SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Polonium

Polonium is a chemical element with the symbol Po and atomic number 84. A rare and radioactive metal with no stable isotopes, polonium is chemically similar to selenium and tellurium, though its metallic character resembles that of its horizontal neighbors in the periodic table: thallium and bismuth. Due to the short half-life of all its isotopes, its natural occurrence is limited to tiny traces of the fleeting polonium-210 in uranium ores, as it is the penultimate daughter of natural uranium-238. Though longer-lived isotopes exist, they are much more difficult to produce. Today, polonium is produced in milligram quantities by the neutron irradiation of bismuth. Due to its intense radioactivity, which results in the radiolysis of chemical bonds and radioactive self-heating, its chemistry has been investigated on the trace scale only. Polonium was discovered in 1898 by Marie and Pierre Curie, when it was extracted from the uranium ore pitchblende and identified by its strong radioactivity: it was the first element to be so discovered.

Polonium was named after Marie Curie's homeland of Poland. Polonium has few applications, those are related to its radioactivity: heaters in space probes, antistatic devices, sources of neutrons and alpha particles, poison, it is a radioactive element and dangerous to humans. 210Po is an alpha emitter. A milligram of 210Po emits about as many alpha particles per second as 5 grams of 226Ra. A few curies of 210Po emit a blue glow, caused by ionisation of the surrounding air. About one in 100,000 alpha emissions causes an excitation in the nucleus which results in the emission of a gamma ray with a maximum energy of 803 keV. A unique characteristic of polonium is that its atomic radius violates the general trend of the periodic table: its atomic radius is greater than those of lead and bismuth; this occurs because of difference in filling of sub-shells in these elements. The 6p subshell in both Pb and Bi is half-filled and they have a stronger paramagnetic moment due to this configuration of three unpaired electrons in these elements in 6P-x, 6P-y and 6P-z sub-atomic orbitals.

This increase the magnetic moment in the valence 6p subshell in lead and bismuth, which causes their radii to shrink. Pb = 4f14 5d10 6s1 6p3 Bi = 4f14 5d10 6s2 p3 This results in lead and bismuth both having an atomic radius of 154 pm and polonium having a larger radius of 167 pm. Polonium has small magnetic moment as its 6-p valence subshell is filled: Po = 4f14 5d10 6s2 p4. Polonium is a radioactive element; the alpha form is the only known example of a simple cubic crystal structure in a single atom basis at STP, with an edge length of 335.2 picometers. The structure of polonium has been characterized by X-ray diffraction and electron diffraction.210Po has the ability to become airborne with ease: if a sample is heated in air to 55 °C, 50% of it is vaporized in 45 hours to form diatomic Po2 molecules though the melting point of polonium is 254 °C and its boiling point is 962 °C. More than one hypothesis exists for; the chemistry of polonium is similar to that of tellurium, although it shows some similarities to its neighbor bismuth due to its metallic character.

Polonium dissolves in dilute acids but is only soluble in alkalis. Polonium solutions are first colored in pink by the Po2+ ions, but rapidly become yellow because alpha radiation from polonium ionizes the solvent and converts Po2+ into Po4+; as polonium emits alpha-particles after disintegration so this process is accompanied by bubbling and emission of heat and light by glassware due to the absorbed alpha particles. At pH about 1, polonium ions are hydrolyzed and complexed by acids such as oxalic acid, citric acid, tartaric acid. Polonium has no common compounds, all of its compounds are synthetically created; the most stable class of polonium compounds are polonides, which are prepared by direct reaction of two elements. Na2Po has the antifluorite structure, the polonides of Ca, Ba, Hg, Pb and lanthanides form a NaCl lattice, BePo and CdPo have the wurtzite and MgPo the nickel arsenide structure. Most polonides decompose upon heating to about 600 °C, except for HgPo that decomposes at ~300 °C and the lanthanide polonides, which do not decompose but melt at temperatures above 1000 °C.

For example, PrPo melts at 1250 °C and TmPo at 2200 °C. PbPo is one of the few occurring polonium compounds, as polonium alpha decays to form lead. Polonium hydride is a volatile liquid at room temperature prone to dissociation. Water is the only other known hydrogen chalcogenide, a liquid at room temperature; the two oxides PoO2 and PoO3 are the products of oxidation of polonium. Halides of the structure PoX2, PoX4 and PoF6 are known, they are soluble in the corresponding hydrogen halides, i.e. PoClX in HCl, PoBrX in HBr and PoI4 in HI. Polonium dihalides are formed by direct reaction of the elements or by reduction of PoCl4 with SO2 and with PoBr4 with H2S at room temperature. Tetrahalides can be obtained by reacting polonium dioxide with HCl, HBr or HI. Other polonium compounds include potas

Historic Third Ward, Milwaukee

The Historic Third Ward is a historic warehouse district located in downtown Milwaukee, Wisconsin. This Milwaukee neighborhood is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Today, the Third Ward is home to over 450 businesses and maintains a strong position within the retail and professional service community in Milwaukee as a showcase of a mixed-use district; the neighborhood's renaissance is anchored by many specialty shops, art galleries and theatre groups, creative businesses and condos. It is home to the Milwaukee Institute of Art and Design, the Broadway Theatre Center; the Ward is adjacent to the Summerfest grounds. The district is bounded by the Milwaukee River to the west and south, E. St. Paul Ave to the north, N. Jackson St. to the east. During the early years of Milwaukee, the Third Ward was a flat, swampy area; the land was drained, soon houses populated the west side of the Ward, while along the east side of the Milwaukee River and warehouses were built. Irish immigrants were the early settlers of the area.

The Ward became known as the "Bloody Third," a reputation the area earned for its frequent fistfights. The first railroad linked Milwaukee to the Mississippi River in 1856, letting wholesalers supply needed goods to the population of settlers in the West; the Irish settlers in the Third Ward went through two major tragedies. On September 7, 1860 the Lady Elgin steamship left Milwaukee carrying a large number of passengers from the Third Ward's Irish community. Over 400 people are believed to have died when the ship sank and is the second greatest loss of life seen on the Great Lakes. A Wisconsin Historical Marker in the Third Ward commemorates the tragedy while a monument dedicated at Calvary Cemetery serves as a cenotaph; the second tragedy struck on October 28, 1892. A fire started by spontaneous combustion at the Union Oil & Paint Co. building along the Milwaukee River at Water Street. Strong winds of up to 50 mph helped to spread the fire to the Ward's other buildings; the fire grew out of control.

Cities such as Chicago, Racine and Oshkosh sent horse-drawn units by rail to help Milwaukee's fire department fight the flames. A total of 440 buildings were destroyed and more than 1,900 people Irish families, were left without homes by the time the fire was under control at midnight; those families sought shelter in the Third Ward School, the Cathedral of St. John the Evangelist, the old St. Gall’s Church housed hundreds overnight. Victims received meal tickets to restaurants and clothing. Prominent local architects stepped in to design many of the commercial structures after the 1892 fire. Over the next 36 years construction continued, giving the buildings an interesting continuity that unifies the neighborhood because of this short time of development. Italian immigrants replaced the Irish during this period of reconstruction, the Irish had moved to different areas in the city; the Italians were prolific in the warehouse businesses, establishing Commission Row, a grouping of grocery commission houses.

By 1915, 29 Italian saloons, 45 Italian groceries, an Italian bank and two spaghetti factories populated the Ward. Grocery warehouses, liquor distributors dry goods businesses and manufacturers were the business that flourished during this time. Highway construction displaced the close-knit Italian Third Ward community in the 1960s; the trucking industry and suburb growth led to the decline of industry. Milwaukee's first architectural landmark was named in 1967, the Blessed Virgin of Pompeii Catholic Church, the same year it was demolished for construction of the I-794 freeway. In 2000, the Historic Third Ward Association began co-sponsoring Milwaukee's premier art event, Gallery Night and Day, a quarterly event which attracts thousands of visitors to the neighborhood; the Historic Third Ward experienced an influx of upscale women's boutiques and high-end furnishings businesses. The Milwaukee Public Market offers year-round indoor gourmet and specialty food shopping. In 2010, Erie Street Plaza, a small park and public space built on a former parking lot, opened on the southern edge of the neighborhood, near the confluence of the Milwaukee River and Kinnickinnic River.

In 2019, murals by two European artists appeared in the area. First, two murals by French artist MTO were commissioned on private property, spotlighting endangered species.' The same summer, the iconic mural "The Unsung Hero" by German artist Case Maclaim was commissioned by Singerman Real Estate for the PH Dye Building. The six-story mural is visible from Highway 794 and is now a Historic Third Ward tourist attraction.' More recent events in history 1970s Business owners unite to combat a proposed "red light" district in the neighborhood1980s "The Historic Third Ward District" is established by the National Register of Historic Places as it accepts 70 buildings spanning 10 square blocks in the district. MIAD moves to current location Buffalo Street Bridge is removed, eliminating a valuable access point to the Ward. Further isolating the Third Ward but helping to maintain its unique atmosphere.1990s $3.4 million streetscapes project was completed as well as two parking structures, further the economic boom in the area.

The area begins to see its first new construction. Projects going from renovation to new construction; the riverwalk connects downtown and the Third Ward. Major streetscaping begins.2000s Milwaukee Public Market opens Proposal for a new hotel signalling a change for the neighborhood and its use. Construction and renovation moves south of the river creating a new Fifth Ward neighborhood; the Unsung Hero mural is painted on the Dye House. In 198

Nazim Ahmedli

Nazim Ahmedli, is an Azerbaijani poet and journalist. Nazim Shamil oglu Ahmedli was born on May 1953, in Lachin region, Ahmedli village, he graduated the secondary school in Lachin, during 1971–1974 studied at Shusha Agriculture Technical School, during 1974–1976 served in the military service of the former Soviet Union. From the late 1970s, his poems have been published in the press. In 1981 he entered the poetry faculty, at Literature Institute named after Maksim Gorky in Moscow. Upon graduation of the Institute, he returned to Baku and worked as a Head Clerk in the Union of Azerbaijani Writers, director of “Natavan” club, Editor-in-chief of the Azerbaijan Literary Translation and Literary Relations Center, general department manager. During 1993-1996 he served as a military journalist in the Azerbaijany Army worked as a teacher in the Ecology Lyceum in Narimanov district worked as a teacher of the journalism faculty and deputy dean at the former Applied Science Private University in Baku.

He came to the literature in the 1980s. He is the author of the following books: “A lifetime love”, “My soul will be yours”, “God of Love”, “I am a sinner messenger” poems, “Forgive me” ghazal, “My general” art-documentary story, “The smile of a girl” stories, “Mollaahmedli and people from Mollaahmedli”, his poems are published in the republican press and were translated into Russian and German languages. N. Ahmedli translated from Russian, Japanese literature into our language, he worked as the head of the department at the 525 Newspaper, the Director of the Literary Literature Affiliate Bureau of the Union of Azerbaijani Writers. He is the Chairman of the Cultural and Scientific Relations with Scandinavian Countries Public Union in the NGO sector since 2012, he has been implemeting grant projects in the Scandinavian countries related to Azerbaijan's history, national-moral values and the Karabakh conflict. At present, he works as the Deputy Director of the State Archive of Movie-Photo Documents of the Republic of Azerbaijan.

As a military journalist, he is a participant of the Karabakh war. A lifetime love. Baku, “Writer” Publishing House, 1990. My soul will be yours. Baku, “Adiloglu” Publishing House 2002. My General. Baku, “Qap Poliqraf” Publishing House, 2002. God of Love. Baku “Adiloglu” Publishing House 2004. Forgive me. Baku, “Adiloglu” Publishing House, 2004. Mollaahmedli and people from Mollaahmedli. Baku, ”Adiloglu” Publishing House, 2007. I am a sinner messenger. Baku, “Qanun” Publishing House, 2017; the smile of a girl. Baku, “Qanun publishing house”, 2017. Roma Xosrov - Laçın — YouTube site Nazim Əhmədli - Gələcək — YouTube site