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Politics of North Korea

The politics of North Korea takes place within the framework of the official state philosophy, Juche, a concept created by Hwang Jang-yop and attributed to Kim Il-sung. The Juche theory is the belief that through self-reliance and a strong independent state, true socialism can be achieved. North Korea's political system is built upon the principle of centralization. While the North Korean constitution formally guarantees protection of human rights, in practice there are severe limits on freedom of expression, the government supervises the lives of North Korean citizens; the constitution defines North Korea as "a dictatorship of people's democracy" under the leadership of the Workers' Party of Korea, given legal supremacy over other political parties. The WPK is the ruling party of North Korea, it has been in power since its creation in 1948. Two minor political parties exist, but are bound to accept the ruling role of the WPK. They, with the WPK, comprise the popular front Democratic Front for the Reunification of the Fatherland.

Elections occur only in single-candidate races where the candidate is selected beforehand by the WPK. In addition to the parties, there are over 100 mass organizations controlled by the WPK; those who are not WPK members are required to join one of these organizations. Of these, the most important ones are the Kimilsungist-Kimjongilist Youth League, Socialist Women's Union of Korea, General Federation of Trade Unions of Korea, Union of Agricultural Workers of Korea; these four organizations are DFRF members. Kim Il-sung ruled the country from 1948 until his death in July 1994, holding the offices of General Secretary of the WPK from 1949 to 1994, Premier of North Korea from 1948 to 1972 and President from 1972 to 1994, he was succeeded by Kim Jong-il. While the younger Kim had been his father's designated successor since the 1980s, it took him three years to consolidate his power, he was named to his father's old post of General Secretary in 1997, in 1998 became chairman of the National Defence Commission, which gave him command of the armed forces.

The constitution was amended to make the NDC chairmanship "the highest post in the state." At the same time, the presidential post was written out of the constitution, Kim Il-sung was designated "Eternal President of the Republic" in order to honor his memory forever. Most analysts believe the title to be a product of the cult of personality he cultivated during his life. Outside observers view North Korea as a Stalinist dictatorship noting the elaborate cult of personality around Kim Il-sung and his family; the Workers' Party of Korea, led by a member of the ruling family, holds power in the state and leads the Democratic Front for the Reunification of the Fatherland of which all political officers are required to be members. The government has formally replaced all references to Marxism–Leninism in its constitution with the locally developed concept of Juche, or self-reliance. In recent years, there has been great emphasis on "military-first" philosophy. All references to communism were removed from the North Korean constitution in 2009.

The status of the military has been enhanced, it appears to occupy the center of the North Korean political system. Kim Jong-il's public activity focused on "on-the-spot guidance" of places and events related to the military; the enhanced status of the military and military-centered political system was confirmed at the first session of the 10th Supreme People's Assembly by the promotion of NDC members into the official power hierarchy. All ten NDC members were ranked within the top twenty on 5 September, all but one occupied the top twenty at the fiftieth anniversary of the Day of the Foundation of the Republic on 9 September. According to the Constitution of North Korea, the country is a democratic republic and the Supreme People's Assembly and Provincial People's Assemblies are elected by direct universal suffrage and secret ballot. Suffrage is guaranteed to all citizens aged 17 and over. In reality, elections in North Korea are for feature single-candidate races only; those who want to vote against the sole candidate on the ballot must go to a special booth - in the presence of an electoral official - to cross out the candidate's name before dropping it into the ballot box—an act which, according to many North Korean defectors, is far too risky to contemplate.

All elected candidates are members of the Democratic Front for the Reunification of the Fatherland, a popular front dominated by the ruling Workers' Party of Korea. The two minor parties in the coalition are the Chondoist Chongu Party and the Korean Social Democratic Party; the WPK exercises direct control over the candidates selected for election by members of the other two parties. In the past, elections were contested by other minor parties as well, including the Korea Buddhist Federation, Democratic Independent Party, Dongro People's Party, Gonmin People's Alliance, People's Republic Party. A close ally of Joseph Stalin's Soviet Union, North Korea has emphasized Juche, an adoption of socialist self-reliance, which roots from Marxism–Leninism, its adoption of a certain ideological form of Marxism-Leninism is specific to the conditions of North Korea. Juche was enshrined as the official ideology when the country adopted a new constitution in 1972. In 2009, the constitution was amended again removing the brief references to communism.

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Robert Griffiths (physicist)

Robert B. Griffiths is an American physicist at Carnegie Mellon University, he is the originator of the consistent histories approach to quantum mechanics, which has since been developed by himself, Roland Omnès, Murray Gell-Mann, James Hartle. Robert B. Griffiths was born in Uttar Pradesh in 1937 to Presbyterian missionaries. Griffiths attended Woodstock School, India from fourth standard to tenth, along with his brothers and sisters. During his Woodstock days, Griffiths' mathematical and scientific aptitude was apparent; the 1952 year book remarks that "Robert is famous for his long arguments in chemistry class, his ability to'recite' the log tables indelibly written in his brain, his skill when it comes to fixing anything electrical." This knack for electrical systems kept Griffiths at Woodstock through part of 1953, working with the school's various wiring systems. Following his time at Woodstock, Griffiths attended Princeton University where he earned a BA in Physics in 1957, he earned both an MSc and PhD in Physics from Stanford University in 1958 and 1962 respectively.

He was a Postdoctoral Fellow of the University of California, San Diego, from 1962–1964, Assistant Professor at Carnegie Mellon University from 1964–1967, becoming Associate Professor in 1967 and Professor in 1969. Since that time, Griffiths' academic contributions have been recognized. Robert Griffiths was awarded a Phi Beta Kappa in 1956, was a National Science Foundation Postdoctoral Fellow from 1962–1964, an Alfred P. Sloan Research Fellow from 1966–1968, a John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation Fellow in 1972, was given the US Senior Scientist Award of the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation in 1973. In 1981, he was awarded the A. Cressy Morrison Award of the New York Academy of Sciences, in 1984, the Dannie Heineman Prize for Mathematical Physics, in 1987 he was elected to the National Academy of Sciences. Griffiths is well known for his research on statistical mechanics in the sixties and seventies of the last century, including exact inequalities in the Ising model and the introduction of the Blume-Emery-Griffiths model, describing tricritical points.

Within his more recent work and research, Griffiths' primary focus has been in the field of quantum mechanics. Of the research, he has noted that "Quantum mechanics is hard to understand not only because it involves unfamiliar mathematics, but because the usual discussion in textbooks about how to relate the mathematics to the real world is incomplete", it is this application of quantum information to the real world. In 1984, he initiated a research program which sought to supply the missing link between theory and application while working out an consistent form of quantum theory. Along with contributions of several key colleagues, the project resulted in what is now called the consistent history approach to quantum theory, now studied and applied in several areas of the field of quantum mechanics. At present, Griffiths is the Otto Stern University Professor of Physics at Carnegie Mellon University, he has published over 140 articles, as well as the book Consistent Quantum Theory. He is a member of Sigma Xi, a Fellow of the American Physical Society and a Fellow of the American Scientific Affiliation.

Griffiths' research interests continue to include the foundations of quantum mechanics, quantum computation, the relation of physical science and Christian theology. Consistent Histories: Questions and Answers Home Page of Robert B. Griffiths


Nanoelectrochemistry is a branch of electrochemistry that investigates the electrical and electrochemical properties of materials at the nanometer size regime. Nanoelectrochemistry plays significant role in the fabrication of various sensors, devices for detecting molecules at low concentrations. Two transport mechanisms are fundamental for nanoelectrochemistry: electron transfer and mass transport; the formulation of theoretical models allows to understand the role of the different species involved in the electrochemical reactions. The electron transfer between the reactant and the nanoelectrode can be explained by the combination of various theories based on the Marcus theory. Mass transport, the diffusion of the reactant molecules from the electrolyte bulk to the nanoelectrode, is influenced by the formation of a double electric layer at the electrode/electrolyte interface. At the nanoscale it is necessary to theorize a dynamic double electric layer which takes into account an overlap of the Stern layer and the diffuse layer.

Knowledge of the mechanisms involved allows to build computational models that combine the density functional theory with electron transfer theories and the dynamic double electric layer. In the field of molecular modelling, accurate models could predict the behaviour of the system as reactants, electrolyte or electrode change; the role of the surface is reaction-specific: in fact, one site can catalyze certain reactions and inhibit other ones. According to TSK model, surface atoms in nanocrystals can occupy terrace, step or kink positions: each site has a different tendency to adsorb reactants and to let them move along the surface. Sites having lower coordination number are more reactive due to their high free energy. High energy sites, are less thermodynamically stable and nanocrystals have a tendency to transform to their equilibrium shape. Thanks to the progress in nanoparticles synthesis it is now possible to have a single-crystal approach to surface science, allowing more precise research on the effect of a given surface.

Studies have been conducted on nanoelectrodes exposing a, or plane to a solution containing the reactants, in order to define the surface effect on reaction rate and selectivity of the most common electrochemical reactions. Nanoelectrodes are tiny electrodes made of metals or semiconducting materials having typical dimensions of 1-100 nm. Various forms of nanoelectrodes have been developed taking advantage of the different possible fabrication techniques: among the most studied are the nanoband, hemispherical, nanopore geometries as well as the different forms of carbon nanostructures, it is necessary to characterize each produced electrode: size and shape determine its behaviour. The most used characterization techniques are: Electron microscopy Steady-state voltammetry Atomic force microscopy scanning electrochemical microscopy There are two properties that distinguish nanoelectrodes from electrodes: smaller RC constant and faster mass transfer; the former allows measurements to be made in high-resistance solutions because they offer less resistance, the latter, due to radial diffusion, allows much faster voltammetry responses.

Due to these and other properties, nanoelectrodes are used in various applications: Studying the kinetics of fast reactions Electrochemical reactions Studying small volumes, such as cells or single molecules As probes for obtaining high-resolution images with scanning electrochemical microscopy Electrochemical characterisation of atomic layers and multilayers

Neon Genesis Evangelion 2

Neon Genesis Evangelion 2 is a Japanese video game for the PlayStation 2 developed by Alfa System and published by Bandai. It has role-playing video game and world-controlling elements, allows the player to follow a number of characters through multiple versions of the main plot of the anime Neon Genesis Evangelion; the PlayStation Portable port was released 2006-04-27 as Neon Genesis Evangelion 2 -Another Cases-. The 24 topics were named in total "Classified Information"; the topics expand upon the back-story: Adam and Lilith are settlers sent to Earth in what would become Earth's moon by a "First Ancestral Race", with "Seeds" and Spears of Longinus. The various Angels seek out the Black Moon of Lilith because they are seeking Adam. While the information seems to have been based on extensive interviews with Hideaki Anno, creator of the franchise, the canonicity of the information in the game has never been stated, as the involvement of the original Gainax staff was limited to the Classified Information material.

However, Gainax continuously states that all necessary information has been provided in the series and film. Besides the additional information, Neon Genesis Evangelion 2 introduced a number of additions like F-type Equipment and the final products of the Jet Alone project, includes several "Scenarios", including of comedic value, that disregard canon. Only Scenario 01, one of Shinji's scenarios, follows the series' own storyline closely; the player controls the Eva walking around a large map. The player is given a list of action commands which they can choose to attack the enemy. Once one of the action commands is chosen, a sequence will be shown, created by CGI depicting the attack; this was one of the most praised elements of the game. The game has story arcs in which the player has a list of playable characters to choose from, to play as in the story mode. For example, the 3 main characters Shinji Ikari, Rei Ayanami, Asuka Langley Soryu, are available from the start. More are unlocked; the game sold 27,583 copies the week of its release.

IGN: PS2 PSP Classified Information translation + Japanese source text Short description of game Entry at

To pontikaki

To pontikaki To pondikaki, is a 1954 Greek crime film directed by Nikos Tsiforos and starring Aliki Vougiouklaki, Dionyssis Papayannopoulos and Nikos Rizos. Loukis after his lucky breaky up and decided to resign from the police, his luck on the young florist Krinio in which she was known as The Little Mouse, they took along the hiding place in which they live with Vangelis and the leader of the council Kostas. Loukis willed to overcome his costly road and they rented a bedroom, they tried to recurn to his life The Little Mouse. The same was done by Petros. Kostas was not made much difficult for the damaging his team. Aliki Vougiouklaki..... Krinoula Giorgos Lefteriotis..... Loukis Dionyssis Papayannopoulos..... Kostas Nikos Rizos..... Vangelis Mimis Fotopoulos..... Babis Konstandinos Pappas..... police captain Rika Dialina Periklis Christoforidis Genre: Police comedy Colour: black and white Tickets: 32,558 Photographic manager: Kostas Theodoridis Apogevmatini praised the movie as a great movie. The movie hides importance as the first police production in Greece in an era on the screen, as the police movies was thought as a cheap entrance.

To pontikaki on IMDb To pontikaki at

God in Tenrikyo

In Tenrikyo, God is a single divine being and creator of the entire universe. The first two characters in the Japanese kanji for Tenri-O-no-Mikoto are 天理, where 天 refers to heaven or divinity, 理 refers to reason or knowledge, thus "Tenri" refers to divine or heavenly knowledge, in a sense adds a divine nature to truth itself whereas "天理" means "natural law" or its pseudonym, "divine law." The English name most used to refer to Tenri-Ō-no-Mikoto outside of ritual is "God the Parent". In Tenrikyo, God has no gender. Tenrikyo followers vary in their understanding of this creator, from the early understanding of spirit through the underlying natural causality and to an understanding of a parental relationship between the creator and themselves; this progression of understanding is a key teaching of Tenrikyo, where it is accepted that everything must proceed "step by step" — by small stages of understanding instead of by great leaps of faith. In historical documents and scriptures related to Tenrikyo, a number of different appellations are ascribed to God.

In the Ofudesaki, God identified as three different entities. In 1869, when the first verses were composed, God identified as kami, a spirit in the Japanese Shinto tradition; the designation kami was broader than the Abrahamic notion of God, as it could be applied to any object that possessed divine power or inspired awe, such as animals, trees and people. However, the Ofudesaki stressed the uniqueness of the kami by adding various qualifiers such as moto no kami, shinjitsu no kami, kono yō o hajimeta kami. From 1874, God began to identify as tsukihi, or moon-sun, from 1879, God began to identify as oya, or parent, though kami and tsukihi continued to be used until the last part of the scripture. In Tenrikyo's creation story, outlined in the Ofudesaki and elaborated upon in various notes on her talks known collectively as kōki, there are ten figures credited with the creation of human beings; some Tenrikyo authorities suggest that two of these figures, Kunitokotachi-no-Mikoto and Omotari-no-Mikoto, represent tsukihi, or more the duality tsuki-sama and hi-sama.

The other eight figures are tools subordinate to tsukihi that were drawn in, trained in the creation of human beings. In the Mikagura-uta, the songs of Tenrikyo's liturgy, God is referred to as kami. At the end of most of the songs, God is invoked with the name Tenri-Ō-no-Mikoto, or "absolute ruler of divine reason." The historical sources written during Nakayama Miki's lifetime and in the years following her death suggest a number of other appellations of God. In Nakayama Shinnosuke's Oyasama gyoden, the source on which The Life of Oyasama is based, Miki refers to God as ten no shōgun in the initial revelation. In early attempts to obtain religious sanctions from the Yoshida Administrative Office of Shinto and a Shingon Buddhist temple, the name of God was recorded as Tenrin-Ō-Myōjin and Tenrin-Ō-Kōsha respectively. An early doctrine of the Tenrikyo church, written to conform to the State Shinto doctrine at the time, records the name as Tenri-Ōkami. Tenrikyo's current doctrine maintains that Tenri-Ō-no-Mikoto is the divine name to be used in the context of prayer.

The doctrine refers to God as God the Parent, emphasizing the parental nature of God revealed toward the end of the Ofudesaki. The doctrine claims that the changes in God's names in the Ofudesaki, from kami to tsukihi to oya, were made in accordance with the spiritual growth of the early followers. A number of qualities have been ascribed to God as understood in Tenrikyo, by both Tenrikyo and religious studies scholars. Out of a fundamental desire to see people thrive, through Nakayama Miki, showed followers several ways by which they could receive God's healing power. At first, Miki administered the grant of safe childbirth, where she would lay her hands and breathe on the hands of pregnant women and would assure them of easy delivery if they relied on God. Miki taught a healing prayer called the Sazuke and a liturgy called the Service, intended as specific rituals followers could perform to heal people physically and spiritually. In addition, Miki gave sacred amulets to those who had visited her residence, which she said would protect her followers from disease and decay.

However, Miki asserted that, for God's healing to be effective, the participants must have full faith in God and the desire to purify their hearts. In Tenrikyo, God is immanent in the sense that God provides for all matter in the universe, such as human bodies, living organisms and inanimate objects, sustains all of the physical processes behind them. In the Ofudesaki, the universe is referred to as the "body of God". In Tenrikyo's doctrine, God's providence over the universe explained as the "ten aspects of God's complete providence". A appearing term in the Ofudesaki is jūyō or jūyōjizai, translated as "omnipotence" or "free and unlimited workings." This omnipotence permeates the physical world and its laws, for example, the God of Tenrikyo is the cause of natural disasters such as rainstorms and earthquakes, of events in one's personal life, such as dreams and diseases. However the physical laws of the world can be superseded at times in order to produce miracles, which suggests that God's power is not purely mechanical or rigid.

The Ofudesaki imply God's omniscience by asserting that there is nothing that God doe