The polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout all of Europe and the Americas. It originated in the middle of the 19th century in Bohemia, now part of the Czech Republic; the polka remains a popular folk music genre in many European and American countries, is performed by folk artists. The term polka comes from the Czech word "půlka", referring to the short half-steps featured in the dance. Czech cultural historian and ethnographer Čeněk Zíbrt, who wrote in detail about the origin of the dance, in his book, Jak se kdy v Čechách tancovalo cites an opinion of František Doucha that "polka" was supposed to mean "dance in half", both referring to the half-tempo 24 and the half-jump step of the dance. Zíbrt dismisses the etymology suggested by A. Fähnrich that "polka" comes from the Czech word "pole". On the other hand, Zdeněk Nejedlý suggests. Doucha is nothing but an effort to prove the "true Czech folk" origin of polka. Instead, he argues that according to Jaroslav Langr in the area of Hradec Králové, the tune Krakoviáky from the collection Slovanské národní písně of František Ladislav Čelakovský became popular so that it was used to dance třasák, břitva, kvapík, this way was called "polka".
Nejedlý writes that Václav Vladivoj Tomek claims the Hradec Králové roots of a polka. The OED suggests that the name may have been derived from the Czech Polka meaning "Polish woman"; the word was introduced into the major European languages in the early 1840s. It should not be confused with a Swedish 34-beat dance with Polish roots. A related dance is the redowa. Polkas always have a 24 time signature. Folk music of polka style appeared in written music about 1800; the beginning of the propagation of dance and accompanying music called polka is attributed to a young woman, Anna Slezáková. The music teacher Josef Neruda noticed her dancing in an unusual way to accompany a local folk song called "Strýček Nimra koupil šimla", or "Uncle Nimra Bought a White Horse", in 1830, she is said to have called the dance Maděra because of its liveliness. The dance was further propagated by Neruda, who put the tune to paper and taught other young men to dance it. Čeněk Zíbrt notices that a common claim that the events happened in Týnec nad Labem, Bohemia, in 1834 is incorrect.
Zibrt writes that when he published this traditional story in 1894 in Narodni Listy newspaper, he received a good deal of feedback from eyewitnesses. In particular, he wrote that according to further witness, the originating event happened in 1830, in Kostelec nad Labem, where she worked as a housemaid. Zíbrt writes that he published the first version of the story in Bohemia, from where it was reprinted all over Europe and in the United States. Zíbrt wrote that simple Czech folk said they knew and danced polka long before the nobles got hold of it, i.e. it is a folk Czech dance. By 1835, this dance had spread to the ballrooms of Prague. From there, it spread to Vienna by 1839, in 1840 was introduced in Paris by Raab, a Prague dance instructor, it was so well received by both dancers and dance masters in Paris that its popularity was referred to as "polkamania." The dance soon spread to London and was introduced to America in 1844. It remained a popular ballroom dance until the late 19th century, when it gave way to the two-step and new ragtime dances.
Polka dancing enjoyed a resurgence in popularity after World War II, when many Polish refugees moved to the US, adopting this Bohemian style as a cultural dance. Polka dances are still held on a weekly basis across many parts of the US with significant populations of central European origin, it was found in parts of South America. There are various styles of contemporary polka besides the original Czech dance, still the chief dance at any formal or countryside ball in the Czech Republic. One of the types found in the United States is the North American "Polish-style polka," which has roots in Chicago, with large Czech and Polish minorities. North American "Slovenian-style polka" is fast and features piano accordion, chromatic accordion, and/or diatonic button box accordion. North American "Dutchmen-style" features an oom-pah sound with a tuba and banjo, has roots in the American Midwest. "Conjunto-style" polkas have roots in northern Mexico and Texas, are called "Norteño". Traditional dances from this region reflect the influence of polka-dancing European immigrants.
In the 1980s and 1990s, several American bands began to combine polka with various rock styles, "alternative polka", or "San Francisco-style". There exist Curaçaoan polkas, Peruvian polkas. In the pampas of Argentina, the "polca" has a fast beat with a 34 time signature. Instruments used are: acoustic guitar, electric or acoustic bass and sometimes some percussion is used; the lyrics always praise the gaucho warriors from the past or tell about the life of the gaucho campeiros. The polka was
Emiliano Jonathan Iván Mayola is an Argentine professional footballer who plays as a defender for Deportivo Morón. Mayola began with Banfield, prior to going to San Martín of Primera B Nacional in 2006. After no appearances in two years, Mayola left in 2008 to join Armenian Premier League side Gandzasar Kapan. A year the defender returned to Argentina after agreeing a move back to San Martín. Again, Mayola didn't feature for the club's first-team. Argentino of Primera C Metropolitana signed Mayola ahead of the 2010–11 campaign. Five goals in forty-two fixtures followed across the season. Mayola joined Primera B Metropolitana's Flandria in 2011, his first pro goal came on 30 April 2012 during a win versus Villa San Carlos. After spending 2011–12 and 2012–13 with Flandria and making a total of seventy-six appearances whilst netting twice, Mayola was loaned to fellow third tier team Deportivo Morón, his first appearance arrived on 3 August 2013 against Los Andes, prior to his first goal coming in a 1–0 victory over Barracas Central on 27 August.
Mayola was signed permanently on 30 June 2014, subsequently participating in one hundred and seventeen matches across four campaigns. As of 19 December 2018. Deportivo MorónPrimera B Metropolitana: 2016–17 Emiliano Mayola at Soccerway
The Massacre in the Mokotów prison - mass murder of residents of the Mokotów prison in Warsaw by the Germans on the second day of the Warsaw Uprising. On August 2, 1944, soldiers of the Waffen-SS - SS-Pz. Gren. Ausb.-und Ers. Btl. 3 shot about 600 Poles on the premises of the prison at 37 Rakowiecka Street. It was one of the biggest crimes committed by the Germans in Mokotów during the suppression of the Warsaw Uprising. During the massacre, some prisoners resisted the Nazis, which allowed several hundred people to escape to the area controlled by the insurgents. Soon after the Germans entered Warsaw, the former Polish penitentiary at 37 Rakowiecka Street was adapted for the needs of the occupying forces; the Gerichtsgefängnis in der Rakowieckastrasse 37 was henceforth a prison under the authority of the German special courts, its residents remained in the hands of the Gestapo after serving their sentence. In addition to prisoners subordinate to special courts, officers of the Polish Army, who did not fulfil the obligation to register with the German authorities, economic criminals and Germans convicted of criminal offences, were detained at Rakowiecka Street.
The prison was filled and the number of detainees far exceeded its standard capacity. Many Polish employees of the prison secretly cooperated with the underground Service for Poland's Victory - with the Home Army. Thanks to their help, many people involved in underground activity managed to leave the prison. In the summer of 1944, the prison was under the authority of Commissioner Hitzinger. On July 23, 1944, in connection with the approaching Eastern Front, the release of prisoners sentenced to imprisonment for up to five years began - Germans and Volksdeutsche, Poles. Within five days, 655 people were released, including about 300 Poles. However, as a result of bribery of prison authorities, Hitzinger ordered that the release of the detainees be halted. On August 1st, one hour before the uprising broke out, 11 more prisoners were released. According to the records kept by the deputy head of the prison, court inspector Kirchner, at the time of the outbreak of the uprising there were 794 more prisoners in the prison at 37 Rakowiecka Street, including 41 minors.
Rakowiecka Street was one of the most important centres of German resistance in Mokotów. On August 1, 1944, insurgents from the IV Region of the Home Army attacked German positions on the whole length of the Rakowiecka street, attacking SS barracks at 4 Rakowiecka Street, airmen's barracks at the entrance of Puławska Street, the SGGW building and batteries of anti-aircraft artillery placed in the Mokotow Field; the task of conquering the prison and the neighbouring tenement houses was entrusted to the First Assault Company, commanded by Lieutenant Antoni Figura "Cat" from the "Baszta" Regiment. This unit consisted of about 80 soldiers and its armament was modest - 3 machine guns, 20 rifles, 15 pistols, 130 grenades and 30 bottles with "Molotov cocktails". Home Army soldiers managed to enter the prison and occupy the administrative building, but it proved impossible to reach the penitentiary buildings. During the battle lieutenant "Cat" suffered a serious wound; the German crew, reinforced from the nearby SS barracks, stopped the attack and captured Polish guards.
According to a report by the deputy head of the prison Kirchner, the attack cost the Germans 9 killed and 17 wounded. Despite the shelling from tank guns, the insurgents kept the captured administrative building until dawn of August 2. During the day, they were forced to retreat; the Germans captured soldiers of the Home Army. On August 2nd, Kirchner was appointed Acting Head of the Mokotow Prison. At 11.00 a.m. he was called to the nearby SS barracks. There, SS-Obersturmführer Martin Patz, the commander of subunit of the 3rd SS Battalion of Armored Grenadiers, declared to him that General Reiner Stahel, the commander of the Warsaw garrison, ordered the extermination of the prisoners; this decision was confirmed by the SS and Police commander for the Warsaw district, SS-Oberführer Paul Otto Geibel, who additionally ordered the execution of Polish guards. Kirchner drew up a takeover report, on the basis of which he placed at Patz's disposal all the prisoners in the prison; the SS soldier entered the prison in the afternoon.
They wrote down the exact status of all the cells, from the two investigative wards on the ground floor they took out about 60 men, who were ordered to dig three ditches, about 25-30 meters long, about 2 meters wide and deep. The first ditch was dug along the walls of pavilion X on the laundry side, the second one in the walking square on the side of Niepodległości Avenue, the third one in the walking square on the side of Kazimierzowska Street. German soldiers were drinking vodka during the digging. After the work was finished, all the diggers were shot; the Germans proceeded to eliminate the remaining prisoners. The pensioners were taken out of their cells, led over excavated pits and murdered with a shot in the back of their heads; the first to be executed were prisoners from wards 1 and 2, among them several boys aged from 12 to 14. The patients of the Chamber of the Sick were murdered; the SS began to empty wards: 8, 10, 11, 3, 5 one by one. The mass graves were filled and the SS-men were forced to execute some prisoners outside the prison.
During the several-hour massacre, more than 600 residents of the Mokotów prison were murdered. “