Polybius was a Greek historian of the Hellenistic period noted for his work The Histories, which covered the period of 264–146 BC in detail. The work describes the rise of the Roman Republic to the status of dominance in the ancient Mediterranean world and includes his eyewitness account of the Sack of Carthage and Corinth in 146 BC, the Roman annexation of mainland Greece after the Achaean War. Polybius is important for his analysis of the mixed constitution or the separation of powers in government, influential on Montesquieu's The Spirit of the Laws and the framers of the United States Constitution, he was noted for witnessing the events that he recorded. Polybius was born around 208 BC in Megalopolis, when it was an active member of the Achaean League; the town was revived, along with other Achaean states, a century. Polybius' father, was a prominent, land-owning politician and member of the governing class who became strategos of the Achaean League. Polybius was able to observe first hand during his first 40 years the political and military affairs of Megalopolis, gaining experience as a statesman.

In his early years, he accompanied his father while travelling as ambassador. He developed an interest in horse riding and hunting, diversions that commended him to his Roman captors. In 182 BC, he was given quite an honor when he was chosen to carry the funeral urn of Philopoemen, one of the most eminent Achaean politicians of his generation. In either 169 BC or 170 BC, Polybius was elected hipparchus with the intention of fighting for Rome during the Third Macedonian War; this event presaged election to the annual strategia. His early political career was devoted towards maintaining the independence of Megalopolis. Polybius’ father, was a prominent advocate of neutrality during the Roman war against Perseus of Macedon. Lycortas attracted the suspicion of the Romans, Polybius subsequently was one of the 1,000 Achaean nobles who were transported to Rome as hostages in 167 BC, was detained there for 17 years. In Rome, by virtue of his high culture, Polybius was admitted to the most distinguished houses, in particular to that of Lucius Aemilius Paullus Macedonicus, the conqueror in the Third Macedonian War, who entrusted Polybius with the education of his sons and Scipio Aemilianus.

Polybius remained on cordial terms with his former pupil Scipio Aemilianus and was among the members of the Scipionic Circle. When Scipio defeated the Carthaginians in the Third Punic War, Polybius remained his counsellor; the Achaean hostages were released in 150 BC, Polybius was granted leave to return home, but the next year he went on campaign with Scipio Aemilianus to Africa, was present at the Sack of Carthage in 146, which he described. Following the destruction of Carthage, Polybius journeyed along the Atlantic coast of Africa, as well as Spain. After the destruction of Corinth in the same year, Polybius returned to Greece, making use of his Roman connections to lighten the conditions there. Polybius was charged with the difficult task of organizing the new form of government in the Greek cities, in this office he gained great recognition. In the succeeding years, Polybius resided in Rome, completing his historical work while undertaking long journeys through the Mediterranean countries in the furtherance of his history, in particular with the aim of obtaining firsthand knowledge of historical sites.

He interviewed veterans to clarify details of the events he was recording and was given access to archival material. Little is known of Polybius' life, he wrote about this war in a lost monograph. Polybius returned to Greece in his life, as evidenced by the many existent inscriptions and statues of him there; the last event mentioned in his Histories seems to be the construction of the Via Domitia in southern France in 118 BC, which suggests the writings of Pseudo-Lucian may have some grounding in fact when they state, " fell from his horse while riding up from the country, fell ill as a result and died at the age of eighty-two". Polybius’ Histories cover the period from 264 BC to 146 BC, its main focus is the period from 220 BC to 167 BC, describing Rome's efforts in subduing its arch-enemy and thereby becoming the dominant Mediterranean force. Books I through V of The Histories are the introduction for the years during his lifetime, describing the politics in leading Mediterranean states, including ancient Greece and Egypt, culminating in their ultimate συμπλοκή or interconnectedness.

In Book VI, Polybius describes the political and moral institutions that allowed the Romans to succeed. He describes the Second Punic Wars. Polybius concludes the Romans are the pre-eminent power because they have customs and institutions which promote a deep desire for noble acts, a love of virtue, piety towards parents and elders, a fear of the gods, he chronicled the conflicts between Hannibal and Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus such as the Battle of Ticinus, the Battle of the Trebia, the Siege of Saguntum, the Battle of Lilybaeum, the Battle of Rhone Crossing. In Book XII, Polybius discusses the worth of Timaeus’ account of the same period of history, he asserts Timaeus' point of view is inaccurate and biased in favor of Rome. Therefore, Polybius's Histories is useful in analyzing the different Hellenistic versions of history and of use as a credible illustrat


Purwakarta is a town in the West Java province of Indonesia and the capital of the Purwakarta Regency. It had a population of 165,447 at the 2010 Census. Purwakarta's existence is inseparable from the history of the struggle against the forces of the Dutch East India Company. Around the beginning of the 17th century Sultan Mataram sent an army led by the Regent of Surabaya and West Java. One aim was to subdue the Sultan of Banten, but in a way that clashed with VOC forces had to withdraw. After the second expedition was sent back from the troops under the command of Mataram Dipati Ukur and suffered the same fate. To prevent territorial expansion of the Company, the Sultan of Mataram sent Penembahan Galuh Ciamis named RAA Wirasuta the title Duke or Duke Panatayuda Kertabumi III to occupy Rangkas Sumedang, it set up defenses in Tanjungpura, Adiarsa and Kuta game. After the fort was founded Kertabumi III Duke returned to Galuh and died. Name Rangkas, Sumedang itself turned into Karachi since the marshy condition of the area.

Sultan Agung Mataram and raised the son of Duke Kertabumi III, the Duke of Kertabumi IV into Dalem in Donegal, in the Year 1656. Duke Kertabumi IV is known as Panembahan Singaperbangsa or grandparent live, with the capital in the manly workable medication-manly workable medication. In the reign of R. Anom Wirasuta Panembahan Singaperbangsa son who holds RAA I Panatayuda between Year 1679 and 1721 the capital city of manly workable medication-manly workable medication Falkirk moved to Falkirk, with the local authority covering the area between Cihoe and Cipunagara. Karawang regency government ended around the year 1811–1816 as a result of switching control of the Dutch East Indies from the Dutch Government to the British Government; the major Jatiluhur Dam is quite close to Purwakarta and may be visited from the town. This dam is used as recreation place. Purwakarta can be accessed through toll roads. Both toll gates are in the Cikopo to Bandung direction; the three-hectare Sri Baduga Water Fountain Park is a world-class attraction and the biggest of its kind in Southeast Asia.

It has musical, dancing water, light show

Mayo Clinic

The Mayo Clinic is an American not-for-profit organization academic medical center based in Rochester, focused on integrated clinical practice and research. It employs more than 4,500 physicians and scientists, along with another 58,400 administrative and allied health staff; the practice specializes in treating difficult cases through tertiary destination medicine. It is home to the top-ten ranked Mayo Clinic Alix School of Medicine in addition to many of the largest, best regarded residency education programs in the United States, it has more than 3,000 full-time research personnel. William Worrall Mayo settled his family in Rochester in 1864 and opened a sole proprietorship medical practice that evolved under his sons and Charlie Mayo, along with practice partners Drs. Stinchfield, Henry Plummer, Millet and Donald Balfour, into Mayo Clinic. Today, in addition to its flagship hospital in Rochester, Mayo Clinic has major campuses in Arizona and in Florida; the Mayo Clinic Health System operates affiliated facilities throughout Minnesota and Iowa.

Mayo Clinic is ranked number 1 in the United States for 2019-20 U. S. News & World Report Best Hospitals Honor Roll, maintaining a position at or near the top for more than 27 years, it has been on the list of "100 Best Companies to Work For" published by Fortune magazine for fourteen consecutive years, has continued to achieve this ranking through 2017. In 1863, William Worrall Mayo came to Rochester, from Salford in Lancashire, England, as part of his appointment as an examining surgeon for the military draft board during the American Civil War; the city was to his liking, his wife and children joined him in early 1864. On January 27, 1864, William Worrall Mayo advertised in the Rochester City Post the opening of a private medical partnership "over the Union Drug Store on Third Street" with "all calls answered by day or night". Both of W. W. Mayo's sons, William James Mayo and Charles Horace Mayo grew up in Rochester and, when old enough, both attended medical school. William graduated in 1883 and joined his father's practice, Charles joined after he completed his training in 1888.

On August 21, 1883, a tornado struck Rochester, causing at least 37 deaths in the area and over 200 injuries. One-third of the town was destroyed; the relief efforts began with a temporary hospital being established at Rommell's Hall, the doctors Mayo as well as other local doctors, were extensively involved in treating the injured who were brought there for help. Mother Alfred Moes and the Sisters of Saint Francis were called in to act as nurses despite their lack of medical training. After the crisis subsided, Moes approached W. W. Mayo about establishing a hospital in Rochester. Mayo agreed to work in the hospital and soon other local doctors agreed as well. On September 30, 1889, Saint Mary's Hospital was opened by the Sisters of St. Francis. W. W. Mayo, 70 years old, was one of the consulting physicians at the hospital, his two sons began performing surgeries at the hospital. In 1892, W. W. Mayo asked Augustus Stinchfield, whom he considered to be the best doctor in the area, to join the practice.

After Stinchfield agreed, W. W. Mayo retired at the age of 73 and the practice continued to grow; the founders of Mayo Clinic are the Mayo brothers Will and Charlie, Graham, Henry Plummer, Millet and Balfour. These early founders and partners shared in the profits of the private group practice, while other staff hired by the partners were salaried. W. W. Mayo died in 1911 and in 1919 the remaining founders, with the exception of Graham, created the Mayo Properties Association, their private practice became a not-for-profit entity; the founders gave the Clinic furnishings to this newly formed association. The integrated practice model developed by Plummer created a foundation for what would grow into Mayo Clinic; as the private practice grew, it required additional space. In 1914, the partners planned and built a new clinic building. Ellerbe Architects are the architect of record for the 1914 Mayo "Red" building; until 1919 the Mayo Clinic was operated as a for-profit medical practice. In 1919, the Mayo brothers donated the clinic property and significant amounts of their wealth to develop the Mayo Properties Association.

The Association became the Mayo Clinic Foundation. The result of this was that the Mayo Clinic became a non-profit medical practice in 1920; the historic 1914 "Red" Mayo Clinic building, a National Landmark listed on the National Register, was demolished by the Clinic in the 1980s to make way for the Hammel and Abrahamson-designed Siebens building. Since 1986, the Mayo Clinic campus has formally included the Rochester Methodist Hospital and Saint Marys Hospital, as all operations were integrated under one governing board to more efficiently serve the needs of Mayo patients. In 2011, the foundation went before the Supreme Court to argue that medical residents should remain exempt from Social Security deductions. In Mayo Foundation v. United States the court sided with the Social Security Administration and required FICA to be deducted going forward; the same year, Tarek Obaid made a major donation in the name of his family to establish the Essam and Dalal Obaid Center for Reconstructive Transplant Surgery.

In 2010, when plans to establish a proton beam therapy program and to build new facilities in Rochester and Phoenix were underway and longtime Mayo Clinic patient Richard O. Jacobson donated $100 million to the non