Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change. Pollution can take the form such as noise, heat or light. Pollutants, the components of pollution, can be either foreign substances/energies or occurring contaminants. Pollution is classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution. In 2015, pollution killed 9 million people in the world. Major forms of pollution include: Air pollution, light pollution, noise pollution, plastic pollution, soil contamination, radioactive contamination, thermal pollution, visual pollution, water pollution. Air pollution has always accompanied civilizations. Pollution started from prehistoric times. According to a 1983 article in the journal Science, "soot" found on ceilings of prehistoric caves provides ample evidence of the high levels of pollution, associated with inadequate ventilation of open fires." Metal forging appears to be a key turning point in the creation of significant air pollution levels outside the home.
Core samples of glaciers in Greenland indicate increases in pollution associated with Greek and Chinese metal production. The burning of coal and wood, the presence of many horses in concentrated areas made the cities the primary sources of pollution; the Industrial Revolution brought an infusion of untreated chemicals and wastes into local streams that served as the water supply. King Edward I of England banned the burning of sea-coal by proclamation in London in 1272, after its smoke became a problem, it was the Industrial Revolution. London recorded one of the earlier extreme cases of water quality problems with the Great Stink on the Thames of 1858, which led to construction of the London sewerage system soon afterward. Pollution issues escalated as population growth far exceeded viability of neighborhoods to handle their waste problem. Reformers began to clean water. In 1870, the sanitary conditions in Berlin were among the worst in Europe. August Bebel recalled conditions before a modern sewer system was built in the late 1870s: "Waste-water from the houses collected in the gutters running alongside the curbs and emitted a fearsome smell.
There were no public toilets in the squares. Visitors women became desperate when nature called. In the public buildings the sanitary facilities were unbelievably primitive.... As a metropolis, Berlin did not emerge from a state of barbarism into civilization until after 1870."The primitive conditions were intolerable for a world national capital, the Imperial German government brought in its scientists and urban planners to not only solve the deficiencies, but to forge Berlin as the world's model city. A British expert in 1906 concluded that Berlin represented "the most complete application of science and method of public life," adding "it is a marvel of civic administration, the most modern and most organized city that there is."The emergence of great factories and consumption of immense quantities of coal gave rise to unprecedented air pollution and the large volume of industrial chemical discharges added to the growing load of untreated human waste. Chicago and Cincinnati were the first two American cities to enact laws ensuring cleaner air in 1881.
Pollution became a major issue in the United States in the early twentieth century, as progressive reformers took issue with air pollution caused by coal burning, water pollution caused by bad sanitation, street pollution caused by the 3 million horses who worked in American cities in 1900, generating large quantities of urine and manure. As historian Martin Melosi notes, The generation that first saw automobiles replacing the horses saw cars as "miracles of cleanliness.". By the 1940s, automobile-caused smog was a major issue in Los Angeles. Other cities followed around the country until early in the 20th century, when the short lived Office of Air Pollution was created under the Department of the Interior. Extreme smog events were experienced by the cities of Los Angeles and Donora, Pennsylvania in the late 1940s, serving as another public reminder. Air pollution would continue to be a problem in England later during the industrial revolution, extending into the recent past with the Great Smog of 1952.
Awareness of atmospheric pollution spread after World War II, with fears triggered by reports of radioactive fallout from atomic warfare and testing. A non-nuclear event – the Great Smog of 1952 in London – killed at least 4000 people; this prompted some of the first major modern environmental legislation: the Clean Air Act of 1956. Pollution began to draw major public attention in the United States between the mid-1950s and early 1970s, when Congress passed the Noise Control Act, the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the National Environmental Policy Act. Severe incidents of pollution helped increase consciousness. PCB dumping in the Hudson River resulted in a ban by the EPA on consumption of its fish in 1974. National news stories in the late 1970s – the long-term dioxin contamination at Love Canal starting in 1947 and uncontrolled dumping in Valley of the Drums – led to the Superfund legislation of 1980; the pollution of industrial land gave rise to the name brownfield, a term now common in city planning.
The development of nuclear science introduced radioactive contamination, which can remain lethally radioactive for hundreds of thousands of years. Lake Karachay – named by the Worldwatch Institute as the "most polluted
Joan Colom i Altemir was a Spanish photographer renowned for his portraits of Barcelona's underworld and working class in the infamous neighbourhood of Raval. Colom was born in Barcelona, he was a self-taught photographer, produced his best-known pictures while working during the week as an accountant. In 1957 he became a member of the Agrupació Fotogràfica de Catalunya, co-founded in 1960 the artist's group El Mussol. In 1962 he was presented in Paris along with fellow photographers Xavier Misserachs and Oriol Maspons as part of the "New Avantgarde" movement inspired by masters such as Brassaï, Francesc Català Roca, Henri Cartier-Bresson or Man Ray, he was awarded the National Photography Prize by Spain's Ministry of Culture in 2002, as well as the Golden Medal for Cultural Merit by the Barcelona city council, the National Visual Arts Prize by the Generalitat de Catalunya and the Creu de Sant Jordi in 2006. In 2011 the Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya was granted by the artist part of his photographic material.
El País article
Raffig Tullou, alias Neven Lewarc’h was a Breton sculptor and set designer. His works included modern Celto-Breton furnishing art, wood carvings, stone carvings, restoration of historical buildings. Tullou came to prominence as a member of the Breton artistic movement Seiz Breur, attempted to adapt his style to merge classical and Breton regional traditions. Like other members of the group, he was involved in Breton nationalist politics. Following the split in the Breton Autonomist Party, in 1934, Gestalen, Francis Bayer du Kern, Goulven Mazéas and Morvan Marchal created the Breton Federalist Movement, which sought Breton federal autonomy within France; this was set up because of the creation of the extremist Breton National Party, which had pro-Nazi sympathies. During World War II, he reported for L'Heure Bretonne, the newspaper of the BNP. In 1944, he became the last Secretary General of Seiz Breur, following the resignation of René-Yves Creston. In the 1930s Tullou turned his attention towards druidic studies.
In 1936, he, Morvan Marchal, Francis Bayer du Kern founded Kredenn Geltiek Hollvedel known as Kevanvod Tud Donn and Dêua Ana. In addition, he founded a journal about druidic studies and philosophy called Kad. During World War II, the journal changed its name to become Nemeton. Today, it is known as Ialon-Kad-Nemeton. In 1954, he founded Koun Breizh, to promote Breton artistic heritage and Breton administrative organizations. Through the movement he sought to commemorate Breton national heroes, was responsible for the statue of Nominoë, the first independent Duke of Brittany, at Bains-sur-Oust, he designed the commemorative plaque for the 18th century Breton rebel Marquis de Pontcallec in the Place du Bouffay, in Nantes. In 1966, he created Skoed to be the official newspaper of Koun Breizh. Restoration of the bronze group entitled For the flag due to Georges Bareau, group from the War Memorial of 1870 in Nantes. Restoration of the plaster statue of Alain Barbetorte, a monumental work by the sculptor Amédée Ménard, which having been removed from the prefecture of Nantes where it has been enthroned for a century, was vandalized in the courtyard of the castle of the Dukes of Brittany where it had been relegated