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Politics of Vietnam

The politics of Vietnam are defined by a single-party socialist republic framework, where the General Secretary of the Communist Party of Vietnam is the Party leader and head of the Politburo, holding the highest position in the one-party system. The President of Vietnam is the head of state, the Prime Minister of Vietnam is the head of government in a one-party system led by the Communist Party of Vietnam. Executive power is exercised by the President of Vietnam. Legislative power is vested in the National Assembly of Vietnam; the Judiciary is independent of the executive. The parliament adopted the current Constitution of Vietnam, its fifth, on 28 November 2013; the President is elected by National Assembly for a five-year term and acts as the commander-in-chief of the Vietnam People's Armed Forces and Chairman of the Council for Defence and Security. Moreover, the president has the right to decide on executive brands; the government, the main executive state power of Vietnam, is headed by the Prime Minister, who has several Deputy Prime Ministers and several ministers in charge of particular activities.

The executive branch is responsible for the implementation of political, cultural, national defence and external activities of the state. The National Assembly is a unicameral legislative body; the National Assembly has 500 members, elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms. The legislature is, according to the highest organ of the state, its powers includes the amendment of the constitution and laws. The Vietnamese constitution and legislation provide for regular elections for the office of the President of the Socialist Republic, the National Assembly and the People's Councils. Vietnam has a judicial system governed by the Constitution of Vietnam and national legislation enacted by National Assembly; the Supreme People's Court is the highest court of appeal in Vietnam. There are other specialised courts in Vietnam, including the Central Military Court, the Criminal Court, the Civil Court and the Appeal Court; the Supreme People's Procuracy observes the implementation of state organs and makes sure that Vietnamese citizens follow the law.

Vietnam is a one-party socialist republic. The current Vietnamese state traces its direct lineage back to the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and the 1945 August Revolution led by Hồ Chí Minh; the current constitution was adopted on 28 November 2013 by the National Assembly of Vietnam. There have been four other constitutions in Vietnamese history: the 1946, 1959, 1980, 1992 constitutions; the Communist Party of Vietnam, the leading non-State organ, operates in accordance with the laws. Government powers in Vietnam are divided into legislative and judiciary powers. Vietnam's legal system is based upon socialist legality according to Article 12 of the constitution. Vietnam is a socialist republic with a one-party system led by the Communist Party of Vietnam; the CPV espouses Marxism–Leninism and Hồ Chí Minh Thought, the thoughts of the late Hồ Chí Minh. The two ideologies function as a firm ideological basis and serve as guidance for the activities of the Party and state. According to the Constitution, Vietnam is "in the period of transition to socialism".

Marxism–Leninism was introduced to Vietnam in the 1920s and 1930s, Vietnamese culture has been led under the banner of patriotism and Marxism–Leninism. Hồ Chí Minh's beliefs were not systematised during his life, nor following his death. Trường Chinh's biography of "Chairman Hồ" in 1973 emphasised his revolutionary policies; the thoughts of Hồ Chí Minh were systematised under the leadership of Nguyễn Văn Linh. Hồ Chí Minh Thought, alongside Marxism–Leninism, became the official ideology of the CPV and the state in 1991; the CPV's claim to legitimacy was retained following the collapse of communism in 1989 and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 by its commitment to the thoughts of Hồ Chí Minh, according to Sophie Quinn-Judge. According to Pierre Brocheux, the author of Ho Chi Minh: a Biography, the current state ideology is Hồ Chí Minh Thought, with Marxism–Leninism playing a secondary role. While some claim that Hồ Chí Minh Thought is used as a veil for the Party leadership since they, according to this version, have stopped believing in communism, this is false when considering that Hồ Chí Minh was an avid supporter of Vladimir Lenin and the dictatorship of the proletariat.

Others see Hồ Chí Minh Thought as a political umbrella term whose main function is to smuggle in non-socialist ideas and policies without challenging socialist legality. Since its foundation, the key ideology has been Marxism–Leninism, but since the introduction of a mixed economy in the late 1980s and 1990s, it has lost its monopolistic ideological and moral legitimacy. Marxism–Leninism, a class-based ideology, lost its legitimacy because of the mixed economy; as became clear because of the Đổi Mới reforms, the Party could not base its rule on defending only the workers and the peasants, referred to as the "working class-peasant alliance". In the constitution introduced in 1992, the State represented the "workers and intellectuals". In recent years, the Party has stopped representing a specific class, but instead the "interests of the entire people", which includes entrepreneurs; the final class barrier was removed in 2002, when party members were allowed to engage in private activities. In the face of de-emphasising the role of Marxism–Leninism, the Party has acq

Paul Garabedian

Paul Roesel Garabedian was a mathematician and numerical analyst. Garabedian was the Director-Division of Computational Fluid Dynamics at the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, he is known for his contributions to the fields of computational fluid dynamics and plasma physics, which ranged from elegant existence proofs for Potential theory and conformal mappings to the design and optimization of stellarators. Garabedian was elected a member of the National Academy of Sciences in 1975. Born in Cincinnati, Garabedian received a bachelor's degree from Brown University in 1946 and a master's degree from the Harvard University in 1947, both in mathematics, he received his Ph. D. from Harvard University, in 1948 under the direction of Lars Ahlfors. It was at Brown University that he met his longtime colleague and collaborator, Frances Bauer. In 1949 Garabedian joined the faculty at the University of California as an Assistant Professor and became Associate Professor in 1952.

In 1956, he moved to Stanford University as a Professor of mathematics. In 1959 he moved to the Institute of Mathematical Sciences at New York University. In 1978 he was appointed the Director-Division of Computational Fluid Dynamics at the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University. In a long and fruitful academic career, Garabedian supervised 27 Ph. D. theses. The first was in 1953 and the last came in 1997. Sloan Fellowship, 1961–63 Guggenheim Fellowship, 1966 Fairchild Distinguished Scholar Caltech, 1975 NASA Public Service Group Achievement Award by NASA Langley Research Center, 1976 Boris Pregel Award, New York Academy of Sciences, 1980 Birkhoff Prize of the AMS and SIAM, 1983 Theodore von Kármán Prize, SIAM, 1989 Partial Differential Equations, 2nd ed. Chelsea Pub. Co.. ISBN 0-8218-1377-3 Magnetohydrodynamic Equilibrium and Stability of Stellarators, with F. Bauer and O. Betancourt. Springer-Verlag. ISBN 0-387-90966-4 Supercritical Wing Sections II, with F. Bauer, D. Korn and A. Jameson.

Lecture Notes in Economics and Mathematical Systems, Springer-Verlag, ISBN 0-387-07029-X. Garabedian's Curriculum Vitae Paul Garabedian at the Mathematics Genealogy Project New York Times obituary

Restoration Path

Restoration Path, known as Love In Action until March 2012, is an ex-gay Christian ministry founded in 1973. Love In Action was founded in 1973 by Frank Worthen, John Evans, Kent Philpott; the program was founded in Marin County, just north of San Francisco. In 2010, Tommy Corman became the Executive Director of Love In Action. In March 2012, Love In Action changed its name to Restoration Path. In October 2012, David Jones became the executive director of Restoration Path. On July 5, 2007, Love in Action announced the initiation of Family Freedom Intensive, a monthly four-day program for parents with teens "struggling with same-sex attraction, and/or promiscuity." Teenagers who decide they would like to join their parents may be considered for inclusion. As of 2018, there is no mention of this program on the Restoration Path website; as of October 2019, both the organization's web site and their Facebook page were offline. After Jack McIntyre, a friend of co-founder John Evans, committed suicide out of despair about his inability to change, Evans left Love in Action and denounced it as dangerous.

He was quoted by the Wall Street Journal as saying: "They're destroying people's lives. If you don't do their thing, you're not of God, you'll go to hell. They're living in a fantasy world." John Smid recounts becoming a Christian in 1982. He found, he married. In 1986 he joined the leadership of Love In Action becoming executive director. Smid left LIA in 2008. In 2011, on his website, he stated that homosexuality is an intrinsic part of one's being, that "change, repentance and such" cannot occur, noted that he had "never met a man who experienced a change from homosexual to heterosexual". On November 16 2014, John Smid married Larry McQueen. In June 2005, a 16-year-old Tennessee boy, Zach Stark, posted a blog entry on his MySpace site, part of which includes: Somewhat as many of you know, I told my parents I was gay.... Well today, my mother, I had a long "talk" in my room where they let me know I am to apply for a fundamentalist christian program for gays, they tell me that there is something psychologically wrong with me, they "raised me wrong."

I'm a big screw up to them. So I'm sitting here in tears, joing the rest of those kids who complain about their parents on blogs - and I can't help it; the program Stark noted is a Love In Action-run camp known as Refuge. On August 14, Stark updated his blog, stating that LIA had not pressured him into doing anything and he got along well with most of the clients there, he said his parents no longer let him hang out with girls as friends because it was unhealthy and that his father had asked him to stop blogging. Stark has since accepted his homosexuality, appears in the documentary from director Morgan Jon Fox, entitled This Is What Love In Action Looks Like, which features an exclusive interview with Stark about the controversy. A Tennessee investigation against the camp began shortly; as of June 28, 2005, the investigation was dropped, with Tennessee officials citing a lack of evidence of child abuse at the facilities. "Department of Children's Services dispatched its special investigations unit to the facility, after conducting a full investigation, determined that the child abuse allegations were unfounded," Rob Johnson, an agency spokesman, told the Associated Press.

On September 12, 2005, the Tennessee-based Love in Action facility was determined by the Tennessee Department of Mental Health to have been operating two "unlicensed mental health supportive living facilities". LIA stopped accepting the mentally ill and dispensing medications and, in February 2006, the state of Tennessee ceased legal action. Tommy Corman, in 2005 the spokesman for Love In Action, said the facility did not need to be licensed because it was "not doing anything therapeutic". Love in Action sued the state of Tennessee for discrimination against the facility; the suit was settled on October 27, 2006. Tennessee agreed that Love in Action would not need licensing as a mental health facility, LIA agreed to make sure none of its employees administered or regulated the medication of its clients; the state of Tennessee was told to pay Love in Action's legal fees. In June 2007, LIA discontinued the Refuge program; the 2012 book The Miseducation of Cameron Post, the debut novel of American author Emily M. Danforth, was inspired by the Zack Stark controversy above.

This book was adapted as a 2018 film with the same name. The program is described in the 2016 book Boy Erased: A Memoir by Garrard Conley, based on his experience with it; the book was adapted in 2018 as a film directed by Joel Edgerton starring Lucas Hedges. Love In Action, archived site


A daggerboard is a retractable centreboard used by various sailing craft. While other types of centreboard may pivot to retract, a daggerboard slides in a casing; the shape of the daggerboard converts the forward motion into a windward lift, countering the leeward push of the sail. The theoretical centre of lateral resistance is on the trailing edge of the daggerboard. A daggerboard is a removable vertical keel, inserted through a "trunk" in the center of a vessel's hull amidships. Daggerboards are found in small sailing craft such as day sailers, which are handled by a single person. Daggerboards are not ballasted but are locked in place by a clip or pin. Unlike a centreboard, which can be set at different angles to the hull of the boat, daggerboards are limited to a single perpendicular position relative to the hull. If a daggerboard is located off center, it is called a bilgeboard; the characteristic which differentiates daggerboards from other centerboards and swingkeels is that daggerboards are removable when the boat is under way.

Centerboards and swingkeels, common alternatives to fixed keels, can pivot up and down but are fixed to the hull. The freedom of motion of dagger- and centerboards allows them to swing or slide up into the hull of the boat, advantageous when sailing in shallow waters; the pivoting centerboard or swingkeel can swing up when it strikes an object which helps prevents the sort of damage to which fixed keels or daggerboards are subject. Daggerboards can be raised and lowered as needed but will be damaged if not retracted before impact with the bottom or with floating objects. Many small sailboats use a daggerboard instead of a fixed keel; this allows these boats to be more moved on trailers, sailed in shallow waters, beached. Daggerboards afford an opportunity to reduce drag when racing because they can be retracted when not needed. Daggerboards are made of wood. Alternate materials for daggerboards are metal and fiberglass. A daggerboard boat can be costly to manufacture. If not well-made, the daggerboard will transfer vibrations from the trunk through the hull.

The purpose of the daggerboard is to balance the force of the wind on the sails. Without a daggerboard or keel, a sailboat could not sail up-wind and would be blown sideways. During a storm, daggerboards can help reduce the tendency of a small boat to tip over due to waves. A catamaran in a storm would lift the leeward hull daggerboard and extend the upwind daggerboard. If there is no wind and an outboard motor is being used, lifting the daggerboards will ensure the least drag; when a small sailboat flips on its side, the keel can be used to right the boat. Standing on the keel gives the sailor additional leverage to roll the hull upright; the centerboard, daggerboard or bilgeboard can be used as a platform upon which to stand, providing increased leverage, in the event the dinghy overturns via a capsize or turtle. Because water is more dense than air, the force generated by wind against the much larger surface area of the sails can be equalized by the force of a small daggerboard pushing in the water below the hull.

A daggerboard fits into a trunk. When the board is in the trunk it keeps the water out while in use due to how wedged it is, it is held in place by a pin on a shock cord. The daggerboard puts a counter force from the wind pushing on the sails. Daggerboards are long and thin to reduce drag and increase effective lift, thus providing a better lift-to-drag ratio. In 2008, a 55-foot-long daggerboard ship was found using deep scan sonar equipment off the southern shore of Lake Ontario, the only such vessel known to have been found in the Great Lakes. Vessels of this type were used for a short time in the early 19th century. In the early 19th century daggerboards were being used on schooners. A schooner is an American ship with two or more masts; these schooners were used for nearby coastal trade of cotton and apples. A sunken 1833 daggerboard schooner was found in the great lakes with the help of sonar equipment. Knowing this, daggerboards have been around since late the 17th century. Daggerboards can be found on monohulls, the classic sailboat and multihulls called catamarans.

Daggerboards come in all different shapes and sizes, some curved or s- shaped. Curved daggerboards started to appear thirty to forty years ago; the first prototype was made in 1985 by Ian Farrier. The benefits of vertical lift generated by curved daggerboards are nominal; when sailing, curved daggerboards - not to be confused with hydrofoils - do not make a drastic change. Daggerboards are used on smaller rigs such as 10 to 40 feet for racing but there is a large number of custom and semi-custom catamaran builders who offer daggerboards as an option. Daggerboard rigs may be faster than fixed keels because fixed keels have so much hydrodynamic drag by the shape; some makes which utilize a daggerboard design are: The Mirror Dinghy, Vanguard 15

John Hassell

John Hassell was an English watercolour landscape painter, illustrator, writer and drawing-master. He wrote a biography of fellow artist George Morland. Hassell first appeared as an exhibitor at the Royal Academy, in London, in 1789 with a'View of Stonehenge on Salisbury Plain.' He drew many views of local scenery, which he engraved himself in most of them coloured. They were published in various topographical works, he had a large practice as a drawing-master, published some books on water-colour painting and drawing. Hassell wrote his biography, his son Edward Hassell was a watercolourist, exhibited for a number of years at the Society of British Artists, of which he became a member in 1841, was secretary. He exhibited at the Royal Academy and British Institution. Hassell published the following works, all illustrated with engravings in aquatint by the artist himself: A Tour of the Isle of Wight. A Picturesque Guide to Bath, Bristol Hot-Wells, the River Avon and the Adjacent Country. Co-authored with J C Ibbetson & John Laporte.

Views of Noblemen's and Gentlemen's Seats in the Counties Adjoining London. Beauties of Antiquity. Memoirs of the life of the late George Morland; the Speculum or Art of Drawing in Water-colours. Calcographia, or the Art of Multiplying Drawings Aqua Pictura. Payne, Munn and Others. Picturesque Rides and Walks, with Excursions by Water, Thirty Miles Round the British Metropolis. Tour of the Grand Junction Canal Rides and Walks Round London The Camera. Excursions of Pleasure and Sports on the Thames Graphic Delineation: a Practical Treatise on the Art of Etching; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Hassell, John". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. Written by John Hassell: The Young Artist's Assistant or a familiar Introduction to the Art of Drawing with directions for colouring, a series of PASSIONS, as expressed by the celebrated Le Brun, published in London, 1810 John Hassell online Works by John Hassell John Hassell Surrey Collection

Society of Wood Engravers

The Society of Wood Engravers is a UK-based artists’ exhibiting society and the chief rallying-point for anyone interested in wood engraving in the English-speaking world. The Society of Wood Engravers was founded on 27th March 1920 by a group of 10 artists who all wanted to promote wood engraving as a medium for modern artists. Unlike other societies of the time devoted to various aspects of relief printmaking, the SWE survived engaging up-coming generations, celebrates its centenary in 2020; the liberation of wood engraving as a medium for artists was begun in the 1890s. Charles Ricketts and Charles Haslewood Shannon were the first in modern times to cut the blocks of their own designs or, more to the point, create their designs by the process of engraving them; this was well. The foundation of the Society built on the development of this approach by a generation of artists and in the Modernist era, their names are listed below. White-line engraving on end-grain wood and black-line work on the plank side of the wood were both referred to as ‘woodcuts’.

The habit of calling the first method ‘wood engraving’, the second ‘woodcut’, crystallised after World War II. The Society was revived in 1984 by Hilary Paynter; the major regeneration of the SWE amounting to a re-foundation after a difficult mid-century, was built on the distinction between ‘wood engraving’ and ‘woodcut’: by the more visible as the two traditions developed in different ways. Now that synthetic materials can be used for engraving on, it has been suggested that it is the fine engraving rather than the material engraved which defines the medium; the SWE supports all kinds of relief printmaking but chiefly promotes fine wood engraving – as its name implies. Philip Hagreen Lucien Pissarro Robert Gibbings E M O’Rourke Dickey Sydney Lee Noel Rooke Edward Gordon Craig Eric Gill Gwen Raverat John Nash The SWE was founded to promote wood engraving in the European manner – printing with oil-based inks in a press, rather than with water-based ink and manual pressure in the Japanese tradition.

Secondly, its aim was to promote the work of artist-engravers as distinct from the nineteenth-century artisans, who engraved designs provided by artists but were not artists themselves. The artists Noel Rooke and Robert Gibbings, were the driving force behind the society, they determined to hold annual exhibitions of their work and to promote wood engraving through teaching. Current members remain committed to this ethos 100 years later. Wood engraving has multiple applications in book illustration and in commerce, it attracts passionate practitioners. The Society reflects these in its annual exhibitions; the Annual Exhibition is the largest and most important event in the SWE’s calendar, showing relief prints of all kinds, though wood engravings predominate. Submission to this exhibition is open to non-members alike. All entries go before a selection committee which includes the current Chairperson and two other elected Members of the Society. Restricted to London, the show now tours the UK visiting established galleries and those in remote areas where wood engraving may not have been seen before.

Subscription to the Society is by payment of an annual fee. The Society welcomes everyone and collectors as well as artists: it has a worldwide following. In order to become a Member, the applicant must have exhibited wood engravings in the Annual Exhibition for three years, although these don’t need to run consecutively. Submission of an application form and portfolio of work will be subject to scrutiny by the Member’s Selection Committee. All new members receive a copy of the Society’s constitution and may enter a third piece of work for the annual show in addition to the two allowed for non-members; the Society recognizes non-engravers who work hard on its behalf by awarding them Honorary Membership. An AGM is held in the Autumn, to which everyone is invited. Another social gathering held annually is the SWE Picnic which features an auction of prints and books; the Society has cordial relations with the Wood Engravers’ Network, an American group with similar aims. The SWE publishes a monthly on-line Newsletter of up-coming events and a quarterly journal of record and discussion entitled ‘Multiples’.

These are circulated to all subscribers and members and provide everyone with the chance to get to know each other and know about each other. Special occasion publications range from Christmas cards and broadsheets to limited edition boxed sets of engravings. Imparting information and teaching wood engraving are strong components of the SWE's commitment; the Society is fortunate to have so many talented teachers in its midst who are willing to pass on their skills to others. Information about workshops is via the Newsletter; the SWE receives no outside funding and has thrived because a band of dedicated volunteers works tirelessly to ensure high quality and continuity. A bequest from earlier member William Rawlinson has enabled grants to students and funding for special projects. More Rachel Reckitt has bequeathed annual prizes. Since 1984 the committee has been chaired by the following people: George Tute 1984 – 1986 Simon Brett – 1986 – 1992 Ian Stephens – 1992 – 1995 Sarah van Niekerk – 1995 – 1998 Hilary Paynter – 1998 – 2006 Peter Lawrence – 2006 – 2011 Harry Brockway – 2011 – 2014 Geri Waddington – 2015 – 2018 Chris Daunt – Current chair since 2018 The f