Politics of Vatican City

The politics of Vatican City take place in a framework of a theocratic absolute elective monarchy, in which the Pope, religiously speaking, the leader of the Catholic Church and Bishop of Rome, exercises ex officio supreme legislative and judicial power over the Vatican City, a rare case of non-hereditary monarchy. The pope is elected in the Conclave, composed of all the cardinal electors, after the death or resignation of the previous Pope; the Conclave is held in the Sistine Chapel, where all the electors are locked in until the election for which a two-thirds majority is required. The faithful can follow the results of the polls by a chimney-top, visible from St. Peter's Square: in a stove attached to the chimney are burnt the voting papers, additives make the resulting smoke black in case of no election, white when the new pope is elected; the Dean of the Sacred College will ask the freshly elected pope to choose his pastoral name, as soon as the pope is dressed with the white cassock, the Senior Cardinal-Deacon appears on the major balcony of St. Peter's façade to introduce the new pope with the famous Latin sentence Annuntio vobis gaudium magnum: habemus papam..

The term "Holy See" refers to the composite of the authority and sovereignty vested in the Pope and his advisers to direct the worldwide Catholic Church. It is therefore quite distinct from the Vatican City state, created in 1929, through the Lateran treaties between the Holy See and Italy; as the "central government" of the Catholic Church, the Holy See has a legal personality that allows it to enter into treaties as the juridical equal of a state and to send and receive diplomatic representatives. It has formal diplomatic relations with 179 nations; the State of Vatican City, for its part, is recognized under international law as a sovereign territory. Unlike the Holy See, it does not receive or send diplomatic representatives, the Holy See acts on its behalf in international affairs; as with all monarchies, the executive and judicial power of government reside in the crown, in this case in the office of the Bishop of Rome. However, as with many monarchies, the pope exercises this power through other organs which act on his behalf and in his name.

The pope delegates the internal administration of Vatican City to various bodies and officials. However, according to the Fundamental Law of Vatican City State, "The Supreme Pontiff, sovereign of Vatican City State, has the fullness of legislative and judicial powers" for Vatican City; the pope delegates legislative authority for the state to the unicameral Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State. This commission was established in 1939 by Pope Pius XII, it consists of seven Cardinals appointed by the pope for five-year terms. Laws passed by the Commission must be approved by the pope through the Secretariat of State prior to being published and taking effect; the President of the Pontifical Commission is the President of the Governorate of Vatican City, to whom the pope delegates executive authority for the state. The president is assisted by a Vice Secretary General; each of these officers is appointed by the pope for a five-year term. Actions of the President must be approved by the Commission.

Various departments and offices report to the Governorate, handling such issues as communications, internal security, fire protection, the Vatican Museums. The Corpo della Gendarmeria is the state's security and police force, not the Pontifical Swiss Guard, an organ of the Holy See, not Vatican City; the Pope is ex officio sovereign of the Vatican City State since 1929. He delegates executive authority to the President of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State, ex officio President of the Governorate and head of government of Vatican; the president is appointed by the Pope for a five-year term, but may be removed at any time by the pope. The president reports all important matters to the Secretariat of State, the Pope's chief everyday advisory body, consulted on all matters if they belong to the specific competence of the Commission for Vatican City State or, for instance, that of the Congregation for Catholic Education; the Secretariat of State is not thereby considered to hold responsibility for such matters, the Cardinal Secretary of State is not seen as heading the Vatican City State or the various departments of the Roman Curia, other than the Secretariat of State itself.

Vatican City is a member of CEPT, International Grains Council, Intelsat, ITU and UPU. Vatican City does not have direct diplomatic relations with other states, its foreign relations are managed by the Holy See. See Holy See – Relationship with the Vatican City and other territories. A unicameral Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State, appointed by the Pope, operates as legislative branch, proposing law and policy to the Pope. Prior to taking effect and policies passed by the commission must be approved by the Supreme Pontiff, through the Secretariat of State, be published in the Italian-language supplement of the Acta Apostolicae Sedis that deals with Vatican City State matters; the "Councillors of the State" give their consultation in the drafting of legislation. They may be consulted either alone or collegially. Vatican City has a legal system distinct from that of Italy; the pope's judicial authority is exercised through the Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura, as he by la

Red-winged tinamou

The red-winged tinamou is a medium-sized ground-living bird from central and eastern South America. Other common names for the species include perdiz grande, rufous tinamou, ynambu. All tinamou are from the family Tinamidae, in the larger scheme are ratites. Unlike other ratites, tinamous can fly. All ratites evolved from prehistoric flying birds, tinamous are the closest living relative of these birds. Coenraad Jacob Temminck first identified the red-winged tinamou from a specimen from São Paulo state, Brazil, in 1815; the red-winged tinamou has three subspecies: R. r. rufescens, the nominate race, occurs in southeastern Peru, eastern Paraguay southeastern Brazil and northeastern Argentina, Uruguay R. r. catingae occurs in central and northeastern Brazil R. r. pallescens occurs in northern Argentina. Its common name refers to the bright rufous primaries, which are visible in flight; the red-winged tinamou is 40 to 41 cm in length, weighs 830 g, the female may be larger. It has a black crown, rufous primaries, light gray to brown underneath.

It may have black bars on flanks and vent. The throat is whitish, the foreneck and breast are cinnamon; the curved bill is horn-coloured with a blackish culmen. Juveniles are duller, its range is southeastern and central Brazil, eastern Paraguay, southeastern Peru and eastern Argentina At lower elevations, it favours marshy grasslands and forest edges. While, at higher elevations, up to 2,500 m, it will frequent arid shrubland and grain fields. Overall it prefers dry savanna; the red-winged tinamou have vocal males that are a longs ringing single whistle followed by shorter sad whistles. The female does not call; this species is most active during the hottest parts of the day. Its diet varies by season, it can be an agricultural pest, feeding on cereals and peanuts, as well as being predatory, taking poisonous snakes and jumping up into the air to snatch an insect off a leaf. The male of the species attracts the female by follow feeding and after the attraction will move to the nest where she lays her eggs that he will incubate only and raise the chicks.

Like all tinamous, the red-winged tinamou is a popular target for hunters, in areas of high human population density number have declined, but the species has increased in some areas where forest clearance has created favourable habitat. Overall, it is not considered threatened and is therefore listed as Least Concern by IUCN, it has an occurrence range of 5,700,000 km2. BirdLife International. "Red-winged Tinamou - BirdLife Species Factsheet". Data Zone. Retrieved 9 Feb 2009. Brands, Sheila. "Systema Naturae 2000 / Classification, Rhynchotus rufescens". Project: The Taxonomicon. Retrieved Feb 9, 2009. Clements, James; the Clements Checklist of the Birds of the World. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-4501-9. Davies, S. J. J. F.. "Tinamous". In Hutchins, Michael. Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia. 8 Birds I Ratites to Hoatzins. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group. Pp. 57–59, 64–65. ISBN 0-7876-5784-0. Del Hoyo, J. Elliot, A. Sargatal, J. eds Handbook of the Birds of the World, Volume One Ostrich to Ducks, ISBN 84-87334-10-5 Remsen Jr. J. V..

"Proposal to South American Checklist Committee:". South American Classification Committee. American Ornithologists' Union. Archived from the original on 2012-12-12. Retrieved 4 Feb 2009. BirdLife Species Factsheet Red-winged Tinamou videos, photos & sounds on the Internet Bird Collection


Koštabona is a village in the City Municipality of Koper in the Littoral region of Slovenia. Koštabona was attested in written sources in 1620 as Costabuona, in 1763–87 as Costabona; the Slovene name Koštabona is borrowed from Italian. The name is a compound of costa'slope' and bona'good, fertile', referring to its physical location on a fertile promontory. Another theory, based on oral tradition, claims that in Late Antiquity Koštabona was the site of a Roman fortress named Castrum Bonae guarding the trade route through the Dragonja Valley, that the name is derived from this. However, Italian has no co- reflex derived from this noun, the expected Italian reflex of Latin castrum would be **castro, not costa. Koštabona stands on a hill above the Dragonja River. Archaeological evidence shows; the parish church in the settlement is dedicated to Saints Damian. There is a small church dedicated to the Blessed Deacon Elias and a cemetery church dedicated to Saint Andrew. Koštabona on Geopedia