click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Pollyanna

Pollyanna is a 1913 novel by American author Eleanor H. Porter, considered a classic of children's literature; the book's success led to Porter soon writing a sequel, Pollyanna Grows Up. Eleven more Pollyanna sequels, known as "Glad Books", were published, most of them written by Elizabeth Borton or Harriet Lummis Smith. Further sequels followed, including Pollyanna Plays the Game by Colleen L. Reece, published in 1997. Due to the book's fame, "Pollyanna" has become a byword for someone who – like the title character – has an unfailingly optimistic outlook. Pollyanna has been adapted for film several times; some of the best known are the 1920 version starring Mary Pickford, Disney's 1960 version starring child actress Hayley Mills, who won a special Oscar for the role. The title character is Pollyanna Whittier, an eleven-year-old orphan who goes to live in the fictional town of Beldingsville, with her wealthy but stern and cold spinster Aunt Polly, who does not want to take in Pollyanna but feels it is her duty to her late sister.

Pollyanna's philosophy of life centers on what she calls "The Glad Game," an optimistic and positive attitude she learned from her father. The game consists of finding something to be glad about in every situation, no matter how bleak it may be, it originated in an incident one Christmas when Pollyanna, hoping for a doll in the missionary barrel, found only a pair of crutches inside. Making the game up on the spot, Pollyanna's father taught her to look at the good side of things—in this case, to be glad about the crutches because she did not need to use them. With this philosophy, her own sunny personality and sincere, sympathetic soul, Pollyanna brings so much gladness to her aunt's dispirited New England town that she transforms it into a pleasant place to live; the Glad Game shields her from her aunt's stern attitude: when Aunt Polly puts her in a stuffy attic room without carpets or pictures, she exults at the beautiful view from the high window. Soon Pollyanna teaches some of Beldingsville's most troubled inhabitants to "play the game" as well, from a querulous invalid named Mrs. Snow to a miserly bachelor, Mr. Pendleton, who lives all alone in a cluttered mansion.

Aunt Polly, too—finding herself helpless before Pollyanna's buoyant refusal to be downcast—gradually begins to thaw, although she resists the Glad Game longer than anyone else. However Pollyanna's robust optimism is put to the test when she is struck by a car and loses the use of her legs. At first she does not realize the seriousness of her situation, but her spirits plummet when she is told what happened to her. After that, she lies in bed, unable to find anything to be glad about; the townspeople begin calling at Aunt Polly's house, eager to let Pollyanna know how much her encouragement has improved their lives. The novel ends with Aunt Polly marrying her former lover Dr. Chilton and Pollyanna being sent to a hospital where she learns to walk again and is able to appreciate the use of her legs far more as a result of being temporarily disabled and unable to walk well; the quote "When you look for the bad in mankind expecting to find it, you will" appears in the 1960 Disney version, where it is attributed to Abraham Lincoln.

However, the original quote is from the book, where it appears without attribution. As a result of the novel's success, the adjective "Pollyannaish" and the noun "Pollyannaism" became popular terms for a personality type characterised by irrepressible optimism evident in the face of the most adverse or discouraging of circumstances, it is sometimes used pejoratively, referring to someone whose optimism is excessive to the point of naïveté or refusing to accept the facts of an unfortunate situation. This pejorative use can be heard in the introduction of the 1930 George and Ira Gershwin song "But Not For Me": "I never want to hear from any cheerful pollyannas/who tell me fate supplies a mate/that's all bananas." The word "pollyanna" may be used colloquially to denote a holiday gift exchange more known as Secret Santa in Philadelphia and the surrounding areas. Pollyanna is still available in reprint editions. At the height of her popularity, Pollyanna was known as "The Glad Girl", Parker Brothers created The Glad Game, a board game.

The Glad Game, a type of Parcheesi, was made and sold from 1915 to 1967 in various versions, similar to the popular UK board game Ludo. The board game was licensed by Milton Bradley but has been discontinued for many years. A Broadway adaptation was mounted in 1916 titled Pollyanna Whittier, The Glad Girl. Helen Hayes was the star. Author Jerome Griswold analysed Pollyanna together with juvenile'heroes' in several well-known children's books, e.g. Little Lord Fauntleroy, Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm and The Secret Garden from the era known as the Golden Age of Children's Books. With reference to the Theory of the Three Lives of the Child Hero, he posits that, in Pollyanna, clear oedipal tensions exist, albeit in disguised or projected forms, in the relationships between the child, her Aunt and the principal male adult characters, which are only resolved by the Aunt marrying Dr. Chilton at the end of the story, he ca

Stendal–Uelzen railway

The Stendal–Uelzen railway is a single-track, electrified main line and connects Stendal in the east of Altmark, Saxony-Anhalt with Uelzen in Lower Saxony. The most important stop along the way is Salzwedel; the Stendal–Uelzen line was opened in 1873 as part of a direct connection from Berlin to the naval base at Wilhelmshaven by the Magdeburg–Halberstadt Railway Company and was opened as part of the so-called America Line. In 1945, the line was cut by the Inner German border. West of the border a temporary terminus was created at Nienbergen as the former station in the Lower Saxon town of Bergen an der Dumme was 1,200 meters east of the Iron Curtain; the second track was removed in two phases in 1946 and the 1980s: first, the section from Wieren to Nienbergen was singled the second track was removed between Wieren and Uelzen. In the Soviet Zone, which became East Germany in 1949, trains ran between Stendal and Bergen. Border security measures were imposed between Salzwedel and Bergen on 7 October 1951 as Bergen station was only 1,200 meters from the border.

Between Stendal and Salzwedel one of the two tracks was dismantled because the track material was needed for the construction of the Berlin outer ring. After the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1990, the rebuilding of the Stendal–Salzwedel–Uelzen connection was added to the list of German Unity Transport Projects; the old line was rebuilt and established in 1999 as a single-track, electrified mainline railway and restored to operation. Part of the second track was restored; the whole project took several years to complete. The 17.5 km long section between Brunau and district road 1005 in Klein Gartz now has two tracks and there is an one kilometre long passing loop west of the former Kläden station. In addition, during the implementation of the German Unity Transport Project, all loading sidings near the line were dismantled and connecting sidings were reduced so that local freight movements are no longer possible on this line; the planned complete reconstruction of the line as a two-track line has not yet been realised.

In the 2010/11 timetable, the Regional-Express service RE 20 runs between Uelzen and Stendal every two hours and the Regionalbahn service RB 32 runs every two hours between Salzwedel and Stendal. Both services are operated by DB Regio; the RE services are operated with double-deck coaches hauled by class 114 locomotives and the RB services are operated with class 425 EMUs. On Friday, an Intercity service is operated from Hamburg via Lüneburg and Stendal to Berlin, returning on Sunday; until 13 December 2014, a train pair operated daily as a EuroCity on the Hamburg–Berlin–Wrocław route. Since April 2014, an InterRegio-Express has been operating the route from Hamburg. During disruptions to long-distance traffic between Hamburg and Berlin services also detour over the line via Wittenberg; as part of a program to upgrade links between seaports and the hinterland, a second track was built from December 2012 to November 2013 in the Uelzen district of Veerßen to the east of the Stendal–Uelzen line, so that traffic coming from the direction of Stendal could run to the north without crossing the Hanover–Hamburg line.

The existing two-track section for crossing and overhauling between Brunau-Packebusch and Rademin, around 17.5 kilometre long, is to be extended to the east and west. This applies to the sections between Hohenwulsch and Brunaupark-Packebusch and between Rademin and Salzwedel; this involves a total of 22 km of additional second track at an estimated cost of about €57 million. The reason given for the project is to increase the capacity for freight and to improve the performance of regional traffic. In July 2013, Deutsche Bahn put the project out to tender; the estimated value of the contract, including overhead electrification, is €22 million, to be carried out between June 2014 and March 2016. Ralf Roman Rossberg. Grenze über deutschen Schienen 1945–1990. Freiburg: EK-Verlag. ISBN 3-88255-829-6. Media related to Stendal–Uelzen railway line at Wikimedia Commons "Die Amerikalinie im Teilbereich Uelzen - Salzwedel". Retrieved 16 April 2014. "1944 timetable with express services". Retrieved 16 April 2014

Samuel Ferguson's cottage

Sam Ferguson's cottage was built in the latter part of the 1800s on lot R12 in the original town of Toodyay, now known as West Toodyay, Western Australia. Its walls were whitewashed and its roof was thatched. Roses, almond trees and a flurry of old English flowers produced such a wonderful display that artists from all around flocked to paint it; the cottage was the home of his wife Ellen. It was situated on what was Toodyay town lot R12 on the west corner of River Terrace and what is now called Cottage St. On the opposite corner stood the old buildings of John Herbert's Royal Oak inn. Lot R12 was first granted to George Gooch on 15 March 1852. Earlier, he had found work as a shepherd at Mokine, near Northam, before taking up a pastoral lease with his brother John in the Toodyay district. Two sons, George Joseph and Robert John, were born to his wife Eleanor née York. Gooch was a man who took part in the local affairs of Toodyay, he died in 1861 at the age of 41 years. His wife remarried in 1864.

The property of lot R12 was purchased by John Davis, brother of Charlotte Davis. At the time of his marriage to Jane Thorpe in 1853, he was working as a sawyer. After suffering the loss of part of a leg in an accident he became known as "Peg Leg", the one legged wagoner, his sister, Charlotte Davis, wife of John Herbert, lived across the road at the Royal Oak. After the loss of his publican's license, Herbert earned his living as a wagoner. Davis was granted lots R6, R7 and R8 in 1867, he took up farming in the Toodyay district. After their marriage in 21 November 1894, the cottage became the home of Samuel Thomas Ferguson and his wife Ellen, daughter of Thomas and Rose Cook. Ellen was 22 years of age at the time of their marriage. Samuel Ferguson was the son of Alexander James and Sarah Ferguson and the grandson of Thomas and Jane Ferguson, who had arrived in the colony on 1 February 1831, his grandfather established a 621-acre property in Toodyay, which he named "Rose Valley". Samuel Thomas Ferguson was born in Toodyay on 30 April 1871.

His marriage to Ellen produced eight children. In addition they fostered twelve year old Sybil Donegan, daughter of George and Ada Donegan, after Ada died. Ellen Ferguson died in 1938 after a short illness, she was aged 66 years. Her funeral was held in St Stephen's Anglican Church, followed by interment in the Anglican portion of the Toodyay Cemetery. Samuel Thomas Ferguson died on 29 July 1948; this article incorporates text by Alison Cromb available under the CC BY SA 2.5 AU licence

Lisa Henson

Lisa Marie Henson is an American television and movie producer and former actress, involved in television shows such as Sid the Science Kid. Henson was born in New York, the daughter of puppeteers Jane and Jim Henson, she has four siblings: Cheryl, Brian and Heather Henson. Henson is the CEO of The Jim Henson Company. Besides her direct television and movie work, she has been president of production for Columbia Pictures, an executive for Warner Brothers, she holds a degree from Harvard University, where she majored in folklore and mythology and served as the first female president of the Harvard Lampoon. She has served on the Board of Overseers. Lisa Henson on IMDb Profile at Jim Henson Company

Dubois Historic District (Dubois, Pennsylvania)

Dubois Historic District is a national historic district located at Dubois, Clearfield County, Pennsylvania. The district includes 54 contributing buildings in the central business district of Dubois; the district consists of commercial buildings built after the fire of 1888 and in a variety of popular architectural styles including Gothic Revival architecture and Romanesque Revival. Notable buildings include the Hatten & Munch Building, Moore & Schwern Building, Methodist Episcopal Church, First Baptist Church, Shaw Building, DuBois Public Library. Located in the district and separately listed was the Commercial Hotel, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1997

Kat Radley

Kat Radley is an American comedian and television writer. She is a writer for The Daily Show with Trevor Noah. Radley was born and raised in Montclair and attended Bishop Ireton High School, she received her secondary education at the University of Virginia, where she earned a masters degree in English education. After graduating in 2008, she worked as a high school English teacher for several years. Radley began her standup career in 2008 when she entered Rooftop Comedy’s National College Comedy Competition. After placing in the top four, she went on to the 2008 Aspen RooftopComedy Festival, she studied improv at the Upright Citizens Brigade in Los Angeles and performed at M. I.'s Westside Comedy Theater. In 2011, she won the Friars Club Audience Award at Boston's Third Annual Women in Comedy Festival. Radley has been featured on Fox's Laughs stand-up comedy series. In 2015, Radley released her first stand-up album, The Important Thing Is That. In August 2017, Radley began working as a writer for The Daily Show.

In 2018, she performed with the show's writing staff on the Daily Show Writers Stand-Up Tour. She has been a guest on several comedy podcasts, including HeadGum's Good One; as an actress, she has appeared in several comedy short films and played the character of Porn Girl on The Daily Show. Radley's comedic influences include Conan O'Brien. 2011 Friars Club Audience Award at the Women in Comedy Festival 2015 The Important Thing Is That I’m Pretty