Ireland is a parliamentary, representative democratic republic and a member state of the European Union. While the head of state is the popularly elected President of Ireland, it is a ceremonial position, with real political power being vested in the indirectly elected Taoiseach, the head of the government. Executive power is exercised by the government, which consists of no more than 15 cabinet ministers, inclusive of the Taoiseach and Tánaiste. Legislative power is vested in the Oireachtas, the bicameral national parliament, which consists of Dáil Éireann, Seanad Éireann and the President of Ireland; the judiciary is independent of the legislature. The head of the judiciary is the Chief Justice. While there are a number of political parties in the state, the political landscape has been dominated for decades by Fianna Fáil and Fine Gael opposed and competing entities, which both occupy the traditional centre ground. From the 1930s until 2011 they were the largest and second-largest parties respectively.
Both parties trace their roots back to the opposing sides of the Irish Civil War. The Labour Party the state's third political party, has only been in power as part of a coalition with either of the two main parties. In 2011, there was a major political realignment in Ireland, with Fine Gael becoming the largest party, Labour the second, Fianna Fáil dropping to third following a collapse in support, while Sinn Féin saw a substantial increase in support. However, in 2016 Fianna Fáil managed to regain support and become the second-largest party, while Labour collapsed to fourth place following backlash over its role in the coalition government. Sinn Féin continued making gains, becoming the third-largest party, while Fine Gael remained the largest party, despite losing seats; the Economist Intelligence Unit rated Ireland a "full democracy" in 2019. The state operates under the Constitution of Ireland, adopted in 1937 by means of a plebiscite; the constitution falls within the liberal democratic tradition.
It guarantees certain fundamental rights. The Constitution can only be amended by means of a referendum. Important constitutional referenda have concerned issues such as abortion, the status of the Roman Catholic Church, European Union and same-sex marriage; the head of state is the President of Ireland. In keeping with the state's parliamentary system of government the President exercises a ceremonial role but does possess certain specific powers; the presidency is open to all Irish citizens who are at least 35. They are directly elected by secret ballot under the alternative vote. A candidate may be nominated for election as President by no fewer than 20 members of the Oireachtas or by four or more of Ireland's 31 County and City Councils. A retiring President may nominate themselves as a candidate for re-election. If only one valid candidate is nominated for election, for example if there is consensus among the political parties to nominate a single candidate, it is unnecessary to proceed to a ballot and that candidate is deemed elected.
The President is elected to a seven-year term of office and no person may serve more than two terms. In carrying out certain of their constitutional functions, the President is aided by the Council of State. There is no Vice-President in Ireland. If for any reason the President is unable to carry out his/her functions, or if the Office of President is vacant, the duties of the President are carried out by the Presidential Commission. Executive authority is exercised by a cabinet known as the Government. Article 28 of the Constitution states that the Government may consist of no less than seven and no more than fifteen members, namely the Taoiseach, the Tánaiste and up to thirteen other ministers; the Taoiseach is appointed after being nominated by Dáil Éireann. The remaining ministers are nominated by the Taoiseach and appointed by the President following their approval by the Dáil; the Government must enjoy the confidence of Dáil Éireann and, in the event that they cease to enjoy the support of the lower house, the Taoiseach must either resign or request the President to dissolve the Dáil, in which case a general election follows.
Article 15 of the Constitution of Ireland established the Oireachtas as the national parliament of Ireland. The Oireachtas consists of the President of Ireland and two elected houses: Dáil Éireann and Seanad Éireann; as the Oireachtas consists of the President the official title of the two law making houses is the Houses of the Oireachtas. The Dáil is by far the dominant House of the legislature; the President may not veto bills passed by the Oireachtas, but may refer them to the Supreme Court of Ireland for a ruling on whether they comply with the constitution. Members of the Dáil are directly elected at least once in every five years under the single transferable vote form of proportional representation from multi-seat constituencies. Membership of the house is open to all Irish citizens who are at least 21 and permanently resident in the State; the electorate consists of all Irish and British citizens resident in Ireland over the age of 18. Members of the Dáil are known as Teachta TDs. There are 160 TDs, of which one, the Ceann Comhairle, is automatically returned at an election.
The Taoiseach, Tánaiste and the Minister for Finance must be members of the Dáil. All other members of the Government must be members of the Dáil, however up to two members may be members of the Seanad; the Dáil is the o
Dún Laoghaire is a parliamentary constituency represented in Dáil Éireann, the lower house of the Irish parliament or Oireachtas. The constituency elects 4 deputies; the method of election is the single transferable vote form of proportional representation. The constituency was created in 1977, replacing the earlier Dún Laoghaire and Rathdown constituency, created in 1948. At the 2011 general election the number of seats was reduced from 5 to 4; the constituency is located in the eastern area of Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown county, consisting of the area around the town of Dún Laoghaire and including Ballybrack, Booterstown, Dalkey, Glasthule, Loughlinstown, Sallynoggin and Stillorgan. For the 2016 general election the constituency was redrawn to include the electoral divisions of Cabinteely-Loughlinstown, Foxrock-Carrickmines, Foxrock-Torquay and Stillorgan-Leopardstown, taken from the now-dissolved Dublin South constituency; the Electoral Act 2017 defines the constituency as: "In the county of Dún Laoghaire-Rathdown the electoral divisions of:Ballybrack, Blackrock-Booterstown, Blackrock-Carysfort, Blackrock-Central, Blackrock-Glenomena, Blackrock-Monkstown, Blackrock-Newpark, Blackrock-Seapoint, Blackrock-Stradbrook, Blackrock-Templehill, Blackrock-Williamstown, Cabinteely-Granitefield, Cabinteely-Kilbogget, Cabinteely-Loughlinstown, Cabinteely-Pottery, Dalkey-Avondale, Dalkey-Bullock, Dalkey-Coliemore, Dalkey Hill, Dalkey Upper, Dún Laoghaire-East Central, Dún Laoghaire-Glasthule, Dún Laoghaire-Glenageary, Dún Laoghaire-Monkstown Farm, Dún Laoghaire-Mount Town, Dún Laoghaire-Sallynoggin East, Dún Laoghaire-Sallynoggin South, Dún Laoghaire-Sallynoggin West, Dún Laoghaire-Salthill, Dún Laoghaire-Sandycove, Dún Laoghaire-West Central, Foxrock-Beechpark, Foxrock-Carrickmines, Foxrock-Deansgrange, Foxrock-Torquay, Killiney North, Killiney South, Shankill-Rathmichael, Shankill-Rathsallagh, Shankill-Shanganagh, Stillorgan-Leopardstown, Stillorgan-Priory.
Note: The columns in this table are used only for presentational purposes, no significance should be attached to the order of columns. For details of the order in which seats were won at each election, see the detailed results of that election. Dáil constituencies Elections in the Republic of Ireland Politics of the Republic of Ireland List of Dáil by-elections List of political parties in the Republic of Ireland Oireachtas Members Database
Sheikh Hassan Barsame was a Somali cleric and religious scholar. He was best known for having led a revolt against Italian colonial forces after World War I. Barsame was born 1853 in Ubaadi, a village 68 km west of Jowhar in the Middle Shebelle region of southern Somalia, he hailed from the Gaalje'el clan. After memorizing the Quran during his youth, Barsame sought to further his religious education, he traveled to Mecca to perform the Hajj. Barsame stayed there for three years, meeting along the way Sheikh Mohammed Salih, the leader of the Salihiyah. Barsame thereafter joined Salih's movement. Sheikh Barsame's forces owned an estimated 16,000 rifles. In 1905, they stopped an attempted Ethiopian expansion into southern Somalia during the battle of Gumar Sheel; the Sheikh and his men fought various battles against Italian troops, including: Buloburde El Dhere Hilweyne Jiliyale HarerileIn October 1923, Cesare Maria De Vecchi was appointed the first Fascist Governor of Italian Somaliland, marking a change in Italian administration in the Horn of Africa.
De Vecchi set out to subdue all who opposed his government's desire to establish a "La Grande Somalia". However, the Somalis were armed and led by men, given advanced training during the preparation for the First World War. De Vecchi adopted a policy of disarmament vis-a-vis the clans in the inter-riverine region. In March 1924, Sheikh Barsame convoked a shir, where the participants, inflamed with militant zeal, denounced the Governor's order. On behalf of the Shir, Barsame wrote the following to the Governor: "In the name of Allah, most gracious, most merciful … I have received your letter and understood its contents, but must advise that we cannot obey your orders and join with you in a covenant... Your government has its laws, we have ours. We accept no law other than ours. Our law is the law of Allah and his Prophet... We are not like other people, none of us has enrolled in the Zaptie, never! … and if you come to our land to fight against us, we will fight you with all possible means … The world is close to its end.
We don’t want to stay in this world. It is better to die while defending our laws." After some initial success, the Somali resistance crumbled when he was captured by the Italians on 4 April 1924. He died three years on 13 January 1927 in a Mogadishu prison. Barsame was buried in a small town in his native southern Middle Shebelle region. Mohammed Abdullah Hassan