Fannin County, Georgia
Fannin County is a county located in the north central portion of the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 23,682; the county seat is Blue Ridge. The county was created on January 21, 1854. Fannin County was founded in 1854; the county is named for Georgia native James W. Fannin, who fought and died during the Texas Revolution. During the Civil War men from Fannin County served in the following Confederate Units. 2nd Regiment, Georgia Infantry, Company E, Joe Browns 11th Regiment, Georgia Infantry, Company E, Fannin Young Riflemen 52nd Regiment, Georgia Infantry, Company H, Fannin Rifles 65th Regiment, Georgia Infantry, Company B 65th Regiment, Georgia Infantry, Company E According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 392 square miles, of which 387 square miles is land and 5.2 square miles is water. It has a mountainous terrain; the Toccoa River, which rises in adjacent Union County, flows northward across Fannin County into Tennessee, where it becomes the Ocoee River.
Blue Ridge Lake, created in the 1930s by the completion of Blue Ridge Dam, spans a substantial stretch of the river in the northern part of the county. The vast majority of Fannin County is located in the Ocoee River sub-basin of the Middle Tennessee-Hiwassee basin. A small northeastern portion of Fannin County is located in the Hiwassee River sub-basin of the same Middle Tennessee-Hiwassee basin. Illustrating that watershed boundaries and county boundaries have little in common, Fannin County's southernmost corner is located in the Etowah River sub-basin in the ACT River Basin, while two slivers of the county's southwestern area are located in the Coosawattee River sub-basin of the same larger ACT River Basin. A western portion of the county is located in the Conasauga River sub-basin of the ACT River Basin. Cherokee County, North Carolina - northeast Union County - east Dawson County - southeast Lumpkin County - southeast Gilmer County - southwest Murray County - west Polk County, Tennessee - northwest Chattahoochee National Forest U.
S. Route 76 State Route 2 State Route 5 State Route 60 State Route 60 Spur State Route 515 As of the census of 2000, there were 19,798 people, 8,369 households, 6,008 families residing in the county; the population density was 51 people per square mile. There were 11,134 housing units at an average density of 29 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 99.9% White, 0.2% Black or African American, 0.1% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.0% from other races, 0.0% from two or more races. 0.0% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 8,369 households out of which 25.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.80% were married couples living together, 8.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.20% were non-families. 25.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.80. In the county, the population was spread out with 20.90% under the age of 18, 7.00% from 18 to 24, 24.90% from 25 to 44, 28.20% from 45 to 64, 19.00% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females there were 93.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,612, the median income for a family was $35,258. Males had a median income of $28,728 versus $21,246 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,269. About 10.20% of families and 12.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.10% of those under age 18 and 14.20% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 23,682 people, 10,187 households, 7,016 families residing in the county; the population density was 61.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 16,207 housing units at an average density of 41.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 97.1% white, 0.4% black or African American, 0.3% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 0.7% from other races, 1.2% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.8% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 18.6% were Irish, 13.3% were American, 11.5% were English, 9.5% were German.
Of the 10,187 households, 25.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.2% were married couples living together, 9.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.1% were non-families, 27.1% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 2.77. The median age was 48.3 years. The median income for a household in the county was $34,145 and the median income for a family was $41,422. Males had a median income of $34,875 versus $27,097 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,103. About 12.2% of families and 16.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.0% of those under age 18 and 13.8% of those age 65 or over. Blue Ridge McCaysville Morganton Epworth Mineral Bluff Colwell Deep Gap Dial Fry Hemptown Lakewood Margret Sugar Creek Wilscot Fannin County, as an white highland county devoid of slaves and culturally more allied to East Tennessee than to the rest of Georgia, constitutes an anomaly in the state’s politics as a Republican county in a state, overwhelmingly Democratic at a Presidential level until the 1960s and at other levels until the 1990s.
Since the 1870s it has be
Burra Burra Mine (Tennessee)
The Burra Burra Mine is a copper mine located in Ducktown, Tennessee, in the southeastern United States. Named for the famous mine in Australia, the Burra Burra Mine extracted over 15 million tons of copper ore during its 60 years of operation between 1899 and 1959; the mine's remaining structures are listed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the Burra Burra Mine Historic District. The site is home to the Ducktown Basin Museum, the museum and mine are a Tennessee State Historic Site operated in partnership with the Tennessee Historical Commission; the Burra Burra Mine was one of a number of mining operations in the Copper Basin from 1850 to 1987 that produced substantial amounts of copper ore that contained sulfur. Trees were cut to burn off the sulfur. Both the tree-harvesting and the sulfuric acid pollution left more than 32,000 acres —(13,000 hectares — of the basin eroded and devoid of life, though the area has begun to recover after decades of re-greening efforts; the Burra Burra Mine is located near the center of the Copper Basin, a broad valley in the southern Appalachian Mountains near the common borders of Tennessee, North Carolina, Georgia.
The basin—actually an area of low hills rather than a true basin— is surrounded on all sides by mountains, including Pack Mountain to the east, Stansbury Mountain to the north, Little Frog Mountain to the northwest, Big Frog Mountain to the southwest, some more than 4,000 feet high. A series of hills rise above the basin to the south; the Ocoee River flows through the southwestern section of the Copper Basin, entering from Georgia and exiting via a scenic gorge between Big Frog Mountain and Little Frog Mountain to the west. The river's Copper Basin segment is located at just over 35 miles upstream from the river's mouth along the Hiwassee River near Benton, Tennessee; the Tennessee Valley Authority's Ocoee Dam Number 3 has created a reservoir that extends into the Copper Basin segment. Ducktown, the location of the Burra Burra Mine, is in the center of the Copper Basin near the juncture of Tennessee State Route 68 and U. S. Route 64. Other communities located in or associated with the basin include Copperhill, near the Tennessee-Georgia border, Postelle in the northwest section of the basin, Isabella in the eastern portion, Harbuck and Farner just north of the basin.
The Copper Basin is located entirely within Polk County, although parts of it extend into Fannin County, Georgia. The mine is at 35°02′07″N 084°22′46″W, at an altitude of 1798 feet above mean sea level; the Copper Basin was part of Cherokee lands until 1836, when the Cherokee relinquished control of the basin to the U. S. government. The basin became part of the Ocoee District, which consisted of what is now Polk County. While most Cherokees in the area were forced out as part of the Indian Removal of 1838, some managed to avoid detection and would aide in road construction and mining operations. Copper was first discovered in the Copper Basin in 1843 on a hill southwest of what would become the Burra Burra Mine; this discovery sparked interest among regional entrepreneurs and opportunists, although the lack of major roads in and out of the basin complicated early mining operations. The Hiwassee Mine opened in 1850 near the site of the ore discovery at the center of the basin. Three years a road was constructed through the Ocoee Gorge, connecting the Copper Basin with Cleveland, Tennessee to the west.
A total of nine separate ore deposits were discovered and worked within the southeast corner of Polk County, Tennessee. In 1860, several small-scale mining operations in the basin were consolidated to form the Burra Burra Copper Company, placed under the direction of mining engineer Julius Raht; the American Civil War halted mining operations in the basin, although the industry recovered after the war due in large part to Raht's efforts. By the late 1870s, Burra Burra and the basin's other mining operations— lacking a cost-effective way of transporting the ore out of the basin— were forced out of business. In the early 1890s, the Marietta & North Georgia Railroad and the Knoxville Southern Railroad built a rail line connecting the Copper Basin to Knoxville to the north and Marietta to the south, mining operations resumed. In 1899, the Tennessee Copper Company, which had bought most of the mining operations in the Copper Basin, constructed a smelter at Copperhill and began work on the Burra Burra Mine at Ducktown.
The company's open roast smelting method released large amounts of sulfur dioxide into the air, killing off all vegetation in the central basin. After being sued by local farmers and the state of Georgia over damage caused by the pollution, the Tennessee Copper Company began to recapture the sulfur dioxide, they converted the gas into sulfuric acid, which they marketed. The Tennessee Copper Company merged with the Ducktown Sulfur and Iron Company, the merged company began to diversify. Along with copper and sulfuric acid, the company built a flotation plant to produce copper sulfate in the 1920s. Iron and zinc concentrates were produced. By the time the Burra Burra Mine closed in 1958, its vertical shaft was over 2,400 feet deep, making it one of the deepest vertical shafts in the North America. After the mine's closure, operations continued at other deposits within the Basin. Mining ceased in the Copper Basin in 1987 when the Tennessee Chemical Company (Tennessee Copper's succe
Monroe County, Tennessee
Monroe County is a county located in the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 44,519, its county seat is Madisonville. During the 18th century and villages of the Overhill Cherokee were scattered along the Little Tennessee River and Tellico River throughout Monroe County; these included Chota and Great Tellico, which at various times were Cherokee principal towns, as well as Citico, Tomotley, Mialoquo and Tallassee. Archaeological excavations at the Citico site suggest the area was inhabited for thousands of years before the arrival of European settlers. Artifacts uncovered from the Icehouse Bottom site near Vonore date to as early as 7500 B. C. during the Archaic period. Fort Loudoun was built by the British in 1756 as part of an agreement with the Cherokee. After relations soured between the British and Cherokee in 1760, the Cherokee laid siege to the fort, killed most of its garrison. Monroe County was established in 1819 after the signing of the Calhoun Treaty, in which the Cherokee relinquished claims to lands stretching from the Little Tennessee River south to the Hiwassee River.
The county was named for President James Monroe. Some of the state's first gold mines were located in Monroe County. Placer mining took place on Coker Creek in the early 1830s. Monroe County was one of the few East Tennessee counties to support secession at the outbreak of the Civil War. On June 8, 1861, the county voted in favor of Tennessee's Ordinance of Secession by a margin of 1,096 to 774. In the early 20th century, the Babcock Lumber Company conducted extensive logging operations in the Tellico Plains area. During the same period, the Aluminum Company of America began building a string of dams along the Little Tennessee, among them Calderwood and Cheoah, to power its aluminum smelting operations in nearby Alcoa; the construction of Tellico Dam by the Tennessee Valley Authority in the 1970s, although staunchly opposed by many Monroe Countians, provided a number of new economic and recreational opportunities. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 653 square miles, of which 636 square miles is land and 17 square miles is water.
The Unicoi Mountains, part of the greater Blue Ridge chain, dominate the southeastern part of the county. The crest of this range marks Monroe's boundaries with the North Carolina counties and Cherokee; the Little Tennessee River flows along Monroe County's border with Blount County to the northeast. Three artificial lakes— Tellico Lake, Chilhowee Lake and Calderwood Lake— occupy this section of the river; the Tellico River, a tributary of the Little Tennessee, drains much of the southwestern part of the county. The Bald River, noted for the scenic Bald River Falls, is a tributary of the Tellico River. Sweetwater Creek, a tributary of the Tennessee River, drains a portion of northern Monroe County. Loudon County Blount County Graham County, North Carolina Cherokee County, North Carolina Polk County McMinn County Bald River Gorge Wilderness Cherohala Skyway Cherokee National Forest Citico Creek Wilderness Fort Loudoun State Park Tellico Blockhouse State Historic Site Tellico Lake Wildlife Management Area As of the census of 2000, there were 38,961 people, 15,329 households, 11,236 families residing in the county.
The population density was 61 people per square mile. There were 17,287 housing units at an average density of 27 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 94.87% White, 2.27% Black or African American, 0.36% Native American, 0.36% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.86% from other races, 1.26% from two or more races. 1.76% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 15,329 households out of which 32.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.40% were married couples living together, 10.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.70% were non-families. 23.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 2.94. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.70% under the age of 18, 8.70% from 18 to 24, 28.60% from 25 to 44, 24.80% from 45 to 64, 13.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years.
For every 100 females there were 97.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,337, the median income for a family was $34,902. Males had a median income of $29,621 versus $21,064 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,951. 15.50% of the population and 12.00% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 19.40% of those under the age of 18 and 17.70% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. Monroe County Schools serves most of the county for high school. Residents of Sweetwater are served by Sweetwater City Schools for elementary through junior high school. Tennessee Meiji Gakuin High School was located in Sweetwater from 1989 to 2007. A portion of the county is included in the Cherokee National Forest; the Monroe section of the forest includes two federally designated wilderness areas— Citico Creek and Bald River Gorge. The Joyce Kilmer Memorial Forest is located just across the North Carolina border to the east.
The Great Smoky Mountains National Park is located just across the Blount County border to the northeast. The Cherohala Skyway, a national scenic byway, connects Tellico Plains with Robbinsville, North Carolina. Crossing the Unicoi Mountains, the
Canoe slalom is a competitive sport with the aim to navigate a decked canoe or kayak through a course of hanging downstream or upstream gates on river rapids in the fastest time possible. It is one of the two kayak and canoeing disciplines at the Summer Olympics, is referred to by the International Olympic Committee as Canoe/Kayak Slalom; the other Olympic canoeing discipline is canoe sprint. Wildwater canoeing is a non-Olympic paddlesport. Canoe slalom racing started in Europe and in the 1940s, the International Canoe Federation was formed to govern the sport; the first World Championships were held in 1949 in Switzerland. From 1949 to 1999, the championships were held every odd-numbered year and have been held annually in non-Summer Olympic years since 2002. Folding kayaks were used from 1949 to 1963. Boats were heavy over 65 pounds. With the advent of kevlar and carbon fiber being used in the 1970s, the widths of the boats were reduced by the ICF, the boats were reduced in volume to pass the gates, boats have become much lighter and faster.
From 1949 to 1977, all World Championships were held in Europe. The first World Championship held in North America was held at Jonquière, in Québec, Canada, in 1979, it has been a regular Olympic sport since 1992. In 2020 during the Tokyo Olympics, C2 men loses its status as an official olympic event and is to be replaced by C1 women; each gate consists of two poles hanging from a wire strung across the river. There are 18-25 numbered gates in a course, of which 6-7 must be upstream gates, they are colored as either green or red, indicating the direction they must be negotiated. Upstream gates are always placed in eddies, where the water is flat or moving upstream. Downstream gates may be placed in eddies, to increase the difficulty, downstream gates in the current can be offset to alternating sides of the current, requiring rapid turns in fast-moving water. Most slalom courses take 80 to 120 seconds to complete for the fastest paddlers. Depending on the level of competition, difficulty of the course, degree of water turbulence.
And ability of the other paddlers, times can go up to 200 seconds. In international competitions each competitor does two runs in the qualification round, called the "heats". Depending on the number of participants in the event, 10 to 40 boats make it through to the semi-final; the fastest semi-final boats, the number determined by the number of participants, make it through to the final, where they navigate the semi-final course once more. Their ranking within the final group is based on the time of that last run alone. If the competitor's boat, paddle or body touches either pole of the gate, a time penalty of two seconds is added. If the competitor misses a gate deliberately pushes the gate to pass through, goes through the gate in the wrong direction or upside-down, or goes through it in the wrong order, a 50-second penalty is given. Only one penalty can be incurred on each gate, this will be taken as the highest one. There are four Olympic Medal events: C1 Men C1 Women C2 Men K1 Men K1 Women In the 1960s and early 1970s, boats were made of heavy fiberglass and nylon.
The boats were high volume and weighed over 30 pounds. In the early 1970s Kevlar was used and the boats became lighter as well as the volume of the boats was being reduced every year as new designs were made. A minimum boat weight was introduced to equalize competition when super light materials began to affect race results; the ICF reduced the width of the boats in the early 1970s. The gates were hung about 10 cm above the water; when racers began making lower-volume boats, the gates were raised in response to fears that new boats would be of such low volume as to create a hazard to the paddler. Their low-volume sterns allow the boat to slice through the water in a quick turn, or "pivot". New racing boats cost between $1,200 and $2,500. Boats are made with carbon fiber and fiberglass cloth, using epoxy or polyester resin to hold the layers together. Foam sandwich construction in between layers of carbon, Kevlar, or Aramid is another technique in use to increase the stiffness of slalom boats. In 2005 the minimum length of these boats was reduced from 4 meters down to 3.5 meters, causing a flurry of new, faster boat designs which are able to navigate courses with more speed and precision.
The shorter length allows for easier navigation and less boat damage in the smaller manmade river beds that are prevalent in current elite competitions. Boat design progression is rather limited year to year. Directly from the 2017 ICF Canoe Slalom Rules: 7.1.1 Measurements All types of K1 Minimum length 3.50 m minimum width 0.60 m All types of C1 Minimum length 3.50 m minimum width 0.60 m All types of C2 Minimum length 4.10 m minimum width 0.75 m 7.1.2 Minimum Weight of Boats All types of K1 9 kg.. All types of C1 9 kg.. All types of C2 15 kg. 7.1.3 All boats must have a minimum radius at each end of 2 cm horizontally and 1 cm vertically. 7.1.4 Rudders are prohibited on all boats 7.1.5 Boats must be
Benton is a town in Polk County, United States. The population was 1,385 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Polk County. Benton is included in the Cleveland Metropolitan Statistical Area. Benton was founded in 1840 as a county seat for Polk County, established the previous year; the town a trading post known as McKamy's stock stand, was named in honor of Thomas Hart Benton. The Benton fireworks disaster was an industrial disaster which occurred on May 27, 1983 on a farm southeast of Benton. An explosion at a secret illegal fireworks operation killed eleven, injured one, caused damage within a radius of several miles, revealed the operation; the operation was by far the largest and most successful known illegal fireworks operation and the blast, having been heard over 20 miles away, was arguably the largest and most powerful explosion involving firework explosives. Benton is located at 35°10′27″N 84°39′13″W; the town is situated just southeast of the confluence of the Ocoee River and the Hiwassee River 34 miles upstream from the latter's mouth along the Chickamauga Lake impoundment of the Tennessee River.
The Unicoi Mountains rise prominently to the east of Benton. Benton is centered on the junction of U. S. Route 411, which connects the town to Etowah to the north and Tennga, Georgia to the south, Tennessee State Route 314, which connects Benton to Parksville and the Ocoee Dam area to the southeast. Benton is located 20 miles east of Interstate 75. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 2.3 square miles, all land. One of the scenic areas around Benton is Lake McCamy, where a hiking trail leads to the Benton Falls; as of the census of 2000, there were 1,138 people, 468 households, 301 families residing in the town. The population density was 502.1 people per square mile. There were 513 housing units at an average density of 226.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.86% White, 0.09% African American, 0.18% Native American, 0.09% Pacific Islander, 0.09% from other races, 0.70% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.53% of the population.
There were 468 households out of which 26.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.6% were married couples living together, 12.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.5% were non-families. 31.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.95. In the town, the population was spread out with 22.7% under the age of 18, 11.1% from 18 to 24, 29.4% from 25 to 44, 22.6% from 45 to 64, 14.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.6 males. The median income for a household in the town was $22,667, the median income for a family was $31,146. Males had a median income of $24,667 versus $23,295 for females; the per capita income for the town was $12,580. About 15.1% of families and 20.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 34.5% of those under age 18 and 20.9% of those age 65 or over.
Polk County Library Cooperative Town charter
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
The Hiwassee River has its headwaters on the north slope of Rocky Mountain in Towns County in the northern State of Georgia and flows northward into North Carolina before turning westward into Tennessee, flowing into the Tennessee River a few miles west of State Route 58 in Meigs County, Tennessee. The river is about 147 miles long; the river is dammed by the Tennessee Valley Authority in four locations, all in western North Carolina. Chatuge Dam, Mission Dam, Hiwassee Dam, Apalachia Dam. Water is diverted from the stream bed at Apalachia Dam and sent through a pipeline, tunneled through the mountains for eight miles flows through the Apalachia Powerhouse to generate electricity; the stretch of the river that flows between Apalachia Dam and Apalachia Powerhouse features reduced flow and is followed by the John Muir Trail in Tennessee's Cherokee National Forest. The 23-mile stretch of river that flows from the North Carolina/Tennessee state line to U. S. Highway 411 near Delano is designated a State Scenic River and for recreational purposes is managed by the state Resource Management Division, in cooperation with TVA.
The river features Class I depending on water levels. After exiting the mountains through a gorge, the Hiwassee flows under US-411 and broadens, meandering through rural Polk and Bradley counties; the river crosses under U. S. Route 11 at Calhoun and Charleston, where local industries such as Bowater Newsprint Mill and Arch/Olin Chemical use river water in their operations. At this point the river interfaces with the impoundment of Chickamauga Dam, many marshes and wetlands surround the main channel, providing areas for hunting and fishing; the Hiwassee passes under Interstate 75 on the border of Bradley counties. The Hiwassee continues westward to pass under TN-58's historic, narrow, bridge on its way to the confluence with the Tennessee River; this area of the river is enjoyed by boaters and water skiers. Major tributaries include Valley River, Nottely River, Coker Creek, Big Lost Creek, Spring Creek, Conasauga Creek, Toccoa/Ocoee River; the Hiwassee River has been known by many variant spellings.
The best-known of these is Hiawassee, the name of the Georgia town through which the river flows. Other alternate spellings include Heia Wassea and Highwassee, some less obvious related names include Eufasee, Eufassee and Quannessee; some Cherokee say the name came from the Cherokee word Ayuhwasi, which means a savanna. The Muskogee say the river's name is the Koasati and Hitchiti, Creek language words for the copperhead snake; the river is known for its many copperheads today. Various Muskogean-speaking ethnic groups occupied the region for many centuries before the arrival of the Cherokee. Tribes related to them include the Creek, Choctaw and Seminole; some historians thought that because the Europeans had encountered the Cherokee in the Hiwassee Valley in the 18th century, the latter people had occupied the territory for a much longer period, but this is not the case. Their language is Iroquoian and they are believed to have migrated at an earlier time from south of the Great Lakes region, where several other Iroquoian tribes have been based, including the Five Nations of the Haudenosaunee.
Spanish explorers visited the region in the 16th century. Hernando de Soto crossed the Hiwassee River near its confluence with the Tennessee River at Hiwassee Island, in the spring of 1541 AD. Juan Pardo followed a trail that paralleled the river in 1567 AD. All town names and indigenous words that were recorded by de Soto's chroniclers in present-day Georgia, North Carolina and Tennessee, can be translated by contemporary Muskogean dictionaries. Most of the words are of the Koasati and Hitchiti languages, but a few are Muskogean and Alabama words. None of the words are Cherokee; the earliest European maps from the 17th century vaguely show the Hiwassee River Basin occupied by a mountain branch of the Apalachee and the Kusa. The Kusa were one of the ancestral branches of the "Upper Creek"; the Tama-tli of the Altamaha River Basin in southeastern Georgia are known to have had a colony in the valley between Andrews, North Carolina and the Hiwassee River at Murphy, North Carolina. The initial contacts by English explorers and traders in the 1690s found most of the river valley occupied by Muskogean and Yuchi towns.
Cherokee villages were north of the river at this time. In 1714, two traders in South Carolina supplied the Cherokee with firearms and directed them to attack the Yuchi villages on the Hiwassee River. Most of the men in one Yuchi town were gone. Not having firearms, the remaining Yuchi were massacred. In 1715, the Cherokee invited the leaders of the many Muskogean provinces that would comprise the Creek Confederacy to a diplomatic conference at Tugaloo at the headwaters of the Savannah River, they murdered the Muskogean leaders in their sleep. This precipitated a 40-year-long war between the Cherokee. Due to disunity among the Creek, the Cherokee were able to occupy the northeastern tip of what is now Georgia, but was part of South Carolina, they drove the Yuchi from most of North Carolina west and south of the Hiwassee. Most of the branches of the Creek lost interest in this war after a few years; the Hiwassee River and its tributaries were part of Cherokee territory in the early 18th century. A town known as "Hiwassee" was located near the mou