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Politics of the Falkland Islands

The politics of the Falkland Islands takes place in a framework of a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary representative democratic dependency as set out by the constitution, whereby the Governor exercises the duties of head of state in the absence of the monarch and the Chief Executive acts as the head of government, with an elected Legislative Assembly to propose new laws and hold the executive to account. The islands, an archipelago in the southern Atlantic Ocean, are a self-governing British overseas territory. Executive power is exercised on behalf of the Queen by an appointed Governor, who acts on the advice of the Executive Council. Legislative power is vested in the Legislative Assembly; the judiciary is independent of the legislature. The military defence and foreign policy of the islands is the responsibility of the United Kingdom. Politics in the Falkland Islands is minimal as no political parties exist on the islands, the governmental and legal proceedings closely resemble British standards.

Following the Falklands War in 1982, Lord Shackleton published a report on the economy of the Falkland Islands which recommended many modernisations. On 1 January 1983 the Falkland Islanders gained British citizenship under the British Nationality Act 1983, on 3 October 1985 the Constitution of the Falkland Islands was established. A new constitution came into force on 1 January 2009 which modernised the Chapter on fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual, embedding self-determination in the main body of the constitution; the new constitution replaced the Legislative Council with the Legislative Assembly, better explained the role of the Governor and the Chief Executive. The Argentine Republic claims the Falkland Islands to be part of its territory; this claim is disputed by the United Kingdom. In 1982 the islands were invaded and occupied by the Argentine military junta, starting the Falklands War; the islands were subsequently liberated by British forces just 74 days after the start of the war, which led to the collapse of the military dictatorship in Argentina.

The sovereignty of the Falklands remains in dispute, with Argentina claiming the islands are an integral and indivisible part of its territory,'illegally occupied by an occupying power'. The United Kingdom and the Government of the Falkland Islands maintains that the Islanders have the right to determine the sovereignty of their birthplace. In a referendum in 2013 the people of the Falkland Islands soundly rejected Argentina's claim to the islands, with 99.8% of voters supporting the Falklands remaining an Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom. Executive authority on the Falkland Islands is vested in Elizabeth II, the head of state since her accession to the British throne on 6 February 1952; as the Queen is absent from the islands for most of the time, executive authority is exercised "in Her Majesty's name and on Her Majesty's behalf" by the Governor of the Falkland Islands. Nigel Phillips has been Governor since 12 September 2017; the Governor acts only on the advice of the Executive Council of the Falkland Islands, composed of three Members of the Legislative Assembly elected by the Assembly to serve on the Council every year, the Chief Executive, the Director of Finance and the Governor, who acts as presiding officer.

The constitution does permit the Governor to act without the consulting the Executive Council and go against its instructions, but in both cases the Governor must inform the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs in the United Kingdom, who can overrule the Governor's actions. Government policy and the execution thereof is decided by the Chief Executive of the Falkland Islands, the head of the public service, responsible for the efficient and effective management of the executive, acting as the islands' head of government; the Chief Executive is appointed by the Governor on the advice of the Executive Council. Barry Rowland has been Chief Executive since October 2016; the legislative branch consists of a unicameral Legislative Assembly. General elections must take place at least once every four years, in which the islanders elect eight members to the Legislative Assembly through universal suffrage using block voting. There are two ex officio members of the Assembly who take part in proceedings but are not permitted to vote in the Assembly.

The following major conventions apply to the Falkland Islands and should be taken into account during the drafting of legislation: European Convention on Human Rights International Covenant on Economic and Cultural Rights International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights United Nations Convention Against Torture UN Convention on the Rights of the Child UN Convention on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination UN Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women. Until 2009, when the new constitution came into force and created the Legislative Assembly, the legislature of the islands was the Legislative Council, which had existed since the 19th century; the judicial branch consists of the Supreme Court, the Court of Appeal, the Summary Court and the Magistrates' Court. The judiciary is independent of the executive and legislature, although it has links with the other branches of the government through the Advisory Committee on the Prerogative of Mercy; the government employs six lawyers, a Policy Adviser and one Policy Officer.

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Madurai–Dehradun Express

The 12687 / 88 Madurai Dehradun Express is a Superfast express train of Indian Railways - Southern Railway zone that runs between Madurai Junction and Dehradun in India. It operates as train number 12687 from Madurai Junction to Dehradun and as train number 12688 in the reverse direction serving the states of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh & Uttarakhand, it ran only up to Chennai Central being extended to Madurai Junction. The 12687 / 88 Madurai Dehradun Express presently has 1 AC first, 1 AC 2 Tier, 3 AC 3 Tier, 8 Sleeper Class, 4 General Unreserved & 2 SLR coaches. In addition it carries up to 4 High Capacity Parcel Vans; as is customary with most train services in India, Coach Composition may be amended at the discretion of Indian Railways depending on demand. The 12687 Madurai Dehradun Express covers the distance of 3095 kilometres in 53 hours 25 mins & 3087 kilometres in 54 hours 00 mins as 12688 Dehradun Madurai Express; as the average speed of the train is above 55 km/h, as per Indian Railway rules, its fare includes a Superfast surcharge.

The 12687 / 88 Madurai Dehradun Express runs from Madurai Junction via Erode Junction, Salem Junction, Chennai Central, Vijayawada Junction, Bhopal Junction, Hazrat Nizamuddin, Meerut City Jn. Saharanpur Junction to Dehradun; the slip coaches of the Madurai Chandigarh Express are detached / attached at Saharanpur Junction. It reverses direction of travel thrice during its run at Erode Junction, Chennai Central & Saharanpur Junction. 4 locomotives are assigned to haul this train during its journey. As the route is electrified, it is hauled by an Erode based WDM 3A between Madurai Junction & Erode Junction handing over to a Royapuram based WAP 4 until Chennai Central following which a Ghaziabad based WAP 4 hauls the train until Hazrat Nizamuddin after which a Tughlakabad based WDM 3A powers the train for the remainder of the journey until Dehradun. 12687 Madurai Dehradun Express leaves Madurai Junction every Wednesday & Sunday at 23:35 hrs IST and reaches Dehradun at 05:00 hrs IST on the 4th day.

12688 Dehradun Madurai Express leaves Dehradun every Monday & Friday at 06:45 hrs IST and reaches Madurai Junction at 12:45 hrs IST on the 3rd day. "Northern Railways / Indian Railways Portal". Retrieved 30 May 2014. "Madurai-Dehradun Express to run from May 15 - The Times of India". Retrieved 30 May 2014. "RAIL NEWS CENTER: EXTENSION OF DEHRADUN / CHANDIGARH – CHENNAI CENTRAL WEEKLY EXPRESS TO MADURAI". Archived from the original on 31 May 2014. Retrieved 30 May 2014. "SR to increase frequency of Madurai-Dehradun/Chandigarh express". Retrieved 30 May 2014. "Live Chennai: Madurai—Chandigarh Express rescheduled". Retrieved 30 May 2014. "Welcome to Indian Railway Passenger reservation Enquiry". Archived from the original on 8 April 2014. Retrieved 5 April 2014. "IRCTC Online Passenger Reservation System". Retrieved 5 April 2014. " Welcome to, the home of IRFCA on the internet". Retrieved 5 April 2014

Jean-Claude Beton

Jean-Claude Beton was an Algerian-born French businessman, agricultural engineer and entrepreneur. Beton was the founder of Orangina, he is credited with transforming Orangina from a little known citrus soda first manufactured by his father, Léon Beton, into a major global brand. Beton launched Orangina's iconic, signature 8-ounce bottle in 1951, which became a symbol of the brand; the bottle is shaped with a glass texture designed to mimic the fruit. In 2009, Beton called Orangina the "champagne of soft drinks," saying that "It doesn't contain added colorants, it was and still is sparkling. It had a little bulby bottle." Beton was born in Boufarik, French Algeria, on January 14, 1925. In 1935, his father, Léon Beton, a Pied-Noir shopkeeper, acquired the recipe for citrus concentrate called Naranjina, from its inventor, a Spanish pharmacist named Dr. Trigo; the original recipe contained a mix of citrus juices and sugar. Léon Beton tinkered with Trigo's formula. Léon renamed the new drink from Naranjina to Orangina.

The outbreak of World War II sidelined Léon Beton's attempts to market his drink in Europe. Léon's son, Jean-Claude Beton, took over the company from his father in 1947. However, Beton did not relaunch Orangina until January 23, 1951, which happened to be his wife, Madeleine's, birthday. On that date, Beton began producing Orangina using orange from the surrounding groves in Boufarik. Jean-Claude Beton kept most of the original recipe, which he marketed to appeal in European and North African consumers, he opened a family-owned factory, located in his native Boufarik on the Mitidja Plain. Orangina became a common beverage throughout French North Africa, including a loyal following among French soldiers during the Algerian War, he introduced the soda to metropolitan France in 1951. In 1951, Jean-Claude Beton introduced Orangina's iconic, signature 8-ounce bottle, which became a symbol of the brand; the bottle is shaped with a glass texture designed to mimic the fruit. Beton, who excelled in marketing, insisted that the shape and shape of the bottle remained the same after some resistance from restaurants and retail stores, who argued that the bottles were difficult to stock on shelves.

In a 2009 interview, Beton noted that, "I got lots of complaints from café owners who could not fit the bottle in their fridges." Besides the obvious similarities to an orange, Beton described the bottle as having "a waist like a wasp and the bottom of a princess." He refused to change Orangina's formula, which includes citrus pulp, despite appeals from shop owners. Beton used television commercials to instruct consumers to shake the bottle before drinking; the early Orangina logo was designed to include an orange peel, since under French law, Orangina could not use a full orange in its logo since the beverage contained a low percentage of fruit juice. Beton hired illustrator Bernard Villemot, who had created Art Deco poster advertisements for such French companies as Perrier and Air France. Villemot created the image of an Orangina bottle topped with an orange peel in the shape of an umbrella or parasol, he utilized an orange color design against a blue background, which called to mind the Mediterranean Sea, to comply with the French standards, while still depicting parts of the citrus fruit.

Villemot's and Beton's design became associated with post-war French success. The image proved successful and Orangina sold 50 million bottles in 1957 alone. Beton moved his family's Orangina factory from Boufarik to Marseille in 1962 in the aftermath of the Algerian War, shortly before the North African country's independence, he continued to market Orangina extensively after the company's relocation. In 1978, Orangina was launched in the United States under the brand name, changed back to Orangina. In 1986, after he sold the company, a 75-foot sculpture of an Orangina bottle was installed outside Porte Maillot métro station in Paris to mark the drink's fiftieth anniversary. Jean-Claude Beton sold Orangina to Pernod Ricard in 1984, with Thierry Jacquillat for Pernod Ricard being a prominent character in regards to the purchase happening, he remained chairman of Orangina until his retirement in 1989. The brand went through a series of different owners throughout the 1990s. In 1997, The Coca-Cola Company offered 5 billion francs for Orangina, but the acquisition was nixed by the French government, which cited the potential for unfair competition within the country's beverage market.

A second attempt by Coca-Cola to purchase Orangina in 1998 failed. Orangina, known as Orangina Schweppes, is now owned a division of Suntory, as of 2014. Orangina was not produced again in Algeria until 2003. Beton returned to Algeria for the first time since 1967 to attend the opening, he visited the site of his original factory in Boufarik. Beton pursued other interests including olive oil and wine, he purchased several olive groves, as well as the Château Grand Ormeaux winery in Bordeaux during the 1980s. Jean-Claude Beton died in Marseille on December 2, 2013, at the age of 88, his death was disclosed by the Mayor of Marseille, Jean-Claude Gaudin. He was survived by his wife and their two children and Françoise


Katesgrove is an inner-town district near the centre of the town of Reading in the English county of Berkshire and ward of the Borough of Reading, in the English county of Berkshire. It is bounded on the north by the Inner Distribution Road and Reading town centre, on the east by Sidmouth Street, London Road, Kendrick Road and Northumberland Avenue, on the west Coley Park and Southcote, on the south by Long Barn Lane and Rose Kiln Lane and on the west by the River Kennet. Katesgrove ward is bordered by Abbey, Church and Minster wards and forms part of the Reading East parliamentary constituency. Katesgrove elects three councillors to the unitary Reading Borough Council, with each elected in separate years for a four-year term. Traditionally an area of strength for the Labour Party, the 2000s witnessed a surge in votes for the Liberal Democrats, resulting in 2007 with the election of Gareth Epps, the constituency's 2010 candidate who achieved second place in that election - culminating in 2010 with all Katesgrove councillors being Liberal Democrats.

However, the 2011 council election saw Labour candidate Matt Rodda elected, now MP for Reading East. As of 2018, the councillors are Sophia James, Rose Williams, Liam Challenger of the Labour Party. One of Katesgrove's councillors was Labour's David Sutton: leader of the council for thirteen years before his defeat by a Liberal Democrat, Warren Swaine in 2008. Fred Potts VC, holder of the Victoria Cross. Reading, Berkshire East Reading Media related to Katesgrove at Wikimedia Commons Katesgrove Community Association


Sembiyankandiyur is an archaeological site in Nagapattinam district in Tamil Nadu, India. In early 2006, a polished Neolithic celt that had engravings resembling the Indus script was found by a school teacher V. Shanmuganathan; the celt, a polished hand-held stone axe, has four Indus Valley signs on it. The artefact with the script was dated to 1500 B. C; the four signs were identified by epigraphists of the Tamil Nadu Department of Archaeology, according to its Special Commissioner, T. S. Sridhar. Iravatham Mahadevan, one of the world's foremost experts on the Indus script, believed that this discovery was strong evidence that the Neolithic people of Tamil Nadu and the Indus Valley people "shared the same language, which can only be Dravidian and not Indo-Aryan." He added that before this discovery, the southernmost occurrence of the Indus script was at Daimabad, Maharashtra on the Pravara River in the Godavari Valley. The possibility of the celt coming from North India was ruled out as the material of this stone was of peninsular origin.

Suggestions that the Indus script were used to record a language are disputed. It is not clear if these symbols constitute a script used to record a language, the subject of whether the Indus symbols were a writing system is controversial. In spite of many attempts at decipherment, it is undeciphered, no underlying language has been identified. There is no known bilingual inscription; the script does not show any significant changes over time. The discovery of this celt caused a stir in archaeological circles. Subsequently, the Archaeological Survey of India decided to excavate the Sembiyankandiyur site to find out its antiquity and fix the chronology. Four trenches were laid at the place. Important findings from the trenches were bowls, broken urns, full-size urns and other articles. Eight urns were found to be aligned in three of them with human bones; some urns had ritual pots inside. Some pots and sherds have thumb-nail impressions on them. Full-shape pots had the graffiti depicting a fish, a ‘damaru’, star and a swastika.

Geometric designs and marks depicting fish and star and graffiti marks are found on black-and-red ware and black ware, with the symbols sometimes repeated. During excavations by the ASI in April-May 2008, megalithic pottery with graffiti symbols that have a strong resemblance to a sign in the Indus script were found. Iravatham Mahadevan says that what is striking about the arrow-mark graffiti on the megalithic pottery found at Sembiyankandiyur and Melaperumpallam villages is that they are always incised twice and together, just as they are in the Indus script. ASI had found several pots at Melaperumpallam near Poompuhar during an excavation; some of these had the same arrow-like symbol occurring twice on them, always adjacent to each other. According to Mr. Mahadevan, seals unearthed at Mohenjodaro in the 1920s have similar arrow-like signs that occur twice and always together. There are several seals with the Indus script and engravings of a bull or a unicorn where the arrow-like sign always occurs in pairs.

While the megalithic/Iron Age pottery in Tamil Nadu is datable between the third century B. C. and third century A. D. the Indus script belongs to the period 2600 B. C. to 1900 B. C. of the mature Harappan period. Significance of Mayiladurai find - The Hindu, May 1, 2006 Sembiyan Kandiyur yields many a megalithic vestige - The Hindu, May 1, 2006

John Everetts

John Everetts was a United States Navy sailor and a recipient of the United States military's highest decoration, the Medal of Honor. Born on August 25, 1873, in Thorold, Everetts immigrated to the United States and was living in New York City when he joined the Navy. By February 11, 1898, he was serving as a gunner's mate third class on the USS Cushing. On that day, he and Ship's Cook First Class Daniel Atkins attempted unsuccessfully to rescue Ensign Joseph Breckinridge, who had fallen overboard. For this action, both Everetts and Atkins were awarded the Medal of Honor three months on May 20, 1898. Everetts's official Medal of Honor citation reads: Serving on board the U. S. S. Cushing, 11 February 1898, Everetts displayed gallant conduct in attempting to save the life of the late Ens. Joseph C. Breckinridge, U. S. Navy, who fell overboard at sea from that vessel. Everetts reached the rank of chief petty officer before leaving the Navy, he died on September 12, 1956, at age 83 and was buried at Long Island National Cemetery in Suffolk County, New York.

List of Medal of Honor recipients during peacetime