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In ghostlore, a poltergeist is a type of ghost or spirit, responsible for physical disturbances, such as loud noises and objects being moved or destroyed. They are purportedly capable of pinching, biting and tripping people. Most accounts of poltergeists describe the movement or levitation of objects such as furniture and cutlery, or noises such as knocking on doors, they have traditionally been described as troublesome spirits who haunt a particular person instead of a specific location. Such alleged poltergeist manifestations have been reported in many cultures and countries including the United States, IndiaJapan, Brazil and most European nations. Early claims of spirits that harass and torment their victims date back to the 1st century, but references to poltergeists became more common in the early 1600s; the overwhelming consensus of science is that poltergeists do not exist and there is a rational explanation for people's experiences. Misinterpretation is most to occur when people believe a place is haunted and they are looking for evidence to confirm this.

In this way, a lot of poltergeist activity can be attributed to inaccurate perception of natural phenomenon. The word poltergeist comes from the German language words poltern and Geist, the term itself translates as "noisy ghost", "rumble-ghost" or a "loud spirit". A synonym coined by René Sudre is thorybism, from Greek thorybein. Many claimed. Psychical researcher Frank Podmore proposed the'naughty little girl' theory for poltergeist cases, he found that the centre of the disturbance was a child, throwing objects around to fool or scare people for attention. Skeptical investigator Joe Nickell says that claimed poltergeist incidents originate from "an individual, motivated to cause mischief". According to Nickell: "In the typical poltergeist outbreak, small objects are hurled through the air by unseen forces, furniture is overturned, or other disturbances occur -- just what could be accomplished by a juvenile trickster determined to plague credulous adults." Nickell writes that reports are exaggerated by credulous witnesses.

"Time and again in other “poltergeist” outbreaks, witnesses have reported an object leaping from its resting place on its own, when it is that the perpetrator had secretly obtained the object sometime earlier and waited for an opportunity to fling it from outside the room—thus proving he or she was innocent." According to research in anomalistic psychology, claims of poltergeist activity can be explained by psychological factors such as illusion, memory lapses, wishful thinking. A study wrote that poltergeist experiences are delusions "resulting from the affective and cognitive dynamics of percipients' interpretation of ambiguous stimuli". Psychologist Donovan Rawcliffe has written that all poltergeist cases that have been investigated turned out to be based on trickery, whilst the rest are attributable to psychological factors such as hallucinations. Attempts have been made to scientifically explain poltergeist disturbances that have not been traced to fraud or psychological factors. Skeptic and magician Milbourne Christopher found that some cases of poltergeist activity can be attributed to unusual air currents, such as a 1957 case on Cape Cod where downdrafts from an uncovered chimney became strong enough to blow a mirror off of a wall, overturn chairs and knock things off shelves.

In the 1950s, Guy William Lambert proposed that reported poltergeist phenomena could be explained by the movement of underground water causing stress on houses. He suggested that water turbulence could cause strange sounds or structural movement of the property causing the house to vibrate and move objects. Researchers, such as Alan Gauld and Tony Cornell, tested Lambert's hypothesis by placing specific objects in different rooms and subjecting the house to strong mechanical vibrations, they discovered that although the structure of the building had been damaged, only a few of the objects moved a short distance. The skeptic Trevor H. Hall criticized the hypothesis claiming if it was true "the building would certainly fall into ruins." According to Richard Wiseman the hypothesis has not held up to scrutiny. Michael Persinger has theorized. However, Persinger's claims regarding the effects of environmental geomagnetic activity on paranormal experiences have not been independently replicated and, like his findings regarding the God helmet, may be explained by the suggestibility of participants.

David Turner, a retired physical chemist, suggested that ball lightning might cause the "spooky movement of objects blamed on poltergeists." Parapsychologists Nandor Fodor and William G. Roll suggested. Poltergeist activity has been believed to be the work of malicious spirits by spiritualists. According to Allan Kardec, the founder of Spiritism, poltergeists are manifestations of disembodied spirits of low level, belonging to the sixth class of the third order. Under this explanation, they are believed to be associated with the elements. Psychoanalyst Carl Gustav Jung was interested in the concept of poltergeists and the occult in general. Jung believed that a female cousin's trance states were responsible for a dining table splitting in two and his discovery of a broken bread kn

Skate 2

Skate 2 is a skateboarding video game developed by EA Black Box and published by Electronic Arts. The game was released worldwide in January 2009 for PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 after the spin-off title Skate It, it is the sequel to the third installment in the Skate series overall. Set in the fictional city of San Vanelona, the single-player career mode follows a skateboarder released from jail five years after being arrested in the first game, tasked with popularising skateboarding in the city again after devastating earthquakes, avoiding security guards hired by the company "Mongocorp" who have bought most of the city's property. Players perform tricks such as ollies and grabs to earn points. Tricks can be used to complete challenges, such as racing and trick contests, which earn the player money that can be used to buy clothes and property or bet on events. Up to four players can play against each other in the local multiplayer "party play" mode, an online multiplayer mode allows players to connect to games over the internet and take part in various competitive or cooperative activities.

Plans for a new Skate game were announced on February 12, 2008, with EA Games' president Frank Gibeau stating that sales of the first game had "greatly exceeded" his expectations. Skate 2 was announced in May 2008; the executive producer of the game, Scott Blackwood, stated that EA Black Box had given the player the ability to do "a lot more" while staying true to the "authentic feel" of the Flickit control scheme. Developers noted New San Vanelona's architectural similarities with Barcelona, San Francisco and Vancouver. A demo for the game was released for Xbox 360 on January 8, 2009 and for PlayStation 3 on January 15, 2009; the third main game in the series, titled Skate 3, was released in May 2010. Skate 2 is a skateboarding extreme sports game set in an open world environment and played from a third person perspective; the game is set in the fictional city of San Vanelona, the player controls a skateboarder who has just been released from prison after being arrested 5 years ago in the first title in the series, Skate.

Since spending time in jail, San Vanelona has been hit with an earthquake that occurred in the spin-off title Skate It, leaving the city in ruins. The City Council and Chamber of Commerce have deemed skateboarding a crime and a corporation called "Mongocorp" have bought and rebuilt most of the city's property, skate-proofed everything and installed a private security force to prevent people from skating. Upon exiting prison, the player meets Giovanni Reda, a cameraman who films the player's character throughout the game and provides commentary; the player is tasked with rebuilding their skater's career and popularising skateboarding in San Vanelona again. The player can gain points by performing tricks, such as ollies, flip tricks and grabs. A feature returning from Skate is the "Flickit" control scheme, which requires the user to move the controller's right stick in certain patterns to perform tricks using the skateboarder's feet. Points gained from a trick are based on multiple factors, such as its height and complexity.

The player can perform multiple tricks at a time, which are combined into a "sequence," scoring more points than individual tricks. Performing multiple sequences starts a timer, performing sequences within the timer creates a "line," which scores more points than performing individual sequences. Once the line timer runs out, the points gained from the line are added to the player's score. Skate 2's main single-player mode is the "career" mode. From the beginning of the career mode, the player can create their own custom character and have the ability to change their gender, hair colour and facial shape, as well as choose their clothes and accessories, customise their skateboard and change their skating style, among other features; the player completes challenges to progress through the career mode, such as racing against other skateboarders, doing photoshoots for magazines or entering trick competitions. Completing challenges rewards the player with money, which can be used to buy clothes and property such as skateparks, as well as bet on events.

Completing enough challenge events gains the player sponsorships from truck, wheel or shoe companies, providing the player with free gear, entry to more competitions and extra money. As Skate 2 is set in an open world, the game's challenges can be found in its different locations. A map can be accessed in the game's pause menu, displaying challenges and locations in San Vanelona and allowing the player to teleport directly to them. Challenges can be retried from the map. Outside of challenges, the player can roam the game's environment. Certain areas in San Vanelona are controlled by Mongocorp, called "Mongocorp zones." Security guards patrol in these areas, if a Mongocorp security guard sees the player skateboarding in a Mongocorp zone or the player angers a civilian anywhere, they will be chased until they escape the area. The player can be knocked off their board by people they're chased by, if a Mongocorp security guard catches the player in a Mongocorp zone, any removed caps in the area are replaced.

The player's character has the ability to jump off their skateboard and walk around, allowing them to traverse areas that are hard to skate on, such as stairs. While on foot, the player has the ability to grab onto objects such as ramps and quarter pipes and pull them around, allowing the player to skate on them in different areas. While on a skateboard, the player can grab on to cars and be pulled around by them, called "skitching." The player have access to an in-game cell phone. Here, the player can request services such as pool draining, removal

Gemini 9A

Gemini 9A was a 1966 crewed spaceflight in NASA's Gemini program. It was the seventh crewed Gemini flight, the 13th crewed American flight and the 23rd spaceflight of all time; the original crew for Gemini 9, command pilot Elliot See and pilot Charles Bassett, were killed in a crash on February 28, 1966 while flying a T-38 jet trainer to the McDonnell Aircraft plant in St. Louis, Missouri to inspect their spacecraft, their deaths promoted Thomas P. Stafford and Eugene Cernan, to the prime crew; the mission was renamed Gemini 9A after the original May 17 launch was scrubbed when the mission's Agena Target Vehicle was destroyed after a launch failure. The mission was flown June 3 -- 1966, after launch of the backup Augmented Target Docking Adaptor. Stafford and Cernan rendezvoused with the ATDA, but were unable to dock with it because the nose fairing failed to eject from the docking target due to a launch preparation error. Cernan performed a two-hour extravehicular activity, during which it was planned for him to demonstrate free flight in a self-contained rocket pack, the USAF Astronaut Maneuvering Unit.

He was unable to accomplish this due to stress and overheating. On February 28, 1966, See and Bassett were flying from Texas to inspect the Gemini 9 spacecraft at the McDonnell Aircraft plant in St. Louis, Missouri; the conditions at Lambert Field were poor and, as a consequence, in attempting a visual approach and landing, See hit one of the assembly buildings of the factory and caused the aircraft to crash, killing himself and Bassett instantly. As a consequence, the backup crew was promoted to prime crew, the first time this had occurred since the flight of Mercury-Atlas 7 in 1962; the promotion of Stafford and Cernan from backup to prime crew meant that a new backup crew was required. Jim Lovell and Buzz Aldrin were the backup crew for Gemini 10; this is significant as the standard crew rotation meant that a spot on the backup crew of Gemini 10 would have placed Buzz Aldrin on the prime crew of the non-existent mission after Gemini 12. Being moved up to the backup crew of Gemini 9 meant that Aldrin flew as part of the prime crew on Gemini 12, which played a major part in his selection for the Apollo 8 backup and Apollo 11 prime crews making him the second man on the Moon.

Mass: 3,750 kilograms Perigee: 158.8 kilometers at launch Apogee: 266.9 kilometers at launch Inclination: 28.91° Period: 88.78 min June 3, 1966 – 17:45 – 18:00 UTC Cernan Start: June 5, 1966, 15:02:00 UTC End: June 5, 1966, 17:09:00 UTC Duration: 2 hours and 7 minutes The first mission objective was to dock with an Agena Target Vehicle, as had first been achieved on the Gemini 8 mission. Accomplishment was not possible because of a launch preparation error on the target vehicle. A second objective was a planned extravehicular activity, or "space walk", by the right-hand seat Pilot; the plan was for him to move to the rear of the spacecraft and strap himself into the Air Force's Astronaut Maneuvering Unit, a'rocket pack' which would allow the pilot controlled flight, independent of the capsule's life support system. Use of the AMU was not achieved due to Cernan experiencing high cardiac stress and fatigue during EVA. A third objective was to carry out seven scientific experiments, including a medical experiment which measured the astronauts' reactions to stress by measuring the intake and output of fluids before and after the flight.

Gemini 9's Agena Target Vehicle was launched on May 1966 on an Atlas launch vehicle. The Atlas malfunctioned in flight and the ATV failed to reach orbit; this forced the cancellation of the Gemini 9 launch scheduled for that morning. The Augmented Target Docking Adapter had been designed for use as a contingency for the ATV, which had failed during the original Gemini 6 launch. Built by Gemini spacecraft manufacturer McDonnell Aircraft Corporation, the ATDA replaced the Agena rocket with the reentry control section of a Gemini, it was built using tested equipment, launched on June 1, 1966 into a 298-kilometer orbit using the Atlas SLV-3 rocket. Because the ATDA had no propulsion system of its own, the launch necessitated an extended Atlas sustainer burn—while SECO would take place at T+300 seconds, it was extended to T+348 seconds. A sustainer burn this long had never been attempted in 300 Atlas launches to date—a double-sized lubricant oil tank was used to ensure enough oil for turbopump operation.

The experiment worked and sustainer performance during the extended burn phase was uneventful. The vernier solo phase lasted ATDA separation occurred at T +383 seconds. After launch, telemetry indicated. Replanning the mission to accommodate the May 17 ATV failure forced the redesignation of the Gemini mission as Gemini 9A, the same as had happened to the original Gemini 6 mission on October 25, 1965; the first launch attempt was scheduled to occur shortly after the ATDA launch. But at T-3 minutes, the ground computers lost contact with the Gemini computers for an unknown reason, the 40 second launch window opened and closed without launch; this earned Tom Stafford the title of "Mayor of Pad 19". The second launch attempt on June 3 went with the spacecraft entering into orbit. With this launch, Stafford could say that he had been strapped into a spacecraft six times for only 2 launches. Launch vehicle performance was close to nominal. Two small roll transients were eviden

Dudley Pope

Dudley Bernard Egerton Pope was a British writer of both nautical fiction and history, most notable for his Lord Ramage series of historical novels. Inspired by C. S. Forester, Pope was one of the most successful authors to explore the genre of nautical fiction compared to Patrick O'Brian. Dudley Pope was born in Kent. By concealing his age he joined the Home Guard aged 14 and at age 16 joined the merchant navy as a cadet, his ship was torpedoed the next year. Afterwards, he spent two weeks in a lifeboat with the few other survivors. After he was invalided out the only obvious sign of the injuries he had suffered was a joint missing from one finger due to gangrene. Pope went to work for a Kentish newspaper in 1944 moved to The Evening News in London, where he was the naval and defence correspondent. From there he turned to writing naval history, his first book, Flag 4, was published followed by several other historical accounts. C. S. Forester, the creator of the famed Horatio Hornblower novels, encouraged Pope to add fiction to his repertoire.

In 1965, Ramage appeared. He took to living on boats from 1953 on. In 1963 he and Kay moved to a 53-foot cutter Golden Dragon, on which they moved to Barbados in 1965. In 1968 they moved onto a 54-foot wooden yacht named Ramage, aboard which he wrote all of his stories until 1985. Pope died 25 April 1997 in Saint Martin. Both his wife and his daughter, Jane Victoria survive him. Most of the novels are based on real events in the late early 19th centuries; the year of these events is shown before the book title. The year of publication between 1965 and 1989 is shown after the title. 1796 – Ramage 1797 – Ramage and the Drumbeat 1797 – Ramage and the Freebooters 1797 – Governor Ramage R. N. 1798 – Ramage's Prize 1798 – Ramage and the Guillotine 1799 – Ramage's Diamond 1799 – Ramage's Mutiny 1800 – Ramage and the Rebels 1800 – The Ramage Touch 1800 – Ramage's Signal 1802 – Ramage and the Renegades 1803 – Ramage's Devil 1803 – Ramage's Trial 1803 – Ramage's Challenge 1805 – Ramage at Trafalgar 1806 – Ramage and the Saracens 1806 – Ramage and the Dido Buccaneer Admiral Galleon Corsair Convoy Decoy Flag 4: The Battle of Coastal Forces in the Mediterranean The Battle of the River Plate 73 North: The Battle of the Barents Sea 1942 Decision at Trafalgar England Expects The Black Ship Harry Morgan's Way: Biography of Sir Henry Morgan 1635–1688, Martin Secker & Warburg Ltd, ISBN 0-436-37735-7 The Great Gamble: Nelson at Copenhagen Life in Nelson's Navy The Devil Himself: The Mutiny of 1800 – this is the story of HMS Danae and the mutiny aboard her.

At 12 Mr Byng Was Shot Guns Bio of Dudley Pope, with pictures Biographical info by Kay Pope a bio from Book and Magazine Collector

Luxembourg Gardens, Paris

Luxembourg Gardens, Paris is an oil painting by Albert Edelfelt completed in 1887 of a scene in the Jardin du Luxembourg in Paris, France. The painting has become a kind of symbol of Edelfelt and the whole of Finnish art, at a time when Paris was the center of the whole art world; the work is a larger Edelfelt paintings and a major en plein air painting. The painting depicts children playing the Luxembourg Gardens sandy ground; the women are equal with nurse. The nurse ruched long-tape hat. To the left a mother in a gray-suit is shown. Women spend a leisurely time on a beautiful summer day. In the foreground a girl has a wooden hoop. In the middle a girl and the only boy playing, in the distance is horse-pinion play; the painting depicts the same wealthy Parisian families and the lives of children at the end of 1800s. In Luxembourg Gardens, Edelfelt seemed too "anemic" at that time, but shows the color of joy in the midst of the influx of impressionistic paintings though he was about to receive rave reviews.

Unlike daily habits, Edelfelt had tried to describe the fleeting moment of the painting is characteristic of Impressionism. Lighting and light is visible in the picture, Edelfelt did a lot of sketches on the spot. However, he finished the work in Haikko. Edelfelt applied work, freer painterly means. For example, he made a painting color painting the ship and took the creative contrast of complementary colors. Despite the transitory nature of Impressionist painting stand out well against clothing fabrics and feel of the material. In the shadow of the foreground figures are painted closely. Edelfelt was at this time fairly well-known by the Paris art world having lived there for ten years, it is surprising. The reason is that in Paris, he was able to stand out from the competition with piquant and exotic Finnish topics. Luxembourg Gardens was exhibited for the first time at the Galerie Petit's exhibition in May 1887, it belonged to Paris. Today, the painting belongs to the Ateneum Art Museum, Antell Collection, where it was recorded in 1908.

Viktor Antell bequeathed with the rest of the painting collection of the State of Finland, which it ended up in the collections of the Ateneum. The painting has been made into a film in 1987, directed by Tapani Lundgren and Marjatta Levanto and Levanto Yrjänä. Itw as a 14-minute-long documentary Luxembourg Gardens; the film is based on Edelfelt's letters, it tells the origin of the painting. In his letters Edelfelt describes the despair when the painting does not progress and satisfaction when one detail was successful; the painting was a work in a half years. Teos Suomen Kansallisgallerian verkkosivuilla. Lopullinen luonnos teokseen Pariisin Luxembourgin puistossa, 1886, 26×35 cm, öljy puulle, Suomen Kansallisgallerian verkkosivuilla Harjoitelma Luxembourgin puistossa-maalausta varten, n.1886, lyijykynä, Suomen Kansallisgallerian verkkosivuilla

John Worsdale

John Worsdale was a footballer who played in the Football League for Lincoln City and Stoke City. Worsdale started his career at his local club Stoke City after coming through the youth ranks at the Victoria Ground, he made his professional debut for Stoke in an away match against Arsenal in September 1968. He made just three more appearances for the "Potters" during the 1968–69 season before being released at the end of it, he joined Lincoln City and spent four years with the "Imps" making 67 league appearances and scoring nine goals before dropping into non-league football with Worksop Town. John Worsdale at the English National Football Archive John Worsdale at Post War English & Scottish Football League A–Z Player's Database