic geography of the USA.: p. 1: the General review. - М: Institute of the international. Relations, 1946; the Historical review of textbooks of geography. М: Географгиз, 1954. Economic geography in high school. Economic geography in the higher school: Сб. Articles. - М: Географгиз, 1957. Economic geography. Economic cartography. - М: Географгиз, 1960. The Technique of teaching of economic geography. M.:Учпедгиз, 1960. Department of Economic And Social Geography of Russia MSU Faculty of Geography Nikolay Kolosovskiy

Vladimir Vidrić

Vladimir Vidrić aka Vidra was a Croatian poet, is considered one of the major figures of Croatian secessionist poetry. Vidrić was born to an affluent family of Slovenian origin, he was one of the leaders of the demonstrators who burned the Hungarian flag on the occasion of the emperor Franz Joseph's visit to Zagreb in 1895. He studied law in Prague and Vienna. After obtaining his Ph. D. in 1903, he became a lawyer rather than pursuing an academic career. He began writing poems in high school, was first recognized for his poem Boni mores, published in Vienac in 1897. Before his premature death, he wrote only about 40 poems, most of which he self-published in his 1907 collection with the simple title Pjesme. In addition to his affiliations with controversial progressive political circles, Vidrić was known for his adventurous life, great intelligence, prodigious memory, he was an outstanding student, spent entire evenings reciting memorized poetry to his amazed friends. He died under obscure circumstances in the mental hospital in the Zagreb suburb of Vrapče.

As a rule, Vidrić's poetic atmospheres develop from a concrete scene. The poet is hidden in a mythological character, his images of a barbaric and mythological world are personal. He was an impressionist with a strong visual imagination, his best poems, such as Jutro, Dva pejzaža, Adieu, Ex Pannonia, Dva levita, include some of the best verses written in Croatian. Some of his contemporaries, such as Matoš, accused him of technical imperfections, wrong accents in rhymes, raw style. However, Vidrić was before his time, choosing to base his rhythm on main accents rather than feet; the Croatian literary historian Ivo Frangeš wrote, "Vidrić's world feels like a fragment of an ancient vase, where the incomplete nature of the preserved scene is used to strengthen the effect. It is a miniature world, painfully clear, with a miraculous third dimension that goes far beyond our everyday ideas of width and depth." Vidrić, Vladimir Vladimir Vidrić Translated works by Vladimir Vidrić

Flemington, Hawke's Bay

Flemington is a populated locality in the Hawke's Bay region of New Zealand's North Island. It is located inland, south of Waipukurau and east of Ormondville. Nearby settlements include Whetukura to the west, Te Uri to the south-southwest, Wanstead to the east. Flemington began a small European farming community called Boar Hills in 1845. Several stations were established in the following three decades. Flemington District was established in 1886. For the purposes of the New Zealand census, Flemington falls within the area of Elsthorpe-Flemington; this covers a large amount of southern Hawke's Bay south and east of Waipukurau, it had a population of 2,949 at the 2001 census. This is not reflective of the population of the locality of Flemington itself, as it constitutes only a small part of the statistical region. Flemington hosts an annual Mud Run every year, it hundreds of participants, many in fancy dress. Flemington School is a Year 1–8 co-educational state primary school, it is a decile 8 school with a roll of 89 as of March 2019.

The school was founded in 1908 before moving its current location in 1918. Major improvements were made to the school for its centenary in 2008

Salomon Plessner

Salomon Plessner was a German Jewish translator and maggid. Salomon Plessner was born in Breslau to Rabbi Yehuda Plesner. Having to support his mother and himself, Plessner engaged in business, but found time to study Hebrew and German, under Wessely's influence, he published in 1819 a Hebrew translation of the Apocryphal additions to the Book of Esther, under the title Hosafah li-Megillat Ester, with a literary-historical introduction. At the same time he became known as an eloquent maggid. Many of his sermons were published, among them his funeral oration on the death of Abraham Tiktin, under the title Zekher Tzaddik li-Brakhah. Through his sermons and his close association with Rabbi Akiva Eger, Plessner became known as a defender of Orthodox Judaism against the growing Reform movement. Forbidden by the police from delivering sermons, he in 1823 settled in Silesia, he presented a defense of the Talmud to the Posen government in 1826, prompting the government to revoke a decree forbidding Talmudic instruction in schools.

Pressner moved to Berlin in 1830, where he earned a livelihood by lecturing in the Berlin beit midrash. In 1832 his Nozelim min Lebanon was published, consisting of a Hebrew translation of a part of the Apocrypha, with an appendix, entitled Duda'im, containing exegetical notes, verses in Hebrew and German, sermons; the following year he was invited to dedicate the new synagogue at Bromberg, for which occasion he composed poems in Hebrew and in German, which were published under the title Shirim la-Ḥanukkat Bet ha-Tefillah. He left Berlin and settled in Posen in 1843, where he remained active as a maggid, chiefly at the Neuschul; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Isidore. "Plessner, Solomon". In Singer, Isidore; the Jewish Encyclopedia. 10. New York: Funk & Wagnalls. P. 39. Works of Salomon Plessner at the Online Books Page