Polycarp was a 2nd-century Christian bishop of Smyrna. According to the Martyrdom of Polycarp, he died a martyr and burned at the stake stabbed when the fire failed to consume his body. Polycarp is regarded as a saint and Church Father in the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Catholic and Lutheran churches, his name means "much fruit" in Greek. Both Irenaeus and Tertullian record. In Illustrious Men.17, Jerome writes that Polycarp was a disciple of John and that John had ordained him bishop of Smyrna. Polycarp is regarded as one of three chief Apostolic Fathers, along with Clement of Rome and Ignatius of Antioch; the sole surviving work attributed to him is the Epistle of Polycarp to the Philippians, a mosaic of references to the Greek Scriptures, along with an account of The Martyrdom of Polycarp, forms part of the collection of writings Roman Catholics and some Protestants term "The Apostolic Fathers." After the Acts of the Apostles, which describes the death of Stephen, the Martyrdom is considered one of the earliest genuine accounts of a Christian martyrdom.
Charles E. Hill argues extensively that the teachings Irenaeus ascribes to a certain apostolic "presbyter" throughout his writings represent lost teachings of Polycarp, his teacher; the chief sources of information concerning the life of Polycarp are The Martyrdom of Polycarp, Adversus Haereses, The Epistle to Florinus, the epistles of Ignatius, Polycarp's own letter to the Philippians. In 1999, the Harris Fragments, a collection of 3rd- to 6th-century Coptic texts that mention Polycarp, were published. According to Irenaeus, Polycarp was a companion of Papias, another "hearer of John" as Irenaeus interprets Papias' testimony, a correspondent of Ignatius of Antioch. Ignatius addressed a letter to him and mentions him in his letters to the Ephesians and to the Magnesians. Irenaeus regarded the memory of Polycarp as a link to the apostolic past. In his letter to Florinus, a fellow student of Polycarp who had become a Roman presbyter and lapsed into heresy, Irenaeus relates how and when he became a Christian: I could tell you the place where the blessed Polycarp sat to preach the Word of God.
It is yet present to my mind with what gravity he went out. I seem to hear him now relate how he conversed with John and many others who had seen Jesus Christ, the words he had heard from their mouths. In particular, he heard the account of Polycarp's discussion with John the Presbyter and with others who had seen Jesus. Irenaeus reports that Polycarp was converted to Christianity by apostles, was consecrated a bishop, communicated with many who had seen Jesus, he writes that he had had the good fortune, when young, to know Polycarp, far advanced in years. According to Irenaeus, during the time his fellow Syrian Anicetus was Bishop of Rome, Polycarp visited Rome to discuss differences in the practices of the churches of Asia and Rome. Irenaeus states that on certain things the two bishops speedily came to an understanding, while as to the observance of Easter, each adhered to his own custom, without breaking off full communion with the other. Polycarp followed the Eastern practice of celebrating the feast on the 14th of Nisan, the day of the Jewish Passover, regardless of the day of the week on which it fell, while Anicetus followed the Western practice of celebrating the feast on the first Sunday following the first full moon after the spring equinox.
Anicetus allowed Polycarp to celebrate the Eucharist in his own church, regarded by the Romans as a great honor. In the Martyrdom, Polycarp is recorded as saying on the day of his death: "Eighty and six years I have served Him, He has done me no wrong." This could indicate either that he was eighty-six years old or that he had lived eighty-six years after his conversion. Polycarp goes on to say: "How can I blaspheme my King and Savior? You threaten me with a fire that burns for a season, after a little while is quenched. Polycarp was burned at the stake and pierced with a spear for refusing to burn incense to the Roman Emperor. On his farewell, he said: "I bless you, for judging me worthy of this hour, so that in the company of the martyrs I may share the cup of Christ."The date of Polycarp's death is in dispute. Eusebius dates it to the reign of Marcus Aurelius, c. 166–167. However, a post-Eusebian addition to the Martyrdom of Polycarp, the authenticity of which has not been established, dates his death to Saturday, February 23, in the proconsulship of Lucius Statius Quadratus, c. 155 or 156.
These earlier dates better fit the tradition of his association with Ignatius and John the Evangelist. Because the Smyrnaean letter known as the Martyrdom of Polycarp states that Polycarp was taken "on the day of the Sabbath" and killed on "the Great Sabbath," William Cave believed that this was evidence that the Smyrnaeans under Polycarp observed the seventh-day Sabbath: Some believe that the expression "the Great Sabbath" refers to the Christian Passover or another annual Jewish holy day. If so Polycarp's martyrdom would have had to occur at least a month after the traditional February 23 dating, since according to the Hebrew calendar, the earliest Nisan 14, the date of the Passover, can fall on in any given year is late March. Other "Great Sabbaths" fall in the spring, late summer, the fall. Polycarp occupies an important place in the history of the early Christian Church, he is among the earliest Christians whose writin
The Norfolk Trotter is an extinct horse breed once native to East Anglia and Norfolk, England. It was said to be "a large-sized trotting harness horse originating in and around Norfolk". In 1542, King Henry VIII required the wealthy to keep a specified number of trotting-horse stallions; the breed was well established in Norfolk, became known as the Norfolk Trotter. The most influential sire in its history the half-bred stallion Shales known as "Old Shales". Shales' Thoroughbred sire, was a son of the great racehorse Flying Childers; the Norfolk Trotter became the all-around travel horse in England at this time. In Yorkshire, the same breed was known as the Yorkshire Trotter. Both breeds were known as roadsters, it is common to see the term Norfolk/Yorkshire Roadster/Trotter in breed-history books. They were used under saddle as the quickest means of travel in areas where there were no established roads; the breed was known for its ability to carry a heavy man for great distances at speeds up to 16-17 mph.
Trotting races, were popular in the early part of the nineteenth century and Norfolk Trotters excelled in them. A Norfolk Trotter stallion, was imported to America in 1822 and proved a major influence in the founding of the Standardbred by becoming the damsire of Hambletonian 10. Norfolk Trotters strongly influenced today's modern Hackney horse
Dent's disease is a rare X-linked recessive inherited condition that affects the proximal renal tubules of the kidney. It is one cause of Fanconi syndrome, is characterized by tubular proteinuria, excess calcium in the urine, formation of calcium kidney stones and chronic kidney failure. "Dent's disease" is used to describe an entire group of familial disorders, including X-linked recessive nephrolithiasis with kidney failure, X-linked recessive hypophosphatemic rickets, both Japanese and idiopathic low-molecular-weight proteinuria. About 60% of patients have mutations in the CLCN5 gene, which encodes a kidney-specific chloride/proton antiporter, 15% of patients have mutations in the OCRL1 gene. Dent's disease produces the following signs and symptoms: Extreme thirst combined with dehydration, which leads to frequent urination Nephrolithiasis Hypercalciuria with normal levels blood/serum calcium) Aminoaciduria Phosphaturia Glycosuria Kaliuresis Hyperuricosuria Impaired urinary acidification RicketsIn a study of 25 patients with Dent's disease, 9 of 15 men, one of 10 women suffered end-stage kidney disease by the age of 47.
Dent's disease is a X-linked recessive disorder. The males are prone to manifesting symptoms in early adulthood with symptoms of calculi, rickets or with kidney failure in more severe cases. In humans, gene CLCN5 is located on chromosome Xp11.22, has a 2238-bp coding sequence that consists of 11 exons that span 25 to 30 kb of genomic DNA and encode a 746-amino-acid protein. CLCN5 belongs to the family of voltage-gated chloride channel genes that have about 12 transmembrane domains; these chloride channels have an important role in the control of membrane excitability, transepithelial transport, cell volume. The mechanisms by which CLC-5 dysfunction results in hypercalciuria and the other features of Dent's disease remain to be elucidated; the identification of additional CLCN5 mutations may help in these studies. Dent disease 2 is associated with the OCRL gene. Both Lowe syndrome and Dent disease can be caused by truncating or missense mutations in OCRL. Diagnosis is based on genetic study of CNCL5 gene.
As of today, no agreed-upon treatment of Dent's disease is known and no therapy has been formally accepted. Most treatment measures are supportive in nature: Thiazide diuretics have been used with success in reducing the calcium output in urine, but they are known to cause hypokalemia. In rats with diabetes insipidus, thiazide diuretics inhibit the NaCl cotransporter in the renal distal convoluted tubule, leading indirectly to less water and solutes being delivered to the distal tubule; the impairment of Na transport in the distal convoluted tubule induces natriuresis and water loss, while increasing the reabsorption of calcium in this segment in a manner unrelated to sodium transport. Amiloride increases distal tubular calcium reabsorption and has been used as a therapy for idiopathic hypercalciuria. A combination of 25 mg of chlorthalidone plus 5 mg of amiloride daily led to a substantial reduction in urine calcium in Dent's patients, but urine pH was "significantly higher in patients with Dent’s disease than in those with idiopathic hypercalciuria, supersaturation for uric acid was lower."
For patients with osteomalacia, vitamin D or derivatives have been employed with success. Some lab tests on mice with CLC-5-related tubular damage showed a high-citrate diet preserved kidney function and delayed progress of kidney disease. Dent's disease was first described by Charles Enrique Dent and M. Friedman in 1964, when they reported two unrelated British boys with rickets associated with renal tubular damage characterized by hypercalciuria, hyperphosphaturia and aminoaciduria; this set of symptoms was not given a name until 30 years when the nephrologist Oliver Wrong more described the disease. Wrong chose to name the disease after his mentor. Dent's disease is a genetic disorder caused by mutations in the gene CLCN5, which encodes a kidney-specific voltage-gated chloride channel, a 746-amino-acid protein with 12 to 13 transmembrane domains, it manifests itself through low-molecular-weight proteinuria, hypercalciuria and hypophosphataemia. Because of its rather rare occurrence, Dent's disease is diagnosed as idiopathic hypercalciuria, i.e. excess calcium in urine with undetermined causes.
Genetic Hypercalciuria Dent disease on Orphanet
Huise is a village on a hill within the municipality of Zingem, part of the province of Oost-Vlaanderen in Belgium. It was mentioned in an 877 charter as'villa uscias', an incorrect Latinisation of the Indo-Germanic hydronym "usa-yes". Corbie Abbey had major possessions in Huise, donated to them around 825 by their former abbot Adalard of Corbie, born in Huise. A farming village, it has had a linen manufactory since the Middle Ages and has grown flax since the 14th century. In the 16th century the Protestant Reformation gained a huge following in the village and many of its inhabitants emigrated to the Dutch Republic, its position on the high ground meant. Agnès della Faille d'Huysse was Huise's mayor from 1927 to 1970, it was merged with Lozer in 1977 boundary reforms and the resulting merged village was re-split, with the centre of Huise becoming part of Zingem municipality and Lozer and the rest of Huise becoming part of Kruishoutem. The present pseudo-Romanesque parish church of Sint-Petrus-en-Urbanuskerk includes a late 13th century transept - the church as a whole is a product of 18th and 19th century rebuilds the major modifications in 1889.
The Gerlache family owns the Kasteel de Gerlache nearby - the family produced the two Antarctic explorers Adrien de Gerlache and Gaston de Gerlache. The village includes the Huisekoutermolen windmill, preserved as a historic monument. Http://www.zingem.be/
The Albuquerque Veterans Administration Medical Center, at 2100 Ridgecrest, SE, in Albuquerque, New Mexico, was built in 1932. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1983; the listing included a contributing structure on 40 acres. It was built in a combination of Spanish Revival architecture and Pueblo Revival architecture styles, its National Register nomination states: "Building 1 is asymetrical with box-like massing. It steps up in varying in height from one to four stories. A five story tower rises off-center of the main entrance, which consists of three portals surrounded by hewn lintels and columns; the ceiling of the Main Lobby is finished in beautifully hand carved wood beams or vigas that are decoratively painted revealing the Indian motifs. These still remain. Building 2 features two rounded bell towers with battered walls on either side of the entry, giving the structure a resemblance to a pueblo church. Buildings 1, 2, 3, 4, the quarters have pueblo and Spanish details such as timber framed porches, decorated corbels and lintel beams, patio gardens and pueblo style arcades randomly placed at the upper levels.
Straight headed. The engineering support buildings are plainer with less detailing but their scale, finish materials and minimal details are the same as the main buildings." It was listed in conformance with a 2011 study of veterans hospitals nationwide
The 22883 / 84 Puri Yesvantpur Junction Garib Rath Express is a Superfast express train of the Garib Rath series belonging to Indian Railways - East Coast Railway zone that runs between Puri and Yesvantpur Junction in India. It operates as train number 22883 from Puri to Yesvantpur Junction and as train number 22884 in the reverse direction serving the states of Odisha, Andhra Pradesh & Karnataka, it is part of the Garib Rath Express series launched by the former railway minister of India, Mr. Laloo Prasad Yadav The 22883 / 84 Puri Yesvantpur Junction Garib Rath Express has 16 AC 3 tier & 2 End on Generator Coaches, it does not carry a Pantry car coach and its rakes are shared with 12881/82 Puri Howrah Garib Rath Express As is customary with most train services in India, Coach Composition may be amended at the discretion of Indian Railways depending on demand. The 22883 Puri Yesvantpur Junction Garib Rath Express covers the distance of 1,517 km in 29 hours & in 31 hours as 22884 Yesvantpur Junction Puri Garib Rath Express.
As the average speed of the train is above 50.5 km/h, as per Indian Railway rules, its fare includes a Superfast surcharge. The 22883 / 84 Puri Yesvantpur Junction Garib Rath Express runs from Puri via Khurda Road Junction, Vizianagaram Junction, Eluru,Vijayawada Junction, Nandyal Junction,Anantapuram, Dhone Junction, Dharmavaram Junction to Yesvantpur Junction; as the route is electrified and a Visakhapatnam based WAP 4 or WAP 7 pulls up to Visakhapatnam that Vijayawada Junction based WAP 4 or Lallaguda based WAP 7 locomotive powers the train up to its destination. 22883 Puri Yesvantpur Junction Garib Rath Express leaves Puri every Friday & arriving Yesvantpur Junction the next day. 22884 Yesvantpur Junction Puri Garib Rath Express leaves Yesvantpur Junction every Saturday & arriving Puri the next day. 22883 Garib Rath Express at India Rail Info 22884 Garib Rath Express at India Rail Info