A polychlorinated biphenyl is an organic chlorine compound with the formula C12H10−xClx. Polychlorinated biphenyls were once deployed as dielectric and coolant fluids in electrical apparatus, carbonless copy paper and in heat transfer fluids; because of their longevity, PCBs are still in use though their manufacture has declined drastically since the 1960s, when a host of problems were identified. With the discovery of PCBs' environmental toxicity, classification as persistent organic pollutants, their production was banned by United States federal law in 1978, by the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants in 2001; the International Agency for Research on Cancer, rendered PCBs as definite carcinogens in humans. According to the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, PCBs are probable human carcinogens. Many rivers and buildings, including schools and other sites, are contaminated with PCBs and there has been contamination of food supplies with the substances; some PCBs share a structural similarity and toxic mode of action with dioxins.
Other toxic effects such as endocrine disruption and neurotoxicity are known. The maximum allowable contaminant level in drinking water in the United States is set at zero, but because of the limitations of water treatment technologies, a level of 0.5 parts per billion is the de facto level. The bromine analogues of PCBs are polybrominated biphenyls, which have analogous applications and environmental concerns; the compounds are pale-yellow viscous liquids. They are hydrophobic, with low water solubilities: 0.0027–0.42 ng/L for Aroclors, but they have high solubilities in most organic solvents and fats. They have low vapor pressures at room temperature, they have dielectric constants of 2.5–2.7 high thermal conductivity, high flash points. The density varies from 1.182 to 1.566 g/cm3. Other physical and chemical properties vary across the class; as the degree of chlorination increases, melting point and lipophilicity increase, vapour pressure and water solubility decrease. PCBs do not break down or degrade, which made them attractive for industries.
PCB mixtures are resistant to acids, oxidation and temperature change. They can generate toxic dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans through partial oxidation. Intentional degradation as a treatment of unwanted PCBs requires high heat or catalysis. PCBs penetrate skin, PVC, latex. PCB-resistant materials include Viton, polyvinyl acetate, polytetrafluoroethylene, butyl rubber, nitrile rubber, Neoprene. PCBs are derived from biphenyl, which has the formula C12H10, sometimes written 2. In PCBs, some of the hydrogen atoms in biphenyl are replaced by chlorine atoms. There are 209 different chemical compounds in which one to ten chlorine atoms can replace hydrogen atoms. PCBs are used as mixtures of compounds and are given the single identifying CAS number 1336-36-3. About 130 different individual PCBs are found in commercial PCB products. Toxic effects vary depending on the specific PCB. In terms of their structure and toxicity, PCBs fall into two distinct categories, referred to as coplanar or non-ortho-substituted arene substitution patterns and noncoplanar or ortho-substituted congeners.
Coplanar or non-ortho The coplanar group members have a rigid structure, with their two phenyl rings in the same plane. It renders their structure similar to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, allows them to act like PCDDs, as an agonist of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in organisms, they are considered as contributors to overall dioxin toxicity, the term dioxins and dioxin-like compounds is used interchangeably when the environmental and toxic impact of these compounds is considered. Noncoplanar Noncoplanar PCBs, with chlorine atoms at the ortho positions can cause neurotoxic and immunotoxic effects, but only at concentrations much higher than those associated with dioxins, they do not activate the AhR, are not considered part of the dioxin group. Because of their lower toxicity, they are of less concern to regulatory bodies. Di-ortho-substituted, non-coplanar PCBs interfere with intracellular signal transduction dependent on calcium which may lead to neurotoxicity.
Ortho-PCBs can disrupt thyroid hormone transport by binding to transthyretin. Commercial PCB mixtures were marketed under the following names: The only North American producer, Monsanto Company, marketed PCBs under the trade name Aroclor from 1930 to 1977; these were sold under trade names followed by a four-digit number. In general, the first two digits refer to the product series. Thus, Aroclor 1260 contains 60 % chlorine by mass, it is a myth. The 1100 series was a crude PCB material, distilled to create the 1200 series PCB product; the exception to the naming system is Aroclor 1016, produced by distilling 1242 to remove the chlorinated congeners to make a more biodegradable product. "1016" was given to this product during Monsanto's research stage for tracking purposes but the name stuck after it was commercialized. Different Aroclors were used for different applications. In electrical equipment manufacturing in the US, Aroclor 1260 and Aroclor 1254 were the main mixtures used before 1950.
KornShell is a Unix shell, developed by David Korn at Bell Labs in the early 1980s and announced at USENIX on July 14, 1983. The initial development was based on Bourne shell source code. Other early contributors were Bell Labs developers Mike Veach and Pat Sullivan, who wrote the Emacs and vi-style line editing modes' code, respectively. KornShell is backward-compatible with the Bourne shell and includes many features of the C shell, inspired by the requests of Bell Labs users. KornShell complies with POSIX.2, Shell and Utilities, Command Interpreter Major differences between KornShell and the traditional Bourne shell include: Job control, command aliasing, command history designed after the corresponding C shell features. Job control was added to the Bourne Shell in 1989. A choice of three command line editing styles based on vi, Gosling Emacs. Associative arrays and built-in floating point arithmetic operations. Dynamic extensibility of built-in commands. KornShell was proprietary software. In 2000 the source code was released under a license particular to AT&T, but since the 93q release in early 2005 it has been licensed under the Eclipse Public License.
KornShell is available as part of the AT&T Software Technology Open Source Software Collection. As KornShell was only available through a proprietary license from AT&T, a number of free and open source alternatives were created; these include pdksh, mksh, GNU bash, zsh. The functionality of the original KornShell, ksh88, was used as a basis for the standard POSIX.2, Shell and Utilities, Command Interpreter Some vendors still ship their own versions of the older ksh88 variant, sometimes with extensions. Ksh93 is maintained on GitHub; as "Desktop KornShell", ksh93 is distributed as part of the Common Desktop Environment. This version provides shell-level mappings for Motif widgets, it was intended as a competitor to Tcl/Tk. The original KornShell, ksh88, became the default shell on AIX in version 4, with ksh93 being available separately. UnixWare 7 includes both ksh88 and ksh93; the default Korn shell is ksh93, supplied as /usr/bin/ksh, the older version is available as /usr/bin/ksh88. UnixWare includes dtksh when CDE is installed.
There are several software products related to KornShell: dtksh – a fork of ksh93 included as part of CDE. tksh – a fork of ksh93 that provides access to the Tk widget toolkit. Oksh – a Linux-based fork of OpenBSD's flavour of KornShell, it is used as the default shell in DeLi Linux. Mksh – a free implementation of the KornShell language, forked from pdksh, it was developed for MirOS BSD and is licensed under permissive terms. In addition to its usage on BSD, this variant has replaced pdksh on Debian, is the default shell on Android. SKsh – an AmigaOS flavour that provides several Amiga-specific features, such as ARexx interoperability. MKS Inc.'s MKS Korn shell – a proprietary implementation of the KornShell language from Microsoft Windows Services for UNIX up to version 2.0. In SFU version 3.0 Microsoft replaced the MKS Korn shell with a new POSIX.2-compliant shell as part of Interix. KornShell is included in a Unix compatibility package by David Korn. Comparison of computer shells List of Unix commands The test program Morris I.
Bolsky. The new KornShell command and programming language. Prentice Hall PTR. ISBN 978-0-13-182700-4. David G. Korn, Charles J. Northrup and Jeffery Korn The New KornShell—ksh93, Linux Journal, Issue 27, July 1996 Korn shell home page github for AT&T Software Technology, including ksh93 source code. Official KSH mailing lists ksh93 man page at the Wayback Machine ksh88 man page at the Wayback Machine Public Domain Korn shell MirBSD Korn Shell mksh – MirOS BSD i386 General Commands Manual
State Route 902 is a 12.36-mile long state highway located in Spokane County, United States. The highway serves to connect Lakeland Medical Lake to the county seat of Spokane; the highway has existed since at least 1931, before the 1964 state highway renumbering, it was numbered Secondary State Highway 11D. Between 1,600 and 9,200 vehicles used the highway on an average day in 2009. SR 902 begins at exit 264, a diamond interchange, on the concurrent Interstate 90 /U. S. Route 395 in western Spokane County; the road travels northwesterly through sparsely populated light woodlands, passing west of a small lake, before turning north. The highway passes Lakeland Village, an educational facility for the mentally disabled, before reaching the city of Medical Lake; the highway passes through western Medical Lake and Medical Lake High School before turning east at Brooks Road. The highway passes over a rail line belonging to the Eastern Washington Gateway railroad, before leaving Medical Lake city limits.
The road continues northeast, clipping the southern border of Fairchild Air Force Base before intersecting the concurrent I-90/US 395 at exit 272. Every year, Washington State Department of Transportation conducts a series of surveys on its highways in the state to measure traffic volume; this is expressed in terms of average annual daily traffic, a measure of traffic volume for any average day of the year. In 2009, WSDOT calculated that as few as 1,600 vehicles used the highway at the western terminus, as many as 9,200 vehicles at the eastern terminus; the first roadway linking now I-90/US 395 and Medical Lake first appeared on maps in 1931. By the 1933 map, the remainder of the highway was present, linking back to I-90/US 395. Before the 1964 state highway renumbering, SR 902 was numbered Secondary State Highway 11D, a branch of Primary State Highway 11, the predecessor to US 395 through the region. No changes have been made to the alignment of the roadway, however the legal definition of the highway was changed during the 1991 legislative session.
The entire highway is in Spokane County. Highways of Washington State
The Committee for Equal Justice was an organization founded with the goal of assisting black women reclaim their bodies against sexual violence and interracial rape. Recy Taylor and Rosa Parks founded the committee in 1944 after six white men kidnapped and raped Taylor, an African-American woman, as she left her Abbeville, Alabama church. Taylor's case garnered heavy media coverage. With this attention came national support, which led to what the Chicago Defender called the "strongest campaign for equal justice to be seen in a decade." Committee members formed eighteen chapters across the United States, included such figures as WEB DuBois, Mary Church Terrell, Oscar Hammerstein II, John Sengstacke and Langston Hughes, among others. Close to midnight on September 3, 1944, six white male assailants stopped Recy Taylor, Fannie Daniels, West Daniels as they returned home from church in Abbeville, Alabama; the assailants claimed that they recognized Taylor, that she was wanted for a crime. Taylor had been with the Daniels all day, thus could not have been involved in the crime as they claimed.
At gun and knife point, they drove her to a secluded area and raped her. Following the assault, they left Taylor to stumble home blindfolded. Taylor’s father and a deputy sheriff found her; the Sheriff’s Department identified Hugo Wilson as the driver, took him into custody. Wilson named the other men involved in the assault, the Department released him. Taylor and her husband filed charges, but the all-white grand jury dismissed the case on October 4, 1944. In 1944, Rosa Parks traveled to Alabama after hearing about Taylor's assault; the threat of police intervention prompted Parks to meet Recy Taylor, her husband, her daughter in a secluded cabin. After Deputy Sheriff Lewey Corbitt ended their secret meeting, Parks recorded Taylor’s notes of the assault and brought them to African-American activists in Montgomery. Drawing on years of activism in which she defended the Scottsboro Boys, fought against the Ku Klux Klan, joined the NAACP, Rosa Parks allied with the Southern Negro Youth Congress to publicize Taylor’s case.
Rosa Parks gathered the support of E. D. Nixon, Rufus A. Lewis, E. G. Jackson and formed the Alabama Committee for Equal Justice for the Rights of Mrs. Recy Taylor. By 1945, the case had gained national attention, the Committee established branches established in New York, expanded to Denver and Detroit. In her role as secretary of the Montgomery chapter of the NAACP, Rosa Parks traveled throughout Alabama collecting testimonies and documenting racially motivated crimes, such as police brutality, unsolved murders, voter intimidation, rape. Upon coming across Taylor’s story and other prominent activists, supported by national labor unions, African-American organizations and women’s groups launched a defense team called the Alabama Committee for Equal Justice for Mrs. Recy Taylor. Many well-known activists at the time signed on to the committee, including E. D. Nixon, E. G. Jackson, W. E. B. DuBois, Mary Church Terrell, Charlotte Hawkins Brown, Ira De A. Reid, John Sengstacke, Countee Cullen, Langston Hughes, Lillian Smith, Oscar Hammerstein II, Henrietta Buckmaster.
The Committee for Equal Justice spearheaded the campaign for securing justice for Recy Taylor. The Committee sent delegates to Alabama to investigate the crime; the Committee led a publicity campaign to illuminate the prevalence of white attacks on black women. This campaign targeted Alabama Governor Chauncey Sparks, who supported laws that hindered Blacks’ from registering to vote. Letters and petitions poured into Sparks’ office demanding that he take action against Taylor’s assailants. Newspapers across the country covered the story of Recy Taylor’s assault. After a considerable amount of public pressure, Governor Sparks reluctantly agreed to launch a special grand jury investigation; the grand jury acquitted all of the assailants. J. B. Matthews, a staffer for the House Un-American Activities Committee vilified The Committee for Equal Justice. Matthews claimed that communists led the committee, who were using the campaign to exploit the rape of Taylor. While some members of the committee were communists, the Committee was a platform for civil rights and included many non-communists too.
Additionally, some local whites claimed that Taylor was a prostitute whose true intent was to start a race war. She received death threats and her house was firebombed. Although there were no indictments in Recy Taylor’s case, the Committee for Equal Justice’s nonviolent activism created a foundation for the formal civil rights movement. Sikivu Hutchinson, author of “White Nights, Black Paradise” assessed the significance of the Committee for Equal Justice and Recy Taylor by saying, “Her case became a major catalyst for black women’s civil rights resistance and the intersectional connection between sexual violence and state violence.” Feminist scholars assert that this case illuminates the important roles African American women played during the civil rights movement, eclipsed in history books by the contributions of male figures such as Dr. Martin Luther King; the Committee for Equal Justice brought national attention to sexual assault of black women, widespread in the South. The Committee for Equal Justice empowered women to report acts of sexual violence directly to the NAACP, in addition to writing letters to the Justice Department.
Leaders of the Committee for Equal Justice like Rosa Parks and E. D
Bear River is an unincorporated community in Itasca and Saint Louis counties in the U. S. state of Minnesota. The community is located 24 miles west of Cook at the intersection of County Road 22 and County Road 916. Bear River is located 31 miles east of Effie; the Bear River, a tributary of the Sturgeon River, flows through the community. Saint Louis County Highway 5 and Minnesota State Highway 65 are both nearby. Bear River is 26 miles north of Chisholm. Bear River is located within Morcom Township in Saint Louis County; the communities of Togo and Side Lake are nearby. Bear River is the home town of the Minnesota Twins mascot TC Bear. Headquarters of Team Ugly Racing. Rand McNally Road Atlas – 2007 edition – Minnesota entry Official State of Minnesota Highway Map – 2011/2012 edition Mn/DOT map of Itasca County – Sheet 3 – 2011 edition Mn/DOT map of Saint Louis County – Sheet 3 – 2011 edition
Sékou Bamba de Karamoko was an Ivorian professional footballer who played as a midfielder for several clubs in Africa and Europe. Bamba played for ASEC Mimosas and Stade d'Abidjan in Ivory Coast, he had a brief spell with Antalyaspor in the Turkish Super Lig. Bamba was part of ASEC's squad that were finalists at the African Cup of Champions Clubs 1995. Bamba played for the full Ivory Coast national football team, including appearing at the 1987 All-Africa Games and in qualifying matches for the 1990 FIFA World Cup, he refused to join the team. Bamba died at the age of 38, he left behind two daughters. Sékou Bamba at National-Football-Teams.com