Polychrome is the "practice of decorating architectural elements, etc. in a variety of colors." The term is used to refer to certain styles of architecture, pottery or sculpture in multiple colors. Some early polychrome pottery has been excavated on Minoan Crete such as at the Bronze Age site of Phaistos. In ancient Greece sculptures were painted in strong colors; the paint was limited to parts depicting clothing, so on, with the skin left in the natural color of the stone. But it could cover sculptures in their totality; the painting of Greek sculpture should not be seen as an enhancement of their sculpted form but has the characteristics of a distinct style of art. For example, the pedimental sculptures from the Temple of Aphaia on Aegina have been demonstrated to have been painted with bold and elaborate patterns, amongst other details, patterned clothing; the polychrome of stone statues was paralleled by the use of materials to distinguish skin and other details in chryselephantine sculptures, by the use of metals to depict lips, etc. on high-quality bronzes like the Riace bronzes.
An early example of polychrome decoration was found in the Parthenon atop the Acropolis of Athens. By the time European antiquarianism took off in the 18th century, the paint, on classical buildings had weathered off. Thus, the antiquarians' and architects' first impressions of these ruins were that classical beauty was expressed only through shape and composition, lacking in robust colors, it was that impression which informed neoclassical architecture. However, some classicists such as Jacques Ignace Hittorff noticed traces of paint on classical architecture and this came to be accepted; such acceptance was accelerated by observation of minute color traces by microscopic and other means, enabling less tentative reconstructions than Hittorff and his contemporaries had been able to produce. An example of classical Greek architectural polychrome may be seen in the full size replica of the Parthenon exhibited in Nashville, Tennessee, US. Throughout medieval Europe religious sculptures in wood and other media were brightly painted or colored, as were the interiors of church buildings.
These were destroyed or whitewashed during iconoclast phases of the Protestant Reformation or in other unrest such as the French Revolution, though some have survived in museums such as the V&A, Musée de Cluny and Louvre. The exteriors of churches were painted as well. Exposure to the elements and changing tastes and religious approval over time acted against their preservation; the "Majesty Portal" of the Collegiate church of Toro is the most extensive remaining example, due to the construction of a chapel which enclosed and protected it from the elements just a century after it was completed. While stone and metal sculpture remained uncolored, like the classical survivals, polychromed wood sculptures were produced by Spanish artists: Juan Martínez Montañés, Gregorio Fernández. With the arrival of European porcelain in the 18th century, brightly colored pottery figurines with a wide range of colors became popular. Polychrome brickwork is a style of architectural brickwork which emerged in the 1860s and used bricks of different colors in patterned combination to highlight architectural features.
It was used to replicate the effect of quoining and to decorate around windows. Early examples featured banding, with examples exhibiting complex diagonal, criss-cross, step patterns, in some cases writing using bricks. In the twentieth century there were notable periods of polychromy in architecture, from the expressions of Art Nouveau throughout Europe, to the international flourishing of Art Deco or Art Moderne, to the development of postmodernism in the latter decades of the century. During these periods, stone, tile and metal facades were designed with a focus on the use of new colors and patterns, while architects looked for inspiration to historical examples ranging from Islamic tilework to English Victorian brick. In the 1970s and 1980s architects working with bold colors included Robert Venturi, Michael Graves, James Stirling, among others. Polychrome building facades rose in popularity as a way of highlighting certain trim features in Victorian and Queen Anne architecture in the United States.
The rise of the modern paint industry following the American Civil War helped to fuel the use of multiple colors. The polychrome facade style faded with the rise of the 20th century's revival movements, which stressed classical colors applied in restrained fashion and, more with the birth of modernism, which advocated clean, unornamented facades rendered in white stucco or paint. Polychromy reappeared with the flourishing of the preservation movement and its embrace of the excesses of the Victorian era and in San Francisco, California in the 1970s to describe its abundant late-nineteenth-century houses; these earned the endearment'Painted Ladies', a term that in modern times is considered kitsch when it is applied to describe all Victorian houses that have been painted with period colors. John Joseph Earley developed a "polychrome" process of concrete slab construction and ornamentation, admired across America. In the Washington, D. C. metropolitan area, his products graced a variety of buildings — al
Spaldington is a village and civil parish in the East Riding of Yorkshire, lying 3 miles north from the market town of Howden and 14 miles south of York. It lies to the west of the A614 road; the civil parish lies in the Vale of York east of the River Derwent halfway between Howden and Holme on Spalding Moor. The land is predominately agricultural in use with the exception of Boothferry Golf Club; the land is at an altitude of around 5 metres above sea level. The village of Spaldington is the only significant place of habitation in the parish, excluding farms. Spaldington lies within the Parliamentary constituency of Haltemprice and Howden an area that consists of middle class suburbs and villages; the area is affluent, placed as the 10th most affluent in the country in a Barclays Private Clients survey, has one of the highest proportions of owner-occupiers in the country. According to the 2011 UK Census, Spaldington parish had a population of 185, an increase on the 2001 UK census figure of 171.
Spaldington was listed as being in the manor of Wressle in the Domesday Book of 1086. In around 1200 Eustace de Vesci and William Fitzpeter were joint lords of the manor. Spaldington Hall, an Elizabethan building was a seat of the Vavasour family. In 1838 the Hall was demolished. By 1850'Hall farm' had been built on top of it. A church or chapel dating to as early as 1650 was still extant in 1850, but had been demolished by 1890. A Wesleyan chapel used as school, was built in the village in 1820. By the 1830s the population was 361. Spaldington mill, a corn mill on the Spaldington to Willitoft road was extant in 1850, but had been demolished by 1890 leaving the mill house; the airship station RNAS Howden was built in the southern part of the parish in the early 20th century, opening in 1916, closing in 1930. In 1953 F. Hall & Sons constructed a water tower for Howden Rural District Council at the A614 / Spaldington Lane junction. In 2009, two planning applications were submitted for wind farms. Volkswind applied to build seven 2.3 MW turbines on Spaldington Common east of Spaldington.
Falck Renewables and Coriolis Energy submitted an application for five 2.3 MW wind turbines, 126 metres tip height with 92 metres diameter blades, to be built west of the village on Spaldington Airfield. Falck Renewables expected construction to begin in 2013, with the wind farm operational by late 2014. In 2012 an application was submitted by RWE npower renewables for a third wind farm of six 2–3 MW wind turbines between Welham Bridge and Gribthorpe within the northern boundary of the parish; the application was refused in August 2013, the developer submitted an appeal
Pope Celestine III, born Giacinto Bobone, was the pope from 30 March or 10 April 1191 to his death in 1198. He was born into the noble Orsini family in Rome and served as a cardinal-deacon prior to becoming pope, he was ordained as a priest on 13 April 1191 and he ruled the church for six years, nine months, nine days before he died aged 92. He was buried at the Lateran. Considered by the Roman Curia as an expert on Spain, Bobone conducted two legatine missions to Spain in and as the Cardinal-Deacon of Santa Maria in Cosmedin. Celestine crowned the Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI on the day after his election in 1191 with a ceremony symbolizing his absolute supremacy, as described by Roger of Hoveden, after Henry VI promised to cede Tusculum. In 1192 he threatened to excommunicate King Tancred of Sicily, forcing him to release his aunt Empress Constance, wife of Henry VI and a contender of Sicilian crown, captured by Tancred in 1191, to Rome to exchange for his recognition of Tancred while put pressure on Henry, but Constance was released by German soldiers on borders of the Papal States before reaching Rome the following summer.
He subsequently nearly excommunicated the same Henry VI for wrongfully keeping King Richard I of England in prison. He placed Pisa under an interdict, lifted by his successor Innocent III in 1198, he condemned King Alfonso IX of León for his marriage to Theresa of Portugal on the grounds of consanguinity. In 1196, he excommunicated him for allying with the Almohad Caliphate while making war on Castile. Following his marriage with Berengaria of Castile, Celestine excommunicated Alfonso and placed an interdict over León. In 1198, Celestine confirmed the statutes of the Teutonic Knights as a military order. Celestine would have resigned the papacy and recommended a successor shortly before his death, but was not allowed to do so by the cardinals. List of popes Baaken, K.."Zur Wahl, Weihe und Krönung Papst Cölestins III." Deutsches Archiv, 41, 1985, pp. 203–211. Clarke, Peter D; the interdict in the thirteenth century: a question of collective guilt, Oxford University Press, 2007. Gregorovius, History of the City of Rome in the Middle Ages Volume IV, part 2, pp. 625–638.
Lower, Michael. "The Papacy and Christian Mercenaries of Thirteenth-Century North Africa". Speculum; the University of Chicago Press. Vol. 89, No. 3 JULY. Moore, John Clare, Pope Innocent III: to root up and to plant, BRILL, 2003. Mann, Horace K; the Lives of the Popes in the Middle Ages Volume X, pp. 383–441. Sikes, Thomas Burr, History of the Christian Church, from the first to the fifteenth century, Eliott Stock, 1885; the New Cambridge Medieval History, Vol.1, Ed. David Luscombe, Jonathan Riley-Smith, Cambridge University Press, 2004. Urban, The Teutonic Knights, Greenhill Books, 2003. Pope Celestine III: Diplomat and Pastor, ed. Damian J. Smith, John Doran, Ashgate Publishing, 2008. Initial text from the 9th edition of an old encyclopedia