Pollarding is a pruning system involving the removal of the upper branches of a tree, which promotes the growth of a dense head of foliage and branches. In ancient Rome, Propertius mentioned pollarding during the 1st century BCE; the practice occurred in Europe since medieval times, takes place today in urban areas worldwide to maintain trees at a determined height. Traditionally, people pollarded trees for one of two reasons: for fodder to feed livestock or for wood. Fodder pollards produced "pollard hay" for livestock feed. Wood pollards were pruned at longer intervals of eight to fifteen years, a pruning cycle tending to produce upright poles favored for fencing and boat construction. Supple young willow or hazel branches may be harvested as material for weaving baskets and garden constructions such as bowers. Nowadays, the practice is sometimes used for ornamental trees, such as crapemyrtles in southern states of the USA, although the resulting tree has a stunted form rather than a natural-looking crown.
Pollarding tends to make trees live longer by maintaining them in a juvenile state and by reducing the weight and windage of the top part of the tree. Older pollards become hollow, so it can be difficult to determine age accurately. Pollards tend to grow with denser growth-rings in the years after cutting. Pollarding began with walled cities in Europe; the smaller limbs that resulted could be used for cooking. As in coppicing, pollarding is to encourage the tree to produce new growth on a regular basis to maintain a supply of new wood for various purposes for fuel. In some areas, dried leafy branches are stored as winter fodder for stock. Depending on the use of the cut material, the length of time between cutting will vary from one year for tree hay or withies, to five years or more for larger timber. Sometimes, only some of the regrown stems may be cut in a season – this is thought to reduce the chances of death of the tree when recutting long-neglected pollards. Pollarding was preferred over coppicing in wood-pastures and other grazed areas, because animals would browse the regrowth from coppice stools.
The right to pollard or "lop" was granted to local people for fuel on common land or in royal forests. An incidental effect of pollarding in woodland is the encouragement of underbrush growth due to increased light reaching the woodland floor; this can increase species diversity. However, in woodland where pollarding was once common but has now ceased, the opposite effect occurs, as the side and top shoots develop into trunk-sized branches. An example of this can be seen in Epping Forest in London/Essex, UK, the majority of, pollarded until the late 19th century. Here, the light that reaches the woodland floor is limited owing to the thick growth of the pollarded trees. Pollards cut at about a metre above the ground are called stubs; these were used as markers in coppice or other woodland. Stubs cannot be used where the trees are browsed by animals, as the regrowing shoots are below the browse line. Although people who migrated to the United States from Europe continued the practice, experts have come to believe that pollarding older trees harms the tree.
The smaller limbs grow from wood, not as strong, the weaker trees will not live as long and can be more damaged by storms. As with coppicing, only species with vigorous epicormic growth may be made into pollards. In these species, removal of the main apical stems releases the growth of many dormant buds under the bark on the lower part of the tree. Trees without this growth will die without their branches; some smaller tree species do not form pollards, because cutting the main stem stimulates growth from the base forming a coppice stool instead. Examples of trees that do well as pollards include broadleaves such as beeches, maples, black locust or false acacia, hornbeams and limes, horse chestnuts, Eastern redbud, tree of heaven, a few conifers, such as yews; the technique is used in Africa for moringa trees to bring the nutritious leaves into easier reach for harvesting. Pollarding is used in urban forestry in certain areas for reasons such as tree size management and health concerns, it removes rotting or diseased branches to support the overall health of the tree and removes living and dead branches that could harm property and people, as well as increasing the amount of foliage in spring for aesthetic and air quality reasons.
Some trees may be rejuvenated by pollarding — for example, Bradford pear, a beautiful flowering species when young that becomes brittle and top-heavy when older. Oaks, when old, can form new trunks from the growth of pollard branches, i.e. surviving branches which have split away from the main branch naturally. "Poll" was a name for the top of the head, "to poll" was a verb meaning "to crop the hair". This use was extended to similar treatment of the horns of animals. A pollard meant someone or something, polled; the noun "pollard" came to be used as a verb: "pollarding". Pollarding has now replaced polling as the verb in the forestry sense. Pollard can
Pennsylvania Humanities Council is an non-profit affiliate of the National Endowment for the Humanities based in Philadelphia, PA. It is one of 56 state humanities councils founded in the wake of the National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities Act of 1965; the Executive Director is Laurie Zierer. The earliest state councils were organized in 1971, when Pennsylvania’s council was founded with a start-up grant at the University of Pennsylvania. In 1980, the name Pennsylvania Humanities Council was adopted and the organization settled in Philadelphia. In the early years, PHC's activity consisted exclusively of issuing grants to non-profit organizations with funds provided by NEH. During the 1980s and early 1990s, they incorporated staff-directed special projects and packaged programs. In 1994, PHC focused on expanding access to the humanities in Pennsylvania beyond groups traditionally interested in cultural events, they began to support local groups, working to build the programming capacity of small historical societies, art centers, senior centers and community groups.
Past programs included Commonwealth Speakers, the televised series Humanities on the Road and a partnership with the Penn State Reads program. Additional activities include participation in the Pittsburgh Humanities Festival, Pulitzer Prize Centennial Campfires Initiative, Democracy and the Informed Citizen Initiative. In 2013, Pennsylvania Humanities Council shifted its focus to civic engagement and humanities advocacy, its programs are Chester Made, Pennsylvania Community Heart & Soul Communities, Penn VUB Partnership and Teen Reading Lounge. Chester Made is an initiative developed by Pennsylvania Humanities Council to recognize and promote arts and culture in Chester, for community revitalization. In 2013 PHC received two major grants from the National Endowment for the Arts and The Pew Center for Arts & Heritage for the development of a Chester Made Exploration Zone. Pennsylvania Humanities Council partners with select Pennsylvania towns to incorporate humanities into their planning processes using the Orton Family Foundation's Community Heart & Soul® method as a framework.
Pennsylvania Humanities Council supports humanities programming and cultural experiences for students in University of Pennsylvania’s Veterans Upward Bound program, part of the Federal TRIO Programs. Teen Reading Lounge is a non-traditional book club for teens between the ages of 12 and 18. Teens help to create the reading list for their program sites and work with trained facilitators to design creative projects. Teen Reading Lounge sites are spread throughout Pennsylvania
Isabelle Strunc is a French professional basketball player. Strunc began her professional career in France's Ligue Féminine de Basketball, with Centre Fédéral, a team run by the FFBB to develop future national talents, she moved to Pays d'Aix Basket for two seasons, followed by Perpignan Basket for another two seasons. After a year away in Australia, Strunc returned to LFB with Cavigal Nice Basket, she has won Ligue Féminine 2 on two occasions, acting instrumental in the promotions of Perpignan and Nice. In 2013, Strunc was signed by the Canberra Capitals in the Women's National Basketball League. Abby Bishop, former teammate at Perpignan Basket, was instrumental in her signing. Strunc made her international debut with the French national team at the 2007 FIBA Europe Under-16 Championship, she has medalled for France on two occasions. She made her world championship debut when she would play at the 2009 FIBA Under-19 World Championship in the Thailand, France would place 7th
Sir Henry Anderson was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1614 and 1643. He supported the Royalist cause in the English Civil War. Anderson was the son of Henry Anderson of Northumberland, he matriculated at Christ Church, Oxford on 24 November 1599, aged 17, when he was of Long Cowton, Yorkshire. He was of London, he was Mayor of Newcastle. In 1614, Anderson was elected Member of Parliament for Newcastle upon Tyne, he was High Sheriff of Northumberland. He was re-elected MP for Newcastle. In November 1640, Anderson was elected MP for Newcastle upon Tyne in the Long Parliament and sat until he was disabled on 4 September 1643 for supporting the King. Anderson married Mary Remington
An intercooler is a mechanical device used to cool a gas after compression. Compressing a gas increases its internal energy which in turn raises its temperature and reduces its density. An intercooler takes the form of a heat exchanger that removes waste heat in a gas compressor. Intercoolers have a variety of applications, can be found in air compressors, air conditioners and gas turbines, automotive engines, for example, they are known as an air-to-air or air-to-liquid cooler for forced induction internal combustion engines, used to improve volumetric efficiency. This is accomplished by increasing intake air density through nearly constant pressure cooling. Automotive intercoolers were first introduced in 1977 on the Porsche 911. Though these were the first cars to use intercoolers they were not the first cars to use turbochargers. Intercoolers are used to remove the waste heat from the first stage of two-stage air compressors. Two-stage air compressors are manufactured because of their inherent efficiency.
The cooling action of the intercooler is principally responsible for this higher efficiency, bringing it closer to Carnot efficiency. Removing the heat-of-compression from the discharge of the first stage has the effect of densifying the air charge. This, in turn, allows the second stage to produce more work from its fixed compression ratio. Adding an intercooler to the setup requires additional investments. Intercoolers increase the efficiency of the induction system by reducing induction air heat created by the supercharger or turbocharger and promoting more thorough combustion; this removes the heat of compression. A decrease in intake air charge temperature sustains use of a more dense intake charge into the engine, as a result of forced induction; the lowering of the intake charge air temperature eliminates the danger of pre-detonation of the fuel/air charge prior to timed spark ignition. This preserves the benefits of more fuel/air burn per engine cycle, increasing the output of the engine.
Intercoolers eliminate the need for using the wasteful method of lowering intake charge temperature by the injection of excess fuel into the cylinders' air induction chambers, to cool the intake air charge, prior to its flowing into the cylinders. This wasteful practice nearly eliminated the gain in engine efficiency from forced induction, but was necessitated by the greater need to prevent at all costs the engine damage that pre-detonation engine knocking causes; the inter prefix in the device name originates from its use as a cooler in between compression cycles. In automobiles the intercooler is placed between the turbocharger and the engine. A more descriptive or informative term would be aftercooler/chargecooler, thereby removing any ambiguity that the vehicles have sequential twin stage turbocharging. Aircraft engines are sometimes built with charge air coolers that were installed between multiple stages of forced induction, thus the designation of inter. In a vehicle fitted with two-stage turbocharging, it is possible to have both an intercooler and an aftercooler.
The JCB Dieselmax land speed record-holding car is an example of such a system. In general, an intercooler or aftercooler is said to be a charge-air cooler. Intercoolers can vary in size and design, depending on the performance and space requirements of the entire supercharger system. Common spatial designs are front mounted intercoolers, top mounted intercoolers and hybrid mount intercoolers; each type can be cooled with air-to-liquid system, or a combination of both. Turbochargers and superchargers are engineered to force more air mass into an engine's intake manifold and combustion chamber. Intercooling is a method used to compensate for heating caused by supercharging, a natural byproduct of the semi-adiabatic compression process. Increased air pressure can result in an excessively hot intake charge reducing the performance gains of supercharging due to decreased density. Increased intake charge temperature can increase the cylinder combustion temperature, causing detonation, excessive wear, or heat damage to an engine block or pistons.
Passing a compressed and heated intake charge through an intercooler reduces its temperature and pressure. If the device is properly engineered, the relative decrease in temperature is greater than the relative loss in pressure, resulting in a net increase in density; this increases system performance by recovering some losses of the inefficient compression process by rejecting heat to the atmosphere. Additional cooling can be provided by externally spraying a fine mist onto the intercooler surface, or into the intake air itself, to further reduce intake charge temperature through evaporative cooling. Intercoolers that exchange their heat directly with the atmosphere are designed to be mounted in areas of an automobile with maximum air flow; these types are mounted in front mounted systems. Cars such as the Nissan Skyline, Volvo 200 Series Turbo, Volvo 700 Series turbo, Dodge SRT-4, 1st gen Mazda MX-6, Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution and Chevrolet Cobalt SS all use front mounted intercooler mounted near the front bumper, in line with the car's radiator.
Many other turbo-charged cars, p
Jennifer Kathleen Margaret Robertson is a Canadian real estate developer best known as the heir and widow of the CEO of the controversial QuadrigaCX cryptocurrency exchange. Robertson and Gerald Cotten were in a relationship for several years, prior to their June 2018 marriage. In December, 2018, Robertson and Cotten were on a trip to India to sponsor an orphanage when he suffered severe intestinal distress related to his chronic Crohn's disease. Although he was given hospital care, his condition worsened, he died less than a day after admission; the India Times reported that limited funds had been made available to build the Jennifer Robertson and Gerald Cotten House. After Cotten's death Robertson inherited millions of dollars in real estate holding. A month after Cotten's death Robertson informed shareholders that, although she had consulted computer security experts that the funds her husband had been managing were in "cold storage", his files did not contain encryption keys required to manage them.
In April 2019, Robertson voluntarily agreed not to transfer any of her assets. On October 8, 2019, Robertson returned $12 million CAD from her husband's estate. Bloomberg News described this as a voluntary settlement, it listed the assets she was keeping, which included her wedding band, her personal vehicle, her personal retirement savings fund, Robertson said she was not involved in how her husband managed Quadriga, had assumed her inheritance came from “legitimately earned profits and dividends.”