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Politics of Belize

Politics of Belize takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic monarchy, whereby Queen Elizabeth II serves as head of state and the prime minister is the head of government, of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in the Parliament of Belize; the party system is dominated by the centre-left People's United Party and the centre-right United Democratic Party. There have been other small parties that have participated at all levels of governmental elections in the past. Although none of these small political parties has won any significant number of seats and/or offices, their challenge has been growing over the years. Constitutional safeguards include freedom of speech, worship and association; the Judiciary is independent of the legislature. Jurisprudence is based on English common law. People in Belize have elections to choose their government; as head of state, Queen Elizabeth is represented in Belize by a governor general who acts on the advice of the prime minister and the cabinet.

Belize is parliamentary. Belize is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. Queen Elizabeth II is head of state and is represented in the country by Governor General Dr. Colville N. Young, Sr. a Belizean and Belize's second governor general. The primary executive organ of government is the Cabinet led by a Prime Minister. Cabinet Ministers are members of the majority political party in Parliament and hold elected seats in the National Assembly concurrently with their Cabinet positions. Cabinet members can be drawn from the Senate. Prime Minister-Hon. Dean Barrow Deputy Prime Minister-Patrick Faber Keyon Dooling and Economic Development Gaspar Vega, Natural Resources and Agriculture Wilfred Elrington, Attorney General, Foreign Affairs Erwin Contreras, Investment, Private Sector Development and Consumer Protection Patrick Faber, Education and Sports Anthony "Boots" Martinez, Human Development, Social Transformation and Poverty Alleviation Pablo Marin, Health Vacant - Feb 12 2020, National Security Manuel Heredia, Culture, Civil Aviation Rene Montero and Transport Michael Finnegan and Urban Development Liselle Alamilla, Fisheries, Sustainable Development Joy Grant, Energy and Technology and Public Utilities Godwin Hulse, Local Government, Rural Development, NEMO, Immigration and Nationality Charles Gibson, Public Service, Elections and Boundaries Hugo Patt in the Ministry of Natural Resources and Agriculture Edmond Castro in the Ministry of Works and Transport Mark King in the Ministry of Human Development, Social Transformation and Poverty Alleviation Herman Longsworth in the Ministry of Education and Sports Santino Castillo in the Ministry of Finance and Economic Development Omar Figueroa in the Office of the Prime Minister Senator Mark Pech Senator Juliet Thimbriel The National Assembly of Belize is a bicameral body which consists of a House of Representatives and a Senate.

The 31 members of the House of Representatives are popularly elected to a maximum five-year term of office. The Senate consists of 13 Senators plus the President of the Senate; the Senators are appointed by the Governor General as follows: six on the advice of the Prime Minister, three on the advice of the Leader of the Opposition, one member on the advice of the Belize Council of Churches and the Evangelical Association of Churches, one on the advice of the Belize Chamber of Commerce and Industry and the Belize Business Bureau, one on the advice of the National Trade Union Congress of Belize and the Civil Society Steering Committee, one on the advice of non-governmental organizations in good standing. The President of the Senate is selected by the 13 Senators, either from amongst themselves or from the general populace; the President presides over the sessions of the Senate but ordinarily has no voice nor vote in the proceedings, except in the cases of the passing of bills where he/she has a casting vote.

Where the President is selected from amongst the thirteen, the powers of Senator and President of the Senate are vested in this one person. Otherwise, the President has no powers. Over the past few years, there has been much debate over whether the members of the Senate should be appointed or elected; this discussion continues as Belizeans continue to weigh the pros and cons of an elected versus appointed senate. As of 8 February 2008, the Government of Belize is controlled by the United Democratic Party which has a confirmed majority in the House of Representatives after general elections of 7 February 2008; the former government, the People's United Party is now in Opposition, after having governed Belize from 28 August 1998 to 8 February 2008. The UDP governed Belize from 30 June 1993 to 27 August 1998. Before 1984, the PUP had dominated the electoral scene for more than 30 years and was the party in power when Belize became independent on 21 September 1981. Members of the independent judiciary are appointed.

The judicial system includes local magistrates grouped under the Magistrates' Court which hears less serious cases, the Supreme Court which hears murd

Mad Dog Knives

Mad Dog Knives is a custom knifemaking facility headed by Kevin McClung, a former Senior Materials Scientist at the American Rocket Company, Mad Dog Knives is based in Prescott, Arizona. Mad Dog Knives made the fixed-blade knife known as the ATAK, used by Naval Special Warfare Groups 1 and 2 after the "SEAL Trials" of 1992. Mad Dog Knives are made from selectively tempered, hand ground O1 Tool Steel with a hardchrome plating to protect the blade. Mad Dog Knives makes tactical fixed-blade knives using Starrett 496-O1 high carbon tool steel and switching to Precision Marshall Presco American Made 01, given a proprietary heat treatment; this process includes hardening, stress relieving, selectively tempering the blade. As a result, the blades have an edge hardness of 62-63 on the Rockwell C scale whereas the tip and tang have a Rockwell hardness of 50-54; this heat treatment was devised to develop phenomenal edge retention while preventing tip breakage and maintaining a degree of flexibility on the softer spine to improve the toughness of the knife.

The blades are coated with a layer of hard chrome as a method of corrosion resistance. Mad Dog Knives utilizes a proprietary glass/epoxy composite material for the handle material of its knives; this material can withstand long term heat in excess of 149 degrees Celsius, a tractive force of 79,000 psi, current of 1,000 volts per mil of thickness and is impervious to salt water, diesel oil and other caustic/corrosive fluids. Mad Dog Knives utilizes Kydex 100 ® as a sheath material. Mad Dog Knives has made ceramic MIRAGE X blades and blades from other non-metallic materials for EOD and other military usage; these knives are not available for sale to the general public. Mad Dog Knives won the 1992 "SEAL Trials" to supply Naval Special Warfare Groups 1 and 2 with a fixed blade knife; this knife is the ATAK and Mad Dog Knives received a U. S. Navy Sole Source Justification for its manufacture; the ATAK is the only knife in US Military history justified as such. Mad Dog Knives have been described as weapons in Richard Marcinko's Rogue Warrior novels and were props in Steven Seagal's movie Under Siege 2: Dark Territory.

One of the knives used in the movie was sold at a Safari Club International fund raiser for $10,000


AMPL is an algebraic modeling language to describe and solve high-complexity problems for large-scale mathematical computing. It was developed by Robert Fourer, David Gay, Brian Kernighan at Bell Laboratories. AMPL supports dozens of solvers, both open source and commercial software, including CBC, CPLEX, FortMP, Gurobi, MINOS, IPOPT, SNOPT, KNITRO, LGO. Problems are passed to solvers as nl files. AMPL is used by more than 100 corporate clients, by government agencies and academic institutions. One advantage of AMPL is the similarity of its syntax to the mathematical notation of optimization problems; this allows for a concise and readable definition of problems in the domain of optimization. Many modern solvers available on the NEOS Server accept AMPL input. According to the NEOS statistics AMPL is the most popular format for representing mathematical programming problems. AMPL features a mix of imperative programming styles. Formulating optimization models occurs via declarative language elements such as sets and multidimensional parameters, decision variables and constraints, which allow for concise description of most problems in the domain of mathematical optimization.

Procedures and control flow statements are available in AMPL for the exchange of data with external data sources such as spreadsheets, databases, XML and text files data pre- and post-processing tasks around optimization models the construction of hybrid algorithms for problem types for which no direct efficient solvers are available. To support re-use and simplify construction of large-scale optimization problems, AMPL allows separation of model and data. AMPL supports a wide range of problem types, among them: Linear programming Quadratic programming Nonlinear programming Mixed-integer programming Mixed-integer quadratic programming with or without convex quadratic constraints Mixed-integer nonlinear programming Second-order cone programming Global optimization Semidefinite programming problems with bilinear matrix inequalities Complementarity theory problems in discrete or continuous variables Constraint programmingAMPL invokes a solver in a separate process which has these advantages: User can interrupt the solution process at any time Solver errors do not affect the interpreter 32-bit version of AMPL can be used with a 64-bit solver and vice versaInteraction with the solver is done through a well-defined nl interface.

AMPL is available for many popular 32- and 64-bit operating systems including Linux, macOS, Solaris, AIX, Windows. The translator is proprietary software maintained by AMPL Optimization LLC. However, several online services exist, providing free modeling and solving facilities using AMPL. A free student version with limited functionality and a free full-featured version for academic courses are available. AMPL can be used from within Microsoft Excel via the SolverStudio Excel add-in; the AMPL Solver Library, which allows reading nl files and provides the automatic differentiation, is open-source. It is used in many solvers to implement AMPL connection; this table present significant steps in AMPL history. A transportation problem from George Dantzig is used to provide a sample AMPL model; this problem finds the least cost shipping schedule that meets requirements at markets and supplies at factories. Here is a partial list of solvers supported by AMPL: sol Official website Prof. Fourer's home page at Northwestern University

Kelly Llorenna

Kelly Llorenna is an English dance music singer, born in Slough and raised in Oldham, Greater Manchester. She is best known as the former lead vocalist for the dance group N-Trance in the 1990s, their biggest hit was "Set You Free", which made the UK top five in early 1995. Since she has had six UK top 10 singles. After attending stage school for a short time, Kelly Llorenna started her music career in 1992 as part of the dance act N-Trance, providing vocals to "Set You Free", not a success. Following several re-releases, the song reached number 2 in the UK Singles Chart in January 1995. In 1995, Llorenna released her first solo track entitled "Brighter Day". An accompanying video was released for promotional purposes only, she recorded a cover version of "One Day I'll Fly Away", but this was never released. In 1997, Llorenna returned to N-Trance for their cover version of the Rod Stewart hit record "Da Ya Think I'm Sexy" which reached number 7 in the UK chart, she contributed as an uncredited vocalist on several other N-Trance tracks including "The Mind Of The Machine", "Tears In The Rain" and "Shake Ya Body".

"Set You Free" was released for the fourth time on the All Around The World record label in 2001, this time reaching number 4 in the chart. In 2001, Llorenna teamed up with Flip & Fill to record a cover version of "True Love Never Dies", co-written by then-Darlington based Tom Cullimore, which reached number 34 in the UK chart, although it was re-released in 2002 and reached number 7, she re-launched her solo career with the label All Around The World in 2002 with a cover of the Taylor Dayne track, "Tell It to My Heart". A new version of a previous track "Heart of Gold" was released the same year, charting at 19 in the UK chart. A solo album was released which included seven new tracks. Many of the tracks on the album were produced and written with Flip & Fill, along with some of her own writing contributions. In 2002, another single by N-Trance entitled "Forever" was released which reached number 6, giving her fifth Top 10 hit. In 2003, "Destiny" was released by N-Trance charting at number 37, but this was to be her final collaborative effort with them for some time due to working difficulties.

In 2004, she reached number 15 in the UK chart with a cover of Donna Summer's, "This Time I Know It's for Real". A new track entitled "Nobody Like You" was recorded by her in 2005, along with a video, but was never released. In 2007, she released a cover of Lara Fabian's, "I Will Love Again", which did not reach the official UK chart. In 2007, she once again rejoined Kevin O'Toole and Mike Lewis of N-Trance to record the new tracks for their forthcoming album; some of these tracks included "Nothing Lasts Forever", "Stronger" and "You're My Angel". She appeared on some of the tracks on their other new album – The Mind of the Machine, due for release in the 1990s, she has been working with Love to Infinity on a number of new tracks for their forthcoming album, including "Hot Stuff", "Keep Love Together" and "You Gotta Love Me". She released her seventh solo track with All Around the World in 2009, a cover of the Madonna song, "Dress You Up"; this track along with many others was sung on the Clubland Live tour at the end of 2008.

It was announced by N-Trance that Llorenna had once again left the band in order to concentrate on her solo career. In Music Week magazine, it was announced that "Dress You Up" had reached number one in the upfront club chart, that she will soon be releasing a new single with Love to Infinity. Llorenna has formed a new band with Love to Infinity, known as Freak Asylum, worked with Peter Hook from New Order. Other recent collaborators include Shane Gibson and George Lynch. Freak Asylum's album, Let the Madness Begin was to be released in 2011. Llorenna filmed videos for the Freak Asylum singles, "You Better Leave" and "Throwaway Girl". Please see N-Trance discography for more information; these tracks have been released. These tracks have not been released as singles. List of Eurodance artists List of performers on Top of the Pops Myspace page All Around the World biography Official website Official website Official website

Stuff (band)

Stuff was an American jazz-funk band during the late 1970s and early 1980s. The members were Gordon Edwards, Richard Tee, Eric Gale, Cornell Dupree, Chris Parker, Steve Gadd. Edwards describes how the band was founded: "I was contracting and playing studio sessions, hired Cornell for many of the dates – so we started recruiting for the band. One day at Rudy Van Gelder's – I remember it was a hell of a job. George Benson was on the job, Bernard Purdie, Richard Tee on keyboards. Esther asked me if she could use the band for a club date she had lined up – a club called Mikell's in New York City. We did play there, Richard Tee stopped by one time and he started coming every night. We only worked Monday through Thursday, Mikell's was packed, wall to wall, round the block." After parting ways with Esther the band returned to play there every week: "Steve Gadd came by one night to sit in with us, as did Eric Gale, they both became a part of the band. We were rolling heavy, one night I was approached by Michael Lang, the gentleman who put on Woodstock, who said he was sure he could get us a record deal – were we interested.

Sure enough Warner Bros. flew in from California to hear us live. They liked us, but we couldn't use the name The Encyclopedia of Soul – it was too long. I remember we were in a diner, on the corner by Atlantic Records one day, it was Erma who said, "You know Gordon, you always call everybody stuff, I don't care. You should call the band Stuff." Stuff developed a danceable blues and funk sound. Members of Stuff were among the most sought session musicians of that era, playing with Aretha Franklin, John Lennon and Paul Simon; the band released five albums between 1975 and 1980. Stuff's first album was recorded at Long View Farm in North Brookfield and produced by Herb Lovelle in 1976. In Japan it was certified platinum. Stuff was associated with Mikell's, the New York jazz club where session musicians would meet for jam sessions with visiting soul and funk musicians. 1976 Stuff 1977 More Stuff 1978 Live Stuff 1979 Stuff It 1980 Live in New York 2008 "Live at Montreux 1976"


In the early days of Ancient Rome, perduellio was the term for the capital offense of high treason. It was set down plainly in the Law of the Twelve Tables as follows: The Law of the Twelve Tables orders that he who has stirred up an enemy or who has handed over a citizen to the enemy is to be punished capitally.. Under the terms of this law, those convicted of perduellio were subject to death either by being hanged from the arbor infelix or by being thrown from the Tarpeian Rock, their families were not allowed to mourn them and their houses were razed. As the concept of national sovereignty took hold in Rome, perduellio came to mean an offense which “injured or brought into danger the dignity and power of the commonwealth ”; this included such things as losing an army, violating the rights of the tribunes of the plebs, or usurping a function of the State. In the Ab Urbe Condita, Livy recorded the first instance of both a trial of perduellio and appeal: It enraged the fiery youth to hear his sister’s lamentations in the hour of his own victory and the nation’s great rejoicing.

And so, drawing his sword and at the same time angrily upbraiding her, he ran her through the body…The king…said: “In accordance with the law I appoint duumvirs to pass judgment upon Horatius for treason. The dread formula or the law ran thus: ‘Let the duumvirs pronounce him guilty of treason. However, Horatius’ father had to perform expiatory rites and Horatius himself was forced to pass under the yoke, but over time with the expansion of the rights of Roman citizens, the use of corporal punishment lessened until the time of Augustus when conviction only carried with it the punishment of aquae et ignis interdictio. The trial was conducted by the duumviri perduellionis, who during the Monarchy were appointed by the king. On during the Republic they were proposed by the consuls and formally appointed by the comitia; the judgement of the duumviri was subject to appeal, tried by the comitia centuriata unlike in Horatius' trial. The prosecution was led by aediles. By the late Republic, the archaic perduellio had become obsolete, though it could still be used.

Its offenses were covered by the law of maiestas. Perduellio became the designation for a odious type of maiestas