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Politics of Bolivia

The politics of Bolivia takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the president is head of state, head of government and head of a diverse multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in the two chambers of parliament. Both the Judiciary and the electoral branch are independent of the legislature. After the 2014 election, 53.1% of the seats in national parliament were held by women, a higher proportion of women than that of the population. The civil war between the Conservatives and the Liberals ended in 1899 with the latter's victory. A system of public education developed, accompanied by moderate anticlericalism: Catholicism lost its status as the only religion recognized by the State in 1906 and civil marriage was adopted in 1911. Bolivian liberalism, however, is losing its progressive character to coexist with the interests of the new tin fortunes and the army. Inspired by the example of the liberal revolution led by Eloy Alfaro in Ecuador, a new liberalism will organize itself into a republican party and express some social concerns against the domination of the liberal oligarchy.

Bolivia's current constitution was adopted via referendum in 2009, providing for a unitary secular state. The president is directly elected to a five-year term by popular vote. In the case that no candidate receives an absolute majority of the direct vote, congress will elect the president from among the two candidates most voted. Hugo Banzer Suarez was elected president in 1997. Although no candidate had received more than 50% of the popular vote in the national election, Hugo Banzer Suarez won a congressional runoff election on 5 August 1997 after forming the so-called "megacoalition" with other parties, he was substituted by his vice president Jorge Fernando Quiroga. Winner of the national election Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada was chosen president by Congress, winning an 84-43 vote against popular vote runner-up Evo Morales. Elected president Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada resigned in October 2003, was substituted by vice-president Carlos Mesa who governed the nation until his resignation in June 2005.

He was replaced by chief justice of the Supreme Court Eduardo Rodríguez, acting as caretaker president. Six months on December 18, 2005, cocalero leader Evo Morales was elected president. A group of MEPs acting as election observers oversaw a constitutional referendum in Bolivia that gave more power to indigenous peoples 25 January 2009; the fought referendum laid out a number of key reforms such as allowing President Evo Morales to stand for re-election, state control over natural gas and limits on the size of land people can own. Bolivia has twenty-one ministries in the executive branch; the heads of these ministries form the cabinet. The bicameral Plurinational Legislative Assembly consists of the Chamber of Senators and the Chamber of Deputies; the judiciary consists of the Supreme Court of Justice, the Plurinational Constitutional Court, the Judiciary Council and Environmental Court, District and lower courts. Plurinational Constitutional Court — rules on the constitutionality of government or court actions Supreme Court of Justice Agrarian and Environmental Court — highest court authority in matters of agriculture and the environment Judiciary Council — oversees the conduct of courts and judges, including misconduct and ethical violations District Courts Provincial and local courtsIn October 2011, Bolivia held its first judicial elections to choose members of the national courts by popular vote.

Twenty-eight elected members and twenty-eight alternates were sworn in on 3 January 2011 in Sucre. The members of the Plurinational Constitutional Court, elected in October 2011, are: Ligia Velásquez, Mirtha Camacho, Melvy Andrade, Zoraida Chanes, Gualberto Cusi, Efraín Choque, Ruddy Flores; the elected alternate members are: Isabel Ortuño, Lidia Chipana, Mario Pacosillo, Katia López, Javier Aramayo, Miriam Pacheco, Rommy Colque. The members of the Supreme Court of Justice, elected in October 2011, are: Maritza Suntura, Jorge Isaac Von Borries Méndez, Rómulo Calle Mamani, Pastor Segundo Mamani Villca, Antonio Guido Campero Segovia, Gonzalo Miguel Hurtado Zamorano, Fidel Marcos Tordoya Rivas, Rita Susana Nava, Norka Natalia Mercado Guzmán; the elected alternate members are: William Alave, María Arminda Ríos García, Ana Adela Quispe Cuba, Elisa Sánchez Mamani, Carmen Núñez Villegas, Silvana Rojas Panoso, María Lourdes Bustamante, Javier Medardo Serrano, Delfín Humberto Betancour Chinchilla. Gonzalo Miguel Hurtado Zamorano was elected President of the Court on 3 January 2012.

The Supreme Court of Justice replaces the Supreme Court, active since Bolivia's founding in 1825. The members of the Judiciary Council, elected in October 2011, are: Cristina Mamani, Freddy Sanabria, Wilma Mamani, Roger Triveño, Ernesto Araníbar. Cristina Mamani was elected by her peers as the first president of

Santo André, São Paulo

Santo André is a Brazilian municipality located in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo. It is part of a group of municipalities known as Greater ABC Region; the population is 710,210 in an area of 175.8 km². It is the 15th most developed Brazilian city, the eighth most developed city in the State of São Paulo, according to the UN; the city is the fifth best city in the country to raise children. The settlement, which became a town in 1553, with the name of Santo André da Borda do Campo, experienced rapid growth beginning in the 1930s, it was named São Bernardo because the municipality district headquarters were in São Bernardo do Campo, now a city nearby. In 1938, the name was changed to Santo André, as the district government was transferred to Santo André. Industries include chemical engineering, oil, metal products and printed matter, it is an industrial city, but more than 60% of Santo André's total area are protected by environmental water laws. In 1867, a railway named the São Paulo Railway Co. or the Estrada de Ferro Santos Jundiaí, made it easier to be reached.

In 1954, it became the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Santo André. In 2002 the city shot to national prominence with the assassination of serving mayor Celso Daniel, whose murder remains unsolved. Distrito Sede - Santo André Paranapiacaba Distrito de Utinga - Santo André Distrito de Capuava - Santo André Football Team - Esporte Clube Santo André, the football team of the city. City Stadium - Estádio Bruno José Daniel - Capacity: 15,157 Brazilian National Cup Champion in 2004, beating Flamengo in final game at Maracana Stadium in front of more than 80,000 Flamengo fans. Paulista 2nd Division Champions in 1967, 1975, 1981 and 2008. Copa Estado de São Paulo, 2003 Copa São Paulo Under-20, 2002 Pelé scored his first professional goal at Santos Futebol Clube in Santo André Stadium Men's Volleyball Team - Pirelli Volleyball Club Men's World Club Champion in 1984; the team had his name changed to Shopping ABC Santo André due to a new sponsorship contract signed with Shopping ABC, one of the biggest malls in the city.

Men's Basketball Team - Pinheiros Santo André - Plays Paulista League of Basketball Hosts national Olympic team at Pedro Dell'Antonia Gymnasium facilities. Santo André has city partnerships with the following cities: Sesto San Giovanni, Italy Takasaki, Japan Battle Creek, Michigan Vouzela, Portugal Braga, Portugal Lucélia Santos Edson Cordeiro Renato Dias Santos Diego Hypólito Daniele Hypólito Angélica Ksyvickis Milena Toscano Danilo Gentili Cacau Paulo Chaves Gustavo Chams Santo André City Hall

Estadio Altamira

Estadio Altamira is the current stadium for the team Estudiantes de Altamira, which plays in the Liga de Ascenso. The stadium, which seats 9,581 people, is located in the port city of Altamira in the state of Tamaulipas; the idea of constructing Estadio Altamira, was the initiative of the founder of the club, Enrique de Hita Yibale. The effort was done as a whole, along with the Municipal Authorities. On December 17, 2002, the construction was approved; the construction began in January 2003, it was billed as "modern and the only in his type in the whole Mexican Republic". The tribunes and the playing field are of European type, which allows that the sight of a comfortably seated fan should be excellent from any angle of the tribunes. Behind the north goalpost, a forum called "Foro Modelo", is in the shape of half a ball makes it more exclusive; the stadium was inaugurated on October 19, 2003 during a match between Estudiantes de Altamira and Acapulco FC, corresponding to week 13 of the Apertura 2003 in the Mexican Primera A.

It was at the north goalpost where the first goal in the stadium's history was scored by Carlos Alberto Rodríguez. Altamira would win the match 1-nil; the biggest game the stadium has hosted was on January 11, 2004, with the visit of Pumas UNAM with all their stars and their successful head coach Hugo Sánchez. There was a full house for this pre-season friendly prior to the beginning of the Clausura 2004 tournament. In an exciting match, the final score was 5-4 in favor of Pumas Capacity: 9,581 spectators Type of grass: Bermuda Official field measurement: 105 x 68 m. Illumination system: 40 lights of 1500 watts Electronic scoreboard Areas for the teams 6 Dressing-rooms: 2 Home, 2 Visitors and 2 Referees 30 stadium boxes VIP Zone with special balcony Press Room Bleachers with seats Special zone for persons with disabilities Restrooms for Men and Women in the General, VIP zones 5 storage areas Capacity: 2,000 spectators Shape of half a soccer ball Metallic structure PVC roof 4 dressing rooms Restrooms and showers Private parking with capacity for 115 cars Within the same property as the stadium, the facilities of Estudiantes de Altamira consist of: Clubhouse with capacity for 28 players Bedroom for head coach Team offices Gymnasium and Jacuzzi Restrooms Natural grass practice field: 105 x 68 m Limited practice field Practice field to practice headers Kitchen and Dining room Team store Auditorium or classroom Medical office Dormitory "B" with capacity for 20 players 2nd natural grass practice field: 102 x 61 m Fronton court 7 on 7 soccer court Basketball court Official Site of Estadio Altamira

Bukit Lawang

Bukit Lawang is a small tourist village on the bank of Bahorok River in North Sumatra province of Indonesia. Situated 86 km northwest of the city of Medan, Bukit Lawang is known for the largest animal sanctuary of Sumatran orangutan and the main access point to the Gunung Leuser National Park from the east side; the Bukit Lawang rehabilitation centre for orangutans was founded in 1973. Its main purpose was to preserve the decreasing number of orangutan population due to hunting and deforestation; the centre closed in 2002 as the place was getting too touristy and unsuitable for animal rehabilitation. A flash flood hit Bukit Lawang on 2 November 2003; the disaster destroyed the local tourist resorts and had a devastating impact to the local tourism industry in the area. Around 400 houses, 3 mosques, 8 bridges, 280 kiosks and food stalls, 35 hotels and guest houses were destroyed by the flood. Local authorities and an environmental NGO attributed it to illegal logging. Thanks to several international cooperation agencies, the site was rebuilt and re-opened again in July 2004.

A book titled "In Yer Face" by English backpacker Adrian Robson chronicles his narrow escape of the flood. In the book, Adrian talks about being swept away by the flood and escaping death due to slamming into a tree and being able to climb high enough to escape the flood. In the book, Adrian says "sheer good fortune" was his only saviour, describes the destruction he witnessed. Media related to Bukit Lawang at Wikimedia Commons Bukit Lawang travel guide from Wikivoyage

Newzoids

Newzoids is a British topical satirical puppet/CGI sketch show, aired on ITV and is a co-production between Citrus Television and Factory. The show has a similar style of presentation to that of Spitting Image, a show it has been compared to, in that it features comedic satirical scenes that spoof current events at the time of each episode's broadcast, with many well known celebrities of different fields portrayed in a satirical fashion, with voices provided by impressionists Jon Culshaw, Debra Stephenson and Lewis MacLeod, all current stars of the similarly-themed BBC Radio 4 comedy Dead Ringers; the first series of Newzoids began airing on 15 April 2015 to coincide with the general election in May 2015, as of September 2016, the show consists of two series. All celebrities featured in the show are portrayed through the mixed use of live-action puppets and CGI effects; those depicted are caricatured. One eye of former UK Independence Party leader Nigel Farage's puppet swivels around, while US President Donald Trump's hair is represented as a cat on his head, whilst Prince George of Cambridge is depicted with a strong Cockney accent and bosses about his younger sister Princess Charlotte of Cambridge.

His catchphrase is "oi oi saveloy". Theresa May appears in trailers for a new film called Despicable May, a reference to the animated film Despicable Me, in which David Davis, Philip Hammond and Boris Johnson play her minions. In other sketches, they uphold these roles, although rarely. Newzoids has received mixed reviews. Newzoids on Twitter Newzoids at British Comedy Guide Newzoids on IMDb

Eric Neumayer

Eric Neumayer is a Professor of Environment and Development at the London School of Economics and Political Science and is Vice-Chair of the School's Appointments Committee. He holds a Diplom in Economics from the Saarland University, a Master of Science in Development Studies from LSE and a PhD from the University of London. In 2003, he was awarded a Philip Leverhulme Prize in Geography, he is an Associate of the Center for the Study of Civil War at the Peace Research Institute Oslo. He is the author of three books: Weak versus Strong Sustainability: Exploring the Limits of Two Opposing Paradigms, The pattern of aid giving: the impact of good governance on development assistance, Greening trade and investment: environmental protection without protectionism. Together with Giles Atkinson and Simon Dietz, he is the editor of the Handbook of Sustainable Development. Conditional Spatial Policy Dependence: A Theoretical and Methodological Guide, Comparative Political Studies, 47, 2012, pp. 819–849 A Trend Analysis of Normalized Insured Damage from Natural Disasters, Climatic Change, 113, 2012, pp. 215–237 Normalizing Economic Loss from Natural Disasters: A Global Analysis, Global Environmental Change, 21, 2011, pp. 13–24.

Earthquake Propensity and the Politics of Mortality Prevention, World Development, 39, 2011, pp. 1530–1541. Spatial Effects in Dyadic Data, International Organization, 64, 2010, pp. 145–166. Model Specification in the Analysis of Spatial Dependence, European Journal of Political Research, 49, 2010, pp. 418–442. International Terrorism and the Clash of Civilizations, British Journal of Political Science, 39, 2009, pp. 711–734. Famine Mortality, International Food Aid and Rational Political Inactivity, World Development, 37, 2009, pp. 50–61 The Gendered Nature of Natural Disasters: The Impact of Catastrophic Events on the Gender Gap in Life Expectancy, Annals of the American Association of Geographers, 97, 2007, pp. 551–566 A Missed Opportunity: The Stern Review On Climate Change Fails to Tackle the Issue of Non-Substitutable Loss of Natural Capital, Global Environmental Change, 17, 2007, pp. 297–301 The Unequal Burden of War: The Effect of Armed Conflict on the Gender Gap in Life Expectancy, International Organization, 60, 2006, 723-754 Unequal Access to Foreign Spaces: How States Use Visa Restrictions to Regulate Mobility in a Globalised World, Transactions of the British Institute of Geographers, 31, 2006, pp. 72–84 International technological diffusion, latecomer advantage and economic globalization: a multi-technology analysis, Annals of the American Association of Geographers, 95, 2005, pp. 789–808 False Prophet, or Genuine Savior?

Assessing the Effects of Economic Openness on Sustainable Development, 1980-1999, International Organization, 59, 2005, pp. 731–772 Do international human rights treaties improve respect for human rights?, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 49, 2005, pp. 925–953 Bogus Refugees? The Determinants of Asylum Migration to Western Europe, International Studies Quarterly, 49, 2005, pp. 389–409 Homepage at LSE