SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Politics of Russia

The politics of Russia take place in the framework of the federal semi-presidential republic of Russia. According to the Constitution of Russia, the President of Russia is head of state, of a multi-party system with executive power exercised by the government, headed by the Prime Minister, appointed by the President with the parliament's approval. Legislative power is vested in the two houses of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation, while the President and the government issue numerous binding by-laws. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union at the end of 1991, Russia has seen serious challenges in its efforts to forge a political system to follow nearly seventy-five years of Soviet governance. For instance, leading figures in the legislative and executive branches have put forth opposing views of Russia's political direction and the governmental instruments that should be used to follow it; that conflict reached a climax in September and October 1993, when President Boris Yeltsin used military force to dissolve the parliament and called for new legislative elections.

This event marked the end of Russia's first constitutional period, defined by the much-amended constitution adopted by the Supreme Soviet of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic in 1978. A new constitution, creating a strong presidency, was approved by referendum in December 1993. With a new constitution and a new parliament representing diverse parties and factions, Russia's political structure subsequently showed signs of stabilization; as the transition period extended into the mid-1990s, the power of the national government continued to wane as Russia's regions gained political and economic concessions from Moscow. Although the struggle between executive and legislative branches was resolved by the new constitution, the two branches continued to represent fundamentally opposing visions of Russia's future. Most of the time, the executive was the center of reform, the lower house of the parliament, State Duma, was a bastion of communists and nationalists; the first constitution of the Soviet Union, as promulgated in 1924, incorporated a treaty of union between various Soviet republics.

Under the treaty, the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic became known as the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic. Nominally, the borders of each subunit incorporated the territory of a specific nationality; the constitution endowed the new republics with sovereignty, although they were said to have voluntarily delegated most of their sovereign powers to the Soviet center. Formal sovereignty was evidenced by the existence of flags and other state symbols, by the republics' constitutionally guaranteed "right" to secede from the union. Russia was the largest of the Union republics in terms of population. During the Cold War era, Because of the Russians' dominance in the affairs of the union, the RSFSR failed to develop some of the institutions of governance and administration that were typical of public life in the other republics: a republic-level communist party, a Russian academy of sciences, Russian branches of trade unions, for example; as the titular nationalities of the other fourteen union republics began to call for greater republic rights in the late 1980s, ethnic Russians began to demand the creation or strengthening of various Russian institutions in the RSFSR.

Certain policies of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev encouraged nationalities in the union republics, including the Russian Republic, to assert their rights. These policies included glasnost, which made possible open discussion of democratic reforms and long-ignored public problems such as pollution. Glasnost brought constitutional reforms that led to the election of new republic legislatures with substantial blocs of pro-reform representatives. In the RSFSR a new legislature, called the Congress of People's Deputies, was elected in March 1990 in a free and competitive vote. Upon convening in May, the congress elected Boris Yeltsin, a onetime Gorbachev protégé who had resigned/been exiled from the top party echelons because of his radical reform proposals and erratic personality, as president of the congress's permanent working body, the Supreme Soviet; the next month, the Congress declared Russia's sovereignty over its natural resources and the primacy of Russia's laws over those of the central Soviet government.

During 1990-1991, the RSFSR enhanced its sovereignty by establishing republic branches of organizations such as the Communist Party, the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union and television broadcasting facilities, the Committee for State Security. In 1991 Russia created a new executive office, the presidency, following the example of Gorbachev, who had created such an office for himself in 1990; the Russian presidential election of June 1991 conferred legitimacy on the office, whereas Gorbachev had eschewed such an election and had had himself appointed by the Soviet parliament. Despite Gorbachev's attempts to discourage Russia's electorate from voting for him, Yeltsin won the popular election to become the president, handily defeating five other candidates with more than 57 percent of the vote. Yeltsin used his role as president of Russia to trumpet Russian sovereignty and patriotism, his legitimacy as president was a major cause of the collapse of the coup by hard-line government and party officials against Gorbachev in August 1991 Soviet Coup of 1991.

The coup leaders had attempted to overthrow Gorbachev in order to halt his pl

First Baptist Central Church

The First Baptist Central Church in Okmulgee, Oklahoma is a historic Baptist church at 521 N. Central Avenue, it was built in 1915 and added to the National Register in 1984. It is 45 by 55 feet in plan, its NRHP nomination states:The First Baptist Central Church is significant because: it is the oldest black church building in Okmulgee having served the community for more than 68 years, it is one of the oldest remaining properties of any type located within the black residential area of Okmulgee which once had the largest black community in Oklahoma outside of Tulsa, Oklahoma City, Muskogee, it is among the oldest remaining black Baptist churches in eastern Oklahoma. / Built in 1915, the First Baptist Central evolved from the oldest black congregation in Okmulgee, the New Hope Baptist group, organized in 1892. Because of increased membership, the congregation outgrew their original structure and the present church was completed in 1915 as the first brick church for blacks in Okmulgee. Church membership has fluctuated over the years at 200-250 making it one of the largest all-black congregations in eastern Oklahoma.

For more than 68 years, First Baptist' Central has served the black community of Okmulgee by providing a place of worship and a social outlet for blacks during an era when racial separatism prevailed in Oklahoma

Dave Graveline

Dave Graveline is an American radio talk show host. His syndicated show "Into Tomorrow" has been on the air for the past 22 years and is aired on nearly 200 AM & FM stations throughout the U. S. stations in Canada and on the Armed Forces Network, on several foreign radio stations. Graveline has worked for most radio and television stations in South Florida including WIOD, WKAT, WINZ, Majic, WTVJ Channel 4, WCIX-CBS and he has produced and hosted several national television specials including: PBS's Florida Outdoors, ESPN's The Grand Prix of Miami, SportsChannel's Thoroughbred Racing Reviews, the Miss Florida USA Pageants, nationally syndicated Spring Break Reunion and many local and national TV commercials, documentaries, on-camera productions, voice-overs and training videos. Graveline was the host of The Outdoor Channel's television program "Action Shooters" for 5 seasons. Before focusing on radio, Graveline worked for several years for the Metro-Dade Police Department as a Police Officer and Detective.

Around this time he became an FBI certified instructor. During his years with Metro, Graveline spent time in Media Relations as the Official Police Spokesman for Dade County. Graveline has had a lifelong interest in radio and he was involved in starting "WKHS" radio station at his highschool, he has worked professionally in radio for many years both as a music radio DJ and talk radio host, including years as a political commentator. Graveline is best known as a leader in consumer electronics radio talk in the United States and has been ranked as one of the most influential radio hosts in America by Talkers Magazine Graveline's career in consumer technology talk radio started in 1995 when he created and hosted the show "Toys for Boys" on WIOD-AM, a South Florida station broadcasting out of Miramar, FL. By January 1996 the show had been picked up for syndication and renamed "Into Tomorrow". "Into Tomorrow" launched in January 1996 at the "Consumer Electronics Show" in Las Vegas. The show has continued to grow over the years and is heard on over 160 FM and AM stations across the United States, on the Armed Forces Network and online in streams and podcasts.

Over the years Graveline extended the show to include other "new media" outlets and today he produces weekly video updates that can be watched on YouTube and other video sites. Graveline has worked in television in various capacities including news anchor, host and as a consultant. Since 2006 he is the resident master of ceremonies at the annual Global Press Conference of Messe Berlin's IFA consumer electronics fair. Since early 2011, Graveline has been one of the featured "CoolHotNot Tech Xperts," along with John C. Dvorak, Chris Pirillo, Jim Louderback, Robin Raskin, Dave Whittle, Steve Bass, Cheryl Currid. At CoolHotNot's web site, Graveline shares his "Loved List" of favorite consumer electronics, his "Wanted List" of tech products he'd like to try, his "Letdown List" of tech products he found disappointing. Into tomorrow With Dave Graveline official site "Into Tomorrow TV Videos" Dave Graveline's current list of best, most wanted, worst tech products