Politics of China

The politics of the People's Republic of China takes place in a framework of a socialist republic run by a single party, the Communist Party of China, headed by the General Secretary. State power within the People's Republic of China is exercised through the Communist Party, the Central People's Government and their provincial and local representation; the state uses Internal Reference, secret documents produced by Xinhua News Agency, similar to US's President's Daily Brief, though delivered to most of its officials according to level of secrecy of the information, a major source of information of the society. Each local Bureau or office is under the coequal authority of the local leader and the leader of the corresponding office, bureau or ministry at the next higher level. People's Congress members at the county level are elected by voters; these county-level People's Congresses have the responsibility of oversight of local government and elect members to the Provincial People's Congress.

The Provincial People's Congress, in turn, elects members to the National People's Congress that meets each year in March in Beijing. The ruling Communist Party committee at each level plays a large role in the selection of appropriate candidates for election to the local congress and to the higher levels; the President of China is the head of state, serving as the ceremonial figurehead under National People's Congress. The Premier of China is the head of government, presiding over the State Council composed of four vice premiers and the heads of ministries and commissions; as a one-party state, the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China holds ultimate power and authority over state and government. The offices of President, General Secretary, Chairman of the Central Military Commission have been held by one individual since 1993, granting the individual de jure and de facto power over the country. China's population, geographical vastness, social diversity frustrate attempts to rule from Beijing.

Economic reform during the 1980s and the devolution of much central government decision making, combined with the strong interest of local Communist Party officials in enriching themselves, has made it difficult for the central government to assert its authority. Political power has become much less personal and more institutionally based than it was during the first forty years of the PRC. For example, Deng Xiaoping was never the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, President, or Premier of China, but was the leader of China for a decade. Today the authority of China's leaders is much more tied to their institutional base; the incident of Hong Kong’s Missing Booksellers had alarmed the public that political confrontation of different political cadre in the senior level of the Chinese Communist Party still dominates China's politics. Central government leaders must, in practice, build consensus for new policies among party members and regional leaders, influential non-party members, the population at large.

However, control is maintained over the larger group through control of information. The Chinese Communist Party considers China to be in the initial stages of socialism. Many Chinese and foreign observers see the PRC as in transition from a system of public ownership to one in which private ownership plays an important role. Privatization of housing and increasing freedom to make choices about education and employment weakened the work unit system, once the basic cell of Communist Party control over society. China's vast social and economic diversity has led to heterogeneity in the policies applied at the local and regional level; the social and political as well as economic consequences of market reform have created tensions in Chinese society. Some Chinese scholars such as Zhou Tianyong, the vice director of research of the Central Party School, argue that gradual political reform, as well as repression of those pushing for overly rapid change over the next twenty years, will be essential if China is to avoid an overly turbulent transition to a middle class dominated polity.

Some Chinese look back to the Cultural Revolution and fear chaos if the Communist Party should lose control due to domestic upheavals and so a robust system of monitoring and control is in place to counter the growing pressure for political change. The PRC consists of 21 provinces, four municipalities, five autonomous regions and two special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau with the latter operating in a separate political systems different from the PRC; the Communist Party of China calls China's system a "socialist consultative democracy". According to an article in the Communist Party theoretical journal Qiushi, "Consultative democracy was created by the CPC and the Chinese people as a form of socialist democracy.... Not only representing a commitment to socialism, it carries forward China’s fine political and cultural traditions. Not only representing a commitment to the organizational principles and leadership mode of democratic centralism, it affirms the role of the general public in a democracy.

Not only representing a commitment to the leadership of the CPC, it gives play to the role of all political parties and organizations as well as people of all ethnic groups and all sectors of society". According to a China Today editorial, "Consultative democracy guarantees widespread and effective participation in politics through consultations carried out by political parties, peoples congresses, government departments, CPPCC committees, peoples organizations and social organizations". In 2012, Li Changjian, a member of the National Committee of the Chines


The comptometer was the first commercially successful key-driven mechanical calculator, patented in the United States by Dorr E. Felt in 1887. A key-driven calculator is fast because each key adds or subtracts its value to the accumulator as soon as it is pressed and a skilled operator can enter all of the digits of a number using as many fingers as required, making them sometimes faster to use than electronic calculators. In specialized applications, comptometers remained in use in limited numbers into the early 1990s, but with the exception of museum pieces, they have all now been superseded by electronic calculators and computers. Manufactured without interruption from 1887 to the mid-1970s, it was improved; the mechanical versions were made faster and more reliable a line of electro-mechanical models was added in the 1930s. It was the first mechanical calculator to receive an all-electronic calculator engine in 1961, with the ANITA Mark VII model released by Sumlock Comptometer; this created the link between the electronic.

Although the comptometer was an adding machine, it could do subtractions and division. Its keyboard consisted of eight or more columns of nine keys each. Special comptometers with varying key arrays were produced for a variety of special purposes, including calculating currency exchanges and Imperial weights; the name comptometer was in wide use as a generic name for this class of calculating machine. The comptometer is the direct descendant of the key-driven machine of Thomas Hill patented in the United States in 1857 and of the Pascaline invented by Blaise Pascal in France in 1642. By just replacing the input wheels of the Pascaline by the columns of keys of Hill's machine, the comptometer was invented. Addition is performed the same way, both the Pascaline and the Comptometer make use of the 9's complement method for subtraction, but in the case of the comptometer it is the operator who must choose the right keys for the subtrahend. Dorr Felt began his work on comptometer in 1882 and started building first prototype during the American Thanksgiving holidays of 1884.

Because of his limited amount of money, he used a macaroni box for the outside box, skewers and rubber bands for the mechanism inside. It was finished soon after New Year's Day, 1885; this prototype, called the macaroni box, is in the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D. C. United States. Shortly after, Robert Tarrant, the owner of a Chicago workshop, gave Mr. Felt a salary of $6 a week, a bench to work on and what would add up to $5,000 to build his first practical machine which he finished in the autumn of 1886. By September 1887, eight production machines had been built; the original comptometer design was patented by Felt, on July 19, 1887 and on October 11, 1887. Two years on June 11, 1889, he was granted a patent for the Comptograph. A Comptograph is a comptometer with a printing mechanism making it more like a key-set calculating machine, therefore slower and more complicated to operate, it was the first printing-adding machine design to use individualized type impression which made its printed output legible.

The first comptograph was sold to the Merchants & Manufacturers National Bank of Pittsburgh, PA. in December 1889. It was the first sale of a recording-adding machine ever; this machine is now on display at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D. C.. The Felt & Tarrant Manufacturing Company built both comptometers and comptographs throughout the 1890s. In 1902, the Comptograph Company was set up to manufacture comptographs but was shut down at the beginning of World War I. Forty years in the mid-1950s, the Comptometer Corporation reused the name Comptograph for a line of 10 key printing machines; the comptometer was the first machine in production to challenge the supremacy of the arithmometer and its clones. Felt and Tarrant signed a partnership contract on November 28, 1887; the partnership was incorporated as Felt & Tarrant Manufacturing Company on January 25, 1889. In 1902, Felt and Tarrant parted ways in creating a second company and decided to split the shares of both companies so that one would own the controlling interest of a company with 51% of the shares and the other would still share the profits with the remaining 49% of the shares.

Mr. Felt became the majority owner of the Felt & Tarrant Manufacturing Company and Mr. Tarrant became the majority owner of the Comptograph Company; the Felt & Tarrant Manufacturing Company reabsorbed the Comptograph company at the beginning of World War I. The Felt & Tarrant Mfg Co became public in 1947 and changed its name to the Comptometer Corporation in 1957. In 1960, the Bell Punch Company bought the British rights to the Comptometer design and trademark, continued its development. In 1961, Sumlock, a division of the Bell Punch Company, was renamed The Sumlock Comptometer Ltd, began marketing the first all-electronic desktop calculator, the ANITA Mark VII; the entire calculator division of the Bell Punch Company was bought by Rockwell International in 1973. They shut down all operations. In 1961, the Comptometer Corporation merged with the Victor Adding Machine Company, the two became the Victor Comptometer Corporation. After surviving the microprocessor revolution, it is still doing business today as Victor Technology LLC.

The first machines were built using wooden boxes, which made more fragile. They were call

Veronica Penny

Veronica Penny is a Canadian Spelling Bee Regional Champion who has competed in spelling bees on the Regional level, the Provincial Level, the National Level, in the Scripps National Spelling Bee. In 2009, at age 10, Veronica placed 25th, in 2010, she placed 17th. In 2011, she reached the Finals. Veronica has a record of 10 Regional Spelling Bee titles. From 2008 to 2010, Veronica won 5 Hamilton Regional bees. In 2011 and 2012, Veronica won 5 Regional Championships in Ottawa. Veronica became Ontario Provincial Champion in 2010, representing Ontario, she won the Provincial Championship the next year in 2011, representing Ottawa in the Spelling Bee of Canada. Veronica was the Spelling Bee of Canada Intermediate champion for 2013. Veronica was a media darling at the 2008 and 2009 Scripps National Spelling Bees for her unique style when spelling her words. During the live broadcasts of the spelling bee, Veronica became known for covering her face to think just before spelling a word. Images of Veronica appeared on the Internet and were published in major newspapers from New York to the West Coast.

In 2008, at 10 years old, Veronica reached the semifinals at the Scripps National Spelling Bee and placed 4th at Canspell, misspelling ophiomorphic. In 2009, at age 11, she placed 17th in the Scripps National Spelling Bee. Veronica is known for putting a penny in her shoe for good luck and sleeping with a dictionary under her pillow. In 2011, Veronica was runner up in the Canwest Canspell spelling bee. Veronica Penny was recognized at the Ontario Parliament during session by Member of Parliament Ontario Liberal Party Grant Crack, she has appeared in a spell-off on CTV Morning Live with hosts Lianne Laing, Kurt Stoodley, Jeff Hopper. She was featured in a segment on KISS FM Radio. Veronica Penny is the webmaster for two websites. is a website that has information on activities in the Golden Horseshoe, such as reports of Canadian Football League games, concert reviews for bands such as The Who and interviews with officials and participants in the spelling bee circuits such as Jacques Bailly and other persons of interest. is a new website featuring useful information. She was called to Atlanta for a Jeopardy! Audition in December 2013. 2006 Spelling Bee of Canada, Regional third place Primary Winner Hamilton Spectator It's Your Festival Champion 2007 Spelling Bee of Canada Hamilton Primary Regional Champion Spelling Bee of Canada Championship third place primary Ontario Provincial Winner Hamilton Spectator It's Your Festival division champion 2008 Canwest Canspell Hamilton Regional Champion Canwest Canspell National Championship, fourth place Scripps National Spelling Bee 25th place Semi Finalist Hamilton Spectator It's Your Festival division champion 2009 Canwest Canspell Hamilton Regional Champion Canwest Canspell National Championship, fourth place Scripps National Spelling Bee 17th place Semi Finalist Spelling Bee of Canada Hamilton Junior Regional Champion Spelling Bee of Canada Championship, third place, Provincial Junior Winner Spelling Bee of Canada It's Your Festival division champion 2010 Spelling Bee of Canada Hamilton Junior Regional Champion Spelling Bee of Canada Championship Ontario Provincial Junior Champion Spelling Bee of Canada, It's Your Festival division champion 2011 Postmedia Canspell National Spelling Bee Ottawa Regional Champion Postmedia Canspell National Spelling Bee Canadian National Championship, Runner Up Scripps National Spelling Bee, Sixth place Finalist Spelling Bee of Canada Ottawa Regional Intermediate Champion Spelling Bee of Canada Championship Ontario Provincial Intermediate Champion 2012 Postmedia Canspell Ottawa Regional Champion Postmedia Canspell Canadian National Championship, Fifth place Spelling Bee of Canada Ottawa Regional Intermediate Champion Spelling Bee of Canada, fourth place Ontario Championship 2013 Spelling Bee of Canada Ottawa Regional Intermediate Champion Spelling Bee of Canada Championship Ontario Provincial Intermediate Champion "Canadian Ambassador quizzes young spellers..."

2008-05-28 CanWest MediaWorks Publications Inc, "Spellers Battle Jitters..." 2012-03-28 Caitlin Orr, Postmedia News, Ottawa Citizen p. A4. Veronica Penny and Jiwon Seo interview 2011-06-03 Scripps National Spelling Bee