Districts of Kazakhstan
The regions of Kazakhstan are divided into 170 districts. The districts are listed below, by region: Akkol District Arshaly District Astrakhan District Atbasar District Bulandy District Burabay District Egindikol District Enbekshilder District Ereymentau District Esil District, Akmola Province Korgalzhyn District Sandyktau District Shortandy District Tselinograd District Zerendi District Zhaksy District Zharkain District Alga District Ayteke Bi District Bayganin District Kargaly District Kobda District Khromtau District Martuk District Mugalzhar District Oiyl District Shalkar District Temir District Yrgyz District Aksu District, Almaty Region Alakol District Balkhash District Enbekshikazakh District Eskeldi District Ile District, Kazakhstan Karasay District Karatal District Kerbulak District Koksu District Panfilov District, Kazakhstan Raiymbek District Sarkant District Talgar District Uygur District Zhambyl District, Almaty Region Inder District Isatay District Kurmangazy District Kyzylkoga District Makat District Makhambet District Zhylyoi District Abay District, East Kazakhstan Ayagoz District Beskaragay District Borodulikha District Glubokoe District Katonkaragay District Kokpekti District Kurshim District Shemonaikha District Tarbagatay District Ulan District Urzhar District Zaysan District Zharma District Zyryanovsk District Abay District, Karagandy Region Aktogay District, Karagandy Region Bukhar-Zhyrau District Karkaraly District Nura District Osakarov District Shet District Ulytau District Zhanaarka District Altynsarin District Amangeldi District Auliekol District Denisov District Fyodorov District Kamysty District Karabalyk District Karasu District Kostanay District Mendykara District Nauyrzym District Sarykol District Taran District Uzunkol District Zhangeldi District Zhetikara District Aral District Karmakshy District Kazaly District Shieli District Syrdariya District Zhalagash District Zhanakorgan District Beyneu District Karakiya District Mangystau District Munaily District Tupkaragan District Aiyrtau District Akkayin District Akzhar District Esil District Gabit Musirepov District Kyzylzhar District Magzhan Zhumabaev District Mamlyut District Shal akyn District Taiynsha District Timiryazev District Ualikhanov District Zhambyl District Akku District Aktogay District, Pavlodar Region Bayanaul District Ertis District Kashyr District May District Pavlodar District Sharbakty District Uspen District Zhelezin District Baydibek District Kazygurt District Maktaaral District Ordabasy District Otyrar District Saryagash District Sayram District Shardara District Sozak District Tole Bi District Tulkibas District Akzhaik District Bokey Orda District Borili District Karatobe District Kaztal District Shyngyrlau District Syrym District Taskala District Terekti District Zelenov District Zhanakala District Zhanybek District Bayzak District Korday District Merke District Moiynkum District Sarysu District Shu District Talas District Turar Ryskulov District Zhambyl District, Zhambyl Region Zhualy District Regions of Kazakhstan Statoids Districts of Kazakhstan Districts of Kazakhstan Subdivisions of Kazakhstan in local languages
A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses. Bicameralism is distinguished from unicameralism, in which all members deliberate and vote as a single group, from some legislatures that have three or more separate assemblies, chambers, or houses; as of 2015, fewer than half the world's national legislatures. The members of the two chambers are elected or selected by different methods, which vary from country to country; this can lead to the two chambers having different compositions of members. Enactment of primary legislation requires a concurrent majority – the approval of a majority of members in each of the chambers of the legislature; when this is the case, the legislature may be called an example of perfect bicameralism. However, in many Westminster system parliaments, the house to which the executive is responsible can overrule the other house and may be regarded as an example of imperfect bicameralism; some legislatures lie in between these two positions, with one house only able to overrule the other under certain circumstances.
The Founding Fathers of the United States favoured a bicameral legislature. The idea was to have the Senate be wiser. Benjamin Rush saw this though, noted that "this type of dominion is always connected with opulence"; the Senate was created to be a stabilising force, elected not by mass electors, but selected by the State legislators. Senators would be more knowledgeable and more deliberate—a sort of republican nobility—and a counter to what Madison saw as the "fickleness and passion" that could absorb the House, he noted further that "The use of the Senate is to consist in its proceeding with more coolness, with more system and with more wisdom, than the popular branch." Madison's argument led the Framers to grant the Senate prerogatives in foreign policy, an area where steadiness and caution were deemed important. State legislators chose the Senate, senators had to possess significant property to be deemed worthy and sensible enough for the position. In 1913, the 17th Amendment passed, which mandated choosing Senators by popular vote rather than State legislatures.
As part of the Great Compromise, the Founding Fathers invented a new rationale for bicameralism in which the Senate had states represented and the House had them represented by population. The British Parliament is referred to as the Mother of Parliaments because the British Parliament has been the model for most other parliamentary systems, its Acts have created many other parliaments. Many nations with parliaments have to some degree emulated the British "three-tier" model. Most countries in Europe and the Commonwealth have organised parliaments with a ceremonial head of state who formally opens and closes parliament, a large elected lower house, a smaller upper house. A formidable sinister interest may always obtain the complete command of a dominant assembly by some chance and for a moment, it is therefore of great use to have a second chamber of an opposite sort, differently composed, in which that interest in all likelihood will not rule. There have been a number of rationales put forward in favour of bicameralism, federal states have adopted it, the solution remains popular when regional differences or sensitivities require more explicit representation, with the second chamber representing the constituent states.
The older justification for second chambers—providing opportunities for second thoughts about legislation—has survived. Growing awareness of the complexity of the notion of representation and the multifunctional nature of modern legislatures may be affording incipient new rationales for second chambers, though these do remain contested institutions in ways that first chambers are not. An example of political controversy regarding a second chamber has been the debate over the powers of the Senate of Canada or the election of the Senate of France; the relationship between the two chambers varies. The first tends to be those with presidential governments; the latter tends to be the case in unitary states with parliamentary systems. There are two streams of thought: Critics believe bicameralism makes meaningful political reforms more difficult to achieve and increases the risk of gridlock—particularly in cases where both chambers have similar powers—while proponents argue the merits of the "checks and balances" provided by the bicameral model, which they believe help prevent the passage into law of ill-considered legislation.
Formal communication between houses is by various methods, including: Sending messages Formal notices, such as of resolutions or the passing of bills done in writing, via the clerk and speaker of each house Transmission of bills or amendment to bills requiring agreement from the other house Joint session a plenary session of both houses at the same time and place. Joint committees which may be formed by committees of each house agreeing to join, or by joint resolution of each house Conferences Conferences of the Houses of the English Parliament met in the Painted Chamber of the Palace of Westminster. There were a distinction between an "ordinary conference" and a "free conference". A "free conference" meets in private to resolve a dispute; the last fr
Prime Minister of Kazakhstan
The Prime Minister of Kazakhstan is the head of government of Kazakhstan and the second most powerful person in the country after the President of Kazakhstan. The Prime Minister heads the cabinet and advises the President in the every day execution of the functions of the Parliament of Kazakhstan; this is a list of Prime Ministers of Kazakhstan from the establishment of the office in 1920 to the present day. Viktor Radus-Zenkovich Mukhamedkhafiy Murzagaliyev Saken Seyfullin Nygmet Nurmakov Nygmet Nurmakov Uraz Isayev Uraz Isayev Ibragim Tazhiyev Nurtas Undasynov Nurtas Undasynov Elubai Taibekov Dinmukhamed Kunaev Zhumabek Tashenev Salken Daulenov Masymkhan Beysembayev Dinmukhamed Konayev Masymkhan Beysembayev Bayken Ashimov Nursultan Nazarbayev Uzakbay Karamanov Uzakbay Karamanov People's Union of Kazakhstan Unity / Otan / Nur Otan Independent List of leaders of Kazakhstan Official Site of the Prime Minister of Kazakhstan PrimeMinister.kz on Youtube Премьер-Министр Казахстана on Google Play
Head of government
Head of government is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, who presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments. The term "head of government" is differentiated from the term "head of state", as they may be separate positions, individuals, or roles depending on the country; the authority of a head of government, such as a president, chancellor, or prime minister and the relationship between that position and other state institutions, such as the relation between the head of state and of the legislature, varies among sovereign states, depending on the particular system of the government, chosen, won, or evolved over time. In parliamentary systems, including constitutional monarchies, the head of government is the de facto political leader of the government, is answerable to one chamber or the entire legislature. Although there is a formal reporting relationship to a head of state, the latter acts as a figurehead who may take the role of chief executive on limited occasions, either when receiving constitutional advice from the head of government or under specific provisions in a constitution.
In presidential republics or in absolute monarchies, the head of state is usually the head of government. The relationship between that leader and the government, can vary ranging from separation of powers to autocracy, according to the constitution of the particular state. In semi-presidential systems, the head of government may answer to both the head of state and the legislature, with the specifics provided by each country's constitution. A modern example is the present French government, which originated as the French Fifth Republic in 1958. In France, the president, the head of state, appoints the prime minister, the head of government. However, the president must choose someone who can act as an executive, but who enjoys the support of the France's legislature, the National Assembly, in order to be able to pass legislation. In some cases, the head of state may represent one political party but the majority in the National Assembly is of a different party. Given that the majority party has greater control over state funding and primary legislation, the president is in effect forced to choose a prime minister from the opposition party in order to ensure an effective, functioning legislature.
In this case, known as cohabitation, the prime minister, along with the cabinet, controls domestic policy, with the president's influence restricted to foreign affairs. In directorial systems, the executive responsibilities of the head of government are spread among a group of people. A prominent example is the Swiss Federal Council, where each member of the council heads a department and votes on proposals relating to all departments. A common title for many heads of government is prime minister; this is used as a formal title in many states, but informally a generic term to describe whichever office is considered the principal minister under an otherwise styled head of state, as minister — Latin for servants or subordinates — is a common title for members of a government. Formally the head of state can be the head of government as well but otherwise has formal precedence over the Head of Government and other ministers, whether he is their actual political superior or rather theoretical or ceremonial in character.
Various constitutions use different titles, the same title can have various multiple meanings, depending on the constitutional order and political system of the state in question. In addition to prime minister, titles used for the democratic model, where there is an elected legislative body checking the Head of government, include the following; some of these titles relate to governments below the national level. Chancellor Chairman of the Executive Council Chief Minister Chief Executive First Minister Minister-President Premier President of the Council of Ministers President of the Council of State President of the Executive Council President of the Government Prime Minister State Counsellor State President Albanian: Kryeministër Bengali: For the Prime Minister of Bangladesh Pradan Mantri.
Constitution of Kazakhstan
The Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan is the highest law of Kazakhstan, as stated in Article 4. The Constitution was approved by referendum on 30 August 1995; this date has since been adopted as the "Constitution Day of the Republic of Kazakhstan". The preamble of the constitution emphasizes the importance of "freedom and concord" and Kazakhstan's role in the international community."We, the people of Kazakhstan, united by a common historic fate, creating a state on the indigenous Kazakh land, considering ourselves a peace-loving and civil society, dedicated to the ideals of freedom and concord, wishing to take a worthy place in the world community, realizing our high responsibility before the present and future generations, proceeding from our sovereign right, accept this Constitution." Article 1 establishes the state as a secular democracy that values individual "life and freedoms." It outlines social and "political stability, economic development," patriotism, democracy as the principles upon which the Government serves.
This is the first article. Article 2 states that Kazakhstan is a unitary state and the government is presidential; the government has jurisdiction over, is responsible for, all territory in Kazakhstan. Regional, political divisions, including location of the capital, are left open to lower level legislation. "Republic of Kazakhstan" and "Kazakhstan" are considered the same. The government's power is derived from the people and citizens have the right to vote in referendums and free elections. Article 3 establishes provincial government. Representation of the people is a right reserved to legislative branches; the government is divided between the executive and judicial branches. Each branch is prevented from abusing its power by a system of balances; this is the first article to mention constitutional limits on the executive branch. Laws that are in effect include "provisions of the Constitution, the laws corresponding to it, other regulatory legal acts, international treaty and other commitments of the Republic as well as regulatory resolutions of Constitutional Council and the Supreme Court of the Republic."
The Constitution is made the highest law. Ratified international treaties supersede national laws and are enforced, except in cases when upon ratification the Parliament recognizes contradictions between treaties and enacted laws, in which case the treaty will not go into effect until the contradiction has been dealt with through legislation; the government shall publish all laws. Government of Kazakhstan Politics of Kazakhstan Constitution of Russia Terrorism and counter-terrorism in Kazakhstan Constitutional economics Constitutionalism Rule according to higher law Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan
President of Kazakhstan
The President of the Republic of Kazakhstan is the head of state, commander-in-chief and holder of the highest office within the Republic of Kazakhstan. The powers of this position are described in a special section of the Constitution of Kazakhstan; the position was established on 24 April 1990, a year before the dissolution of the Soviet Union. The first and, until March 2019, the only President of Kazakhstan was Nursultan Nazarbayev. None of the presidential elections held in Kazakhstan have been considered free or fair by Western countries or international observers with issues noted including ballot tampering, multiple voting, harassment of opposition candidates and press censorship; the President of Kazakhstan's decorations include a Presidential Standard. The Standard of the President of Kazakhstan is similar to the national flag in that it is rectangular in shape with a ratio of 1:2. In the center of the standard is the Emblem of Kazakhstan, it is bordered on three sides with golden fringe.
The current presidential standard has been in service as as 2012. The former standard, used from 1995–2012, was a light blue rectangle there with a golden circle in which the figure of the young Kazakh leader Sakas riding a snow leopard; the Order of the Golden Eagle is the highest civilian award that can be awarded by the President of Kazakhstan. Its purpose is to recognize outstanding service to the country by foreign citizens; as head of state, the President is de facto Commander special class of the Order of Altyn Kyran. Item 5 of Article 42 of the Constitution determines that no one can be elected president more than two terms in a row, but it states that "The present restriction shall not extend on the First President of the Republic of Kazakhstan." Article 46 says that the President's "honor and dignity shall be inviolable" and that his expenses shall be paid by the state. Item 4 of the article outlines the special status and authority of the first president, refers to a special constitutional act for definitions.
According to this act, the first president possesses total and termless immunity for all actions he performs while in office, that he remains a government official until his death. He retains the ability to speak to the people of Kazakhstan, keeps guards, communication and state support of his activity, that his official apartment and summer residence became his property with official maintenance, he is provided with medical care, sanatorium and insurance. On April 26, 2015 Nursultan Nazarbayev was re-elected for his 5th presidential term; the official ceremony of the inauguration took place at the Palace of Independence in Astana on April 29. At the inauguration ceremony the re-elected president assured the nation that he would continue the 5 institutional reforms that he had offered earlier, which would contribute to the consistent growth and development of the country. On January 25, 2017 President Nursultan Nazarbayev laid the groundwork for reforms to the constitution that would redistribute executive powers to the parliament and ministries for the purpose of more open and efficient governance.
The Presidential Administration of the Republic of Kazakhstan reports directly to the president and aids him/her in their everyday dates. It was established in accordance of Presidential Decree No. 2565 on October 20, 1995. It is based at the Ak-Orda Presidential Palace in the capital city of Astana. Prior to that, it was based in Almaty. Nurtai Abykayev Saginbek Tursunov Akhmetzhan Yesimov Oralbay Abdykarimov Sarybai Kalmurzaev Vladimir Shepel Akhmetzhan Yesimov Alikhan Baimenov Sarybai Kalmurzaev Nurtai Abykayev Imangali Tasmagambetov Adilbek Dzhaksybekov Kairat Kelimbetov Aslan Musin Karim Massimov Nurlan Nigmatulin Adilbek Dzhaksybekov Aset Issekeshev Prior to the 2011 election, President Nazarbayev wrote an op-ed for the Washington Post titled "Kazakhstan’s steady progress toward democracy". Kazakhstan's fifth presidential election was held on April 26, 2015. Nursultan Nazarbayev was re-elected with 97.7% of the vote. A total of 858 observers from 19 countries were present at the polling stations during the election.
The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe and other international monitors criticised the election as unfair, with issues noted including the closure of media outlets critical of the government and the jailing of opposition activists. OSCE spokesperson Cornelia Jonker criticised the lack of a "genuine choice" for voters and argued that there were "significant restrictions to the freedom of expression." The "No." column consecutively numbers the individuals who have served as president, while the "Elected" column consecutively numbers the Presidential terms or administrations. List of leaders of Kazakhstan Official website of Kazakhstan President Nazarbayev Kazakhstan President Nazarbayev Biography
A republic is a form of government in which the country is considered a “public matter”, not the private concern or property of the rulers. The primary positions of power within a republic are not inherited, but are attained through democracy, oligarchy or autocracy, it is a form of government. In the context of American constitutional law, the definition of republic refers to a form of government in which elected individuals represent the citizen body and exercise power according to the rule of law under a constitution, including separation of powers with an elected head of state, referred to as a constitutional republic or representative democracy; as of 2017, 159 of the world’s 206 sovereign states use the word “republic” as part of their official names – not all of these are republics in the sense of having elected governments, nor is the word “republic” used in the names of all nations with elected governments. While heads of state tend to claim that they rule only by the “consent of the governed”, elections in some countries have been found to be held more for the purpose of “show” than for the actual purpose of in reality providing citizens with any genuine ability to choose their own leaders.
The word republic comes from the Latin term res publica, which means “public thing,” “public matter,” or “public affair” and was used to refer to the state as a whole. The term developed its modern meaning in reference to the constitution of the ancient Roman Republic, lasting from the overthrow of the kings in 509 B. C. to the establishment of the Empire in 27 B. C; this constitution was characterized by a Senate composed of wealthy aristocrats and wielding significant influence. Most a republic is a single sovereign state, but there are sub-sovereign state entities that are referred to as republics, or that have governments that are described as “republican” in nature. For instance, Article IV of the United States Constitution "guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican form of Government". In contrast, the former Soviet Union, which described itself as being a group of “Republics” and as a “federal multinational state composed of 15 republics”, was viewed as being a totalitarian form of government and not a genuine republic, since its electoral system was structured so as to automatically guarantee the election of government-sponsored candidates.
The term originates from the Latin translation of Greek word politeia. Cicero, among other Latin writers, translated politeia as res publica and it was in turn translated by Renaissance scholars as "republic"; the term politeia can be translated as form of government, polity, or regime and is therefore not always a word for a specific type of regime as the modern word republic is. One of Plato's major works on political science was titled Politeia and in English it is thus known as The Republic. However, apart from the title, in modern translations of The Republic, alternative translations of politeia are used. However, in Book III of his Politics, Aristotle was the first classical writer to state that the term politeia can be used to refer more to one type of politeia: "When the citizens at large govern for the public good, it is called by the name common to all governments, government". Amongst classical Latin, the term "republic" can be used in a general way to refer to any regime, or in a specific way to refer to governments which work for the public good.
In medieval Northern Italy, a number of city states had signoria based governments. In the late Middle Ages, writers such as Giovanni Villani began writing about the nature of these states and the differences from other types of regime, they used terms such as a free people, to describe the states. The terminology changed in the 15th century as the renewed interest in the writings of Ancient Rome caused writers to prefer using classical terminology. To describe non-monarchical states writers, most Leonardo Bruni, adopted the Latin phrase res publica. While Bruni and Machiavelli used the term to describe the states of Northern Italy, which were not monarchies, the term res publica has a set of interrelated meanings in the original Latin; the term can quite be translated as "public matter". It was most used by Roman writers to refer to the state and government during the period of the Roman Empire. In subsequent centuries, the English word "commonwealth" came to be used as a translation of res publica, its use in English was comparable to how the Romans used the term res publica.
Notably, during The Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell the word commonwealth was the most common term to call the new monarchless state, but the word republic was in common use. In Polish the term was translated as rzeczpospolita, although the translation is now only used with respect to Poland. Presently, the term "republic" means a system of government which derives its power from the people rather than from another basis, such as heredity or divine right. While the philosophical terminology developed in classical Greece and Rome, as noted by Aristotle there was a long history of city states with a wide variety of constitutions, not only in Greece but in the Middle East. After the classical period, during the Middle Ages, many free cities developed again, such as Venice; the modern type of "republic" itself is different from any type of state found in the c