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Politics of Hong Kong

The politics of Hong Kong takes place in a framework of a political system dominated by its quasi-constitutional document, the Hong Kong Basic Law, its own legislature, the Chief Executive as the head of government and of the Special Administrative Region and of a politically constrained multi-party system. The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China is led by the Chief Executive, the head of government. On 1 July 1997, sovereignty of Hong Kong was transferred to China, ending over one and a half centuries of British rule. Hong Kong became a Special Administrative Region of the PRC with a high degree of autonomy in all matters except foreign affairs and defence, which are responsibilities of the PRC government. According to the Sino-British Joint Declaration and the Basic Law, Hong Kong will retain its political and judicial systems and unique way of life and continue to participate in international agreements and organisations as a dependent territory for at least 50 years after retrocession.

For instance, the International Olympic Committee recognises Hong Kong as a participating dependency under the name, "Hong Kong, China", separate from the delegation from the People's Republic of China. The Economist Intelligence Unit rated Hong Kong a "flawed democracy" in 2019. In accordance with Article 31 of the Constitution of the People's Republic of China, Hong Kong has Special Administrative Region status which provides constitutional guarantees for implementing the policy of "one country, two systems"; the Basic Law, Hong Kong's constitutional document, was approved in March 1990 by National People's Congress of China, entered into force upon the transfer of sovereignty on 1 July 1997. The Hong Kong government is economically liberal, but universal suffrage is only granted in District Council elections, in elections for half of the Legislative Council; the head of the government is elected through an electoral college with the majority of its members elected by a limited number of voters within business and professional sectors.

The Chief Executive is the head of the special administrative region, is the highest-ranking official in the Government of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, is the head of the executive branch. The Chief Executive is elected by a 1200-member Election Committee drawn from the voters in the functional constituencies but from religious organisations and municipal and central government bodies; the Executive Council, the top policy organ of the executive government that advises on policy matters, is appointed by the Chief Executive. In accordance with Article 26 of the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, permanent residents of Hong Kong are eligible to vote in direct elections for the 35 seats representing geographical constituencies and 35 seats from functional constituencies in the 70-seat, unicameral Legislative Council. Within functional constituencies, 5 seats attribute to District Council which regards the entire city as a single electoral constituency; the franchise for the other 30 seats is limited to about 230,000 voters in the other functional constituencies.

The Judiciary consists of a series of courts, of which the court of final adjudication is the Court of Final Appeal. While Hong Kong retains the common law system, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress of China has the power of final interpretation of national laws affecting Hong Kong, including the Basic Law, its opinions are therefore binding on Hong Kong courts on a prospective basis. On 29 January 1999, the Court of Final Appeal, the highest judicial authority in Hong Kong interpreted several Articles of the Basic Law, in such a way that the Government estimated would allow 1.6 million Mainland China immigrants to enter Hong Kong within ten years. This caused widespread concerns among the public on the economic consequences. While some in the legal sector advocated that the National People's Congress should be asked to amend the part of the Basic Law to redress the problem, the Government of Hong Kong decided to seek an interpretation to, rather than an amendment of, the relevant Basic Law provisions from the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress.

The NPCSC issued an interpretation in favour of the Hong Kong Government in June 1999, thereby overturning parts of the court decision. While the full powers of NPCSC to interpret the Basic Law is provided for in the Basic Law itself, some critics argue this undermines judicial independence; the Hong Kong 1 July March is an annual protest rally led by the Civil Human Rights Front since the 1997 handover on the HKSAR establishment day. However, it was only in 2003 when it drew large public attention by opposing the bill of the Article 23, it has become the annual platform for demanding universal suffrage, calling for observance and preservation civil liberties such as free speech, venting dissatisfaction with the Hong Kong Government or the Chief Executive, rallying against actions of the Pro-Beijing camp. In 2003, the HKSAR Government proposed to implement Article 23 of the Basic Law by enacting national security bill against acts such as treason, subversion and sedition. However, there were concerns that the legislation would infringe human rights by introducing the mainland's concept of "national security" into the HKSAR.

Together with the general dissatisfaction with the Tung administration, about 500,000 people participated in this protest. Article 23 enactment was "temporarily suspended". Towards the end of 2003, the focus of political controversy shifted to the dispute of how subsequent Chi

2002 São Toméan legislative election

On 3 March 2002, São Tomé and Príncipe held its fourth National Assembly election since the introduction of multi-party politics in 1990. Voter turnout was 66.3 percent. On 8 December 2001, President Fradique de Menezes issued a decree dissolving the Parliament and calling elections on 3 March 2002; the decree was issued after the President and representatives of political parties signed an agreement aimed at establishing a more representative executive, formed of at least two or three of the parties receiving the most votes. This agreement, valid for two terms, was intended to resolve the political crisis which broke out in September 2001, when the opposition Movement for the Liberation of São Tomé and Príncipe walked out of Parliament; the main political groups in contention were the alliance between the President de Menezes' Force for Change Democratic Movement and the Democratic Convergence Party. The campaign focused on promises to use projected oil revenue to modernise agriculture, improve education and attract foreign investment.

The run-up to the elections was clouded by allegations that some parties had distributed money to voters. The MLSTP leader claimed that the other political forces were spending large amounts of foreign funds for campaigning, accusations which were denied by these parties. About 60 per cent of the country's nearly 61,000 voters cast ballots, international observers declared the elections free and fair; the elections failed to produce a clear winner, as the opposition MLSTP took 24 of the 55 seats in Parliament, just one more than President de Menezes' Force for Change Democratic Movement. The eight remaining seats went to a coalition led by the Independent Democratic Action of former President Miguel Trovoada. On 27 March 2002, President Fradique de Menezes ended three weeks of political deadlock by asking the country's envoy to Portugal, Gabriel Costa, to form a government; the latter formed a government with representatives from the three main political coalitions. Source: Inter-Parliamentary Union

Cute 'n' Country

Cute'n' Country is the second studio album by American country music artist Connie Smith. The album was produced by Bob Ferguson; the album featured the major hit single from the year, "I Can't Remember". The album itself peaked within the top 10 on the Top Country Albums chart upon its release in 1965. Cute'n' Country was Connie Smith's second full studio album and was recorded in Nashville, Tennessee, in 1965; the album was released on a 12-inch LP album and consisted of twelve tracks, with six on each side of the record. The album was similar to that of her previous self-titled release, containing songs produced in the Nashville Sound style. Three of the songs on the album were written by Bill Anderson, who co-wrote Smith's songs on her last album, along with his wife, Bette Anderson; the album included cover versions of Ray Price's "I'll Be There" and Justin Tubb's "Love Is No Excuse". The album was reviewed by Allmusic. Reviewer Richie Unterberger credited the sound of the album to be "tasteful Nashville country-pop, neither too down-home nor too slick."

The only single from Cute'n' Country, "I Can't Remember", was released in mid-1965 and became a major hit, reaching a peak of No. 9 on the Billboard Country Chart, becoming her third top-10 hit single. In addition, the album reached a peak position on the albums chart. Cute'n' Country peaked at No. 1 on the Billboard Magazine Top Country Albums chart, becoming Smith's second consecutive album in a row to reach No. 1 on that chart. No additional singles were released. Connie Smith - lead vocals Kenneth Buttreydrums Anita Carter – background vocals Floyd Chancebass Ray Edentonguitar Dorothy Dillard – background vocals Bobby Dyson – electric bass guitar Jan Howard – background vocals Ron Huskey – bass Anita Kerr – background vocals Jimmy Lance – guitar Charlie McCoy – bass guitar Leonard Miller – drums Weldon Myrick – steel guitar Louis Nunley – background vocals Jerry Reed – guitar Hargus "Pig" Robbinspiano Hal Rugg – steel guitar Velma Smith – guitar Gordon Stoker – background vocals Pete Wade – guitar Ray Walker – background vocals James Wilkerson – bass guitar William Wright – background vocals AlbumSingles

1976 UEFA Cup Final

The 1976 UEFA Cup Final were association football matches played over two-legs between Liverpool of England and Club Brugge of Belgium on 28 April 1976 and 19 May 1976 at Anfield and the Olympiastadion, Brugge. It was the final of the 1975 -- 76 season of the UEFA Cup. Liverpool were appearing in their second final. Brugge were appearing in their first European final and were the first Belgian team to reach the final of a European competition; each club needed to progress through five rounds to reach the final. Matches were contested with one at each team's home ground. Liverpool's ties varied from comfortable victories to close affairs, they beat Spanish team Real Sociedad 9–1 on aggregate in the second round, while they beat Spanish team Barcelona 2–1 in the semi-finals. The majority of Brugge's ties were close, their biggest margin of victory was by two goals, which occurred in both the first and third round against Lyon of France and Italian team Roma, respectively. Watched by a crowd of 50,188 at Anfield, Brugge took a two-goal lead in the first half of the first leg when Raoul Lambert and Julien Cools scored.

Liverpool recovered in the second half. A crowd of 29,423 at the Olympiastadion saw Brugge take the lead in the 11th minute of the second leg. Liverpool equalised four minutes when Keegan scored; the scores remained the same throughout the remainder of the match, resulting in a 1–1 draw. Thus, Liverpool won the final 4–3 on aggregate to secure their second UEFA Cup. Liverpool qualified for the UEFA Cup by finishing as runners-up in the 1974–75 Football League, their opponents in the first round were Scottish team Hibernian. Liverpool lost the first leg at Hibernian's home stadium Easter Road 1–0, but recovered in the second leg at their home ground, winning 3–1 courtesy of a John Toshack hat-trick, they thus won the round 3–2 on aggregate. For the second round Liverpool were drawn against Spanish team Real Sociedad. A 6–0 victory in the second leg meant Liverpool won the tie 9–1 on aggregate. Liverpool's opponents in the third round were Śląsk Wrocław of Poland; the first leg at Wrocław's home ground the Stadion Oporowska was won 2–1 by Liverpool courtesy of goals from Ray Kennedy and Toshack.

A Jimmy Case hat-trick in the second leg at Anfield secured a 3–0 victory for Liverpool, which meant they progressed to the quarter-finals with a 5–1 aggregate victory. Liverpool's next opponents were East German team Dynamo Dresden; the first leg in East Germany ended in a 0–0 draw, after Liverpool goalkeeper Ray Clemence saved a penalty from Peter Kotte. A 2–1 victory in the second leg courtesy of goals from Case and Kevin Keegan meant Liverpool progressed to the semi-finals courtesy of a 2–1 aggregate victory. Spanish team Barcelona were the opposition in the semi-finals; the first leg was held at Barcelona's home ground the Camp Nou. Liverpool won the match 1 -- 0; the second leg at Anfield saw. Barcelona equalised a minute but were unable to score again before the final whistle; the match ended 1–1. Club Brugge gained entry to the UEFA Cup by finishing fourth in the 1974–75 Belgian First Division. Lyon of France were the opposition in the first round; the first leg, at Lyon's home ground Stade de Gerland, ended in a 4–3 defeat for Brugge.

They won the second leg at their home stadium, the Olympiastadion, 3–0 to secure their place in the next round courtesy of a 6–3 aggregate victory. Their opponents in the second round were English team Ipswich Town; the first leg, at Ipswich's home ground Portman Road, was won 3–0 by the English team. Brugge needed to score at least three goals to have any chance of staying in the competition, they won the second leg 4 -- 0, to win the tie 4 -- 3 on progress to the third round. Roma were the opposition in the third round. Brugge won the first leg in Belgium 1–0 courtesy of a Julien Cools goal. Another 1–0 in the second leg at Roma's home ground, the Stadio Olimpico meant Brugge progressed to the quarter-finals courtesy of a 2–0 aggregate victory. Brugge were drawn against Milan in the quarter-finals, they won the first leg 2 -- 0 in Belgium thanks to goals from Eduard Krieger. Brugge lost the second leg 2–1, at Milan's home ground the San Siro, but still qualified for the semi-finals as a result of a 3–2 aggregate victory.

Brugge's opposition in the semi-finals were German team Hamburg. The first leg, at Hamburg's home ground the Volksparkstadion, ended in a 1–1 draw; this gave the advantage to Brugge. A 1–0 victory in the second leg in Belgium secured a 2–1 aggregate victory, which meant Brugge progressed to their first European final. Liverpool were appearing in their second UEFA Cup final, they had won the competition in 1973 when they beat Borussia Mönchengladbach 3–2. Club Brugge were appearing in their first European final and were the first Belgian team to reach the final of a European competition; the furthest they had progressed in previous European competitions was the quarter-finals of the 1970–71 European Cup Winners' Cup, where they were beaten by eventual winners Chelsea of England. Liverpool had won the 1975–76 Football League between the first and second legs of the UEFA Cup Final; as a result of their league success, Liverpool qualified for the 1976–77 European Cup as Englis

Alexander Budkin

Alexander Budkin is a Russian professional ice hockey defenceman, playing for HC Lada Togliatti in the Supreme Hockey League. Budkin began his professional career in 2003 playing for Traktor in his birth town of Chelyabinsk. After a year he moved to Kristall Saratov on to Dynamo Moscow, he remained at Dynamo Moscow until 2009 when he returned to Chelyabinsk for the 2009/10 season, although he had to open the season with Dynamo. The following year he played just six games for Severstal Cherepovets before being traded to Spartak Moscow. In May 2013 he signed a contract to return to Dynamo Moscow. In 2013 he joined Dynamo Moscow of the KHL, from Spartak Moscow. In November 2013 it was confirmed that he is being loaned to Russian Major League team Dynamo Balashikha. Budkin was part of the winning Dynamo Moscow team for the 2008 Spengler Cup. Biographical information and career statistics from Eliteprospects.com, or The Internet Hockey Database

Southern Sun Hotel Group

Southern Sun Hotels are part of Tsogo Sun Hotels, South Africa's largest hotel chain and an operator of InterContinental Hotels - branded hotels in South Africa. Southern Sun was founded in 1969 by hotelier Sol Kerzner; until 2000, Southern Sun held a 20% stake in Sol Kerzner's Sun International. Today Tsogo Sun Hotels has more than 100 hotels in South Africa, Seychelles and Mozambique. Southern Sun hotels and resorts are owned and managed by Tsogo Sun Hotels and include 24 properties such as Southern Sun The Cullinan and Southern Sun Montecasino. Southern Sun is an African hotel group with a range of brands which provide accommodation across all markets and offer a distribution of hotels in South Africa in major urban centres and key destinations. In 2005, the company moved from being a brand manager to a brand owner and is an umbrella for many brands that make up the hotel group; the group has invested in expanding into Kenya, Nigeria, Zambia and the Middle East, adding to their portfolio. Southern Sun is wholly owned by Tsogo Sun Hotels.

In June 2019 Tsogo Sun Holdings split into Tsogo Sun Gaming, which would operate the gaming and entertainment interests of the brand and Tsogo Sun Hotels, which would operate the hotel interests. Southern Sun was part of Tsogo Sun but is now operated as part of Tsogo Sun Hotels. On 13 April 2012 the Southern Sun Hotel Group merged with Tsogo Sun Gaming & Tsogo Sun Holdings to create Tsogo Sun. In June 2019 Tsogo Sun split to become Tsogo Sun Hotels and Tsogo Sun Gaming. Southern Sun hotels as well as the various other hotel brands operated by Tsogo Sun are now operated as part of Tsogo Sun Hotels. Tsogo Sun Hotels Website Tsogo Sun Gaming Website Tsogo Sun History Tsogo Sun Financials