Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are hydrocarbons—organic compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen—that are composed of multiple aromatic rings. The simplest such chemicals are naphthalene, having two aromatic rings, the three-ring compounds anthracene and phenanthrene. PAHs are uncharged, non-polar molecules found in tar deposits, they are produced by the thermal decomposition of organic matter. PAHs are abundant in the universe, have been found to have formed as early as the first couple of billion years after the Big Bang, in association with formation of new stars and exoplanets; some studies suggest. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are discussed as possible starting materials for abiotic syntheses of materials required by the earliest forms of life. By definition, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have multiple cycles, precluding benzene from being considered a PAH. Naphthalene is considered the simplest polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon by the US EPA and US CDC for policy contexts. Other authors consider PAHs to start with the tricyclic species anthracene.
PAHs are not considered to contain heteroatoms or carry substituents. PAHs with five or six-membered rings are most common; those composed only of six-membered rings are called alternant PAHs. The following are examples of PAHs that vary in the number and arrangement of their rings: Principal PAH Compounds PAHs are nonpolar and lipophilic. Larger PAHs are insoluble in water, although some smaller PAHs are soluble and known contaminants in drinking water; the larger members are poorly soluble in organic solvents and in lipids. They are colorless; the aromaticity varies for PAHs. According to Clar's rule, the resonance structure of a PAH that has the largest number of disjoint aromatic pi sextets—i.e. Benzene-like moieties—is the most important for the characterization of the properties of that PAH. Benzene-substructure resonance analysis for Clar's rule For example, in phenanthrene one Clar structure has two sextets—the first and third rings—while the other resonance structure has just one central sextet.
In contrast, in anthracene the resonance structures have one sextet each, which can be at any of the three rings, the aromaticity spreads out more evenly across the whole molecule. This difference in number of sextets is reflected in the differing ultraviolet–visible spectra of these two isomers, as higher Clar pi-sextets are associated with larger HOMO-LUMO gaps. Three Clar structures with two sextets each are present in the four-ring chrysene structure: one having sextets in the first and third rings, one in the second and fourth rings, one in the first and fourth rings. Superposition of these structures reveals that the aromaticity in the outer rings is greater compared to the inner rings. Polycyclic aromatic compounds characteristically reduce to the radical anions; the redox potential correlates with the size of the PAH. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are found in natural sources such as creosote, they can result from the incomplete combustion of organic matter. PAHs can be produced geologically when organic sediments are chemically transformed into fossil fuels such as oil and coal.
PAHs are considered ubiquitous in the environment and can be formed from either natural or manmade combustion sources. The dominant sources of PAHs in the environment are thus from human activity: wood-burning and combustion of other biofuels such as dung or crop residues contribute more than half of annual global PAH emissions due to biofuel use in India and China; as of 2004, industrial processes and the extraction and use of fossil fuels made up more than one quarter of global PAH emissions, dominating outputs in industrial countries such as the United States. Wildfires are another notable source. Higher outdoor air and water concentrations of PAHs have been measured in Asia and Latin America than in Europe, the U. S. and Canada. PAHs are found as complex mixtures. Lower-temperature combustion, such as tobacco smoking or wood-burning, tends to generate low molecular weight PAHs, whereas high-temperature industrial processes generate PAHs with higher molecular weights. Most PAHs are insoluble in water, which limits their mobility in the environment, although PAHs sorb to fine-grained organic-rich sediments.
Aqueous solubility of PAHs decreases logarithmically as molecular mass increases. Two-ringed PAHs, to a lesser extent three-ringed PAHs, dissolve in water, making them more available for biological uptake and degradation. Further, two- to four-ringed PAHs volatilize sufficiently to appear in the atmosphere predominantly in gaseous form, although the physical state of four-ring PAHs can depend on temperature. In contrast, compounds with five or more rings have low solubility in water and low volatility. In solid state, these compounds are less accessible for biological uptake or degradation, increasing their persistence in the environment. Spiral galaxy NGC 5529 has been
Each state in the United States has a senior military officer, as the state adjutant general, de facto commander of a state's military forces, including the National Guard, the naval militia, any state defense forces. This officer is known as TAG, is subordinated to the chief executive. In 49 states, Puerto Rico and the United States Virgin Islands, the adjutant general is appointed by the governor; the exceptions are Vermont, where the adjutant general is appointed by a vote of the Vermont General Assembly, the District of Columbia, where a commanding general is appointed by the President of the United States of America. Until 2016, South Carolina chose its adjutant general in statewide general elections, but after passage of a popular referendum, the holder of this position is now appointed by the governor; each adjutant general shares a common responsibility for the state's National Guard plus a unique set of other responsibilities defined by the state's constitution, state statutes, other state-level directives.
In addition to their state responsibilities, each TAG is responsible to the federal government for the use and care of federal assets under the state's control. The National Guard Bureau in the Department of Defense provides a centralized administrative and procurement process to support the states' military departments; the commander of the NGB provides input as a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff on national military activities as they relate to the National Guard. The 54 adjutants general collectively form the Adjutants General Association of the United States which strives to enhance both state and national military security. A professional military guard organization, the National Guard Association of the United States serves to lobby both Congress and the Executive branch about common needs of the Guard as a whole and provide support to members of the National Guard; each adjutant general commands their state's Army and Air National Guard units which are not on federal active duty. When a National Guard unit is federalized it is moved from state command to the Department of Defense and placed under an Army or Air Force command.
Twenty-three adjutants general have responsibility for military land forces that comprise state level militias under the command of the various governors and have state support missions. Seven of these in addition to Illinois have a naval militia division. Two adjutants general, Puerto Rico and Texas, are responsible for an air support component; some adjutant generals are responsible for oversight of the state's emergency management organization. These groups are non-military organizations but have a close working relationship with the state's National Guard and any state defense forces, they are the state level agency that works directly with the Federal Emergency Management Agency in preparing for, responding to, recovering from disasters. Some states have assigned their adjutant general the responsibility for overseeing homeland security. In other states, this responsibility may be assigned to the state's law enforcement agency instead; some states place their veteran's affairs organization in the state's military department under the oversight of the state adjutant general.
Other states have an independent veteran's affairs department. Each adjutant general is the senior officer in the state's military structure. Many hold federal rank as active duty general officers, but others may for a variety of reasons, including mandatory federal military retirement age, only hold general officer rank from their state. "NGB-GO Biographies". "Adjutants General Association of the United States". National Guard Association of the United States
Joyce "Sunny" Mojonnier is an American politician who served as a California State Assemblywoman for the 75th District. Mojonnier was the 30th women elected to serve in the California Legislature, she served from 1982 through 1990. As a State Assembly Member, Mojonnier Served four, two-year terms as the elected representative to the 375,000 constituents of the 75th Assembly District, she served on the following committees: Rules, Ways & Means, Governmental Organizations, Labor, Economic Development & New Technologies. Established and chaired the Task Force on Child Abuse and the Judicial System. Served as Chairperson of the Joint Committee on Surrogate Parenting and the Subcommittee on Arts & Athletics, she served as vice chair of the Joint Committee on the 1992 Quincentennial. Served as a Member of the Select Committee on Genetic Diseases and a member of the Arts and Cultural Resources Committee of the National Conference of State Legislatures. Member of the Committee on Suggested State Legislation for the Western Legislative Conference.
Mojonnier authored and carried the Hazardous Medical Waste Management Act which served as the national model for medical waste clean-up. She successfully authored and carried major mental health legislation that improved patient care authored and carried Closed Circuit Television Testimony for use in the Courtroom which led to protection of child victims and eliminated the need to transport violent offenders for arraignments, thus limiting escape during transport authored and carried legislation to require Children's Waiting Rooms at courthouses resulting in the elimination of trauma and victimization of young children in an unfriendly & threatening circumstance, competed for tax dollars needed to safeguard interests of San Diego and the 55miles of California coastline and improving quality of life in the 75th Assembly District. Mojonnier was the founder in 1983 of Capitol Network, a network for female legislative and administrative professionals in Sacramento. Mojonnier said, "Creating a name that spoke to the purpose of our existence and a logo that would become a recognized standard of opportunity and empowerment for women was my first step to the birth of CAPITOL NETWORK.
Building an organization that could and would withstand the test of time is never an easy task." Mojonnier is a firm believer that so much can be accomplished through humor and fun and so it was both humorous and fun for everyone of the dinner guests to find out that their waiters were Speaker Willie Brown-D and Assembly Minority Leader Bob Naylor, Senators Jim Ellis-R and Art Torres-D, Rod Blonion and Dave Sterling from the Governor's administration and several others. At that historic dinner were more than sixty of the best and the brightest, most dynamic and successful women to grace the halls of the Capitol. And, the beginning of CAPITOL NETWORK. In 1990, she was defeated for reelection by San Diego School Board Trustee Dede Alpert. In 1992, Mojonnier was appointed by Assembly Speaker Willie Brown to serve as Commissioner on the California Medical Assistance Commission; the California Medical Assistance Commission is responsible for negotiating contracts with managed care plans and hospitals, on behalf of the California Department of Health Services for specific services, under the Medicaid program in California.
The goal of the Commission is to promote efficient and cost-effective Medi-Cal programs through a system of negotiated contracts fostering competition and maintaining access to quality health care for beneficiaries. She was responsible for review and oversight of 90 of the 275 hospital contracts annually. Performance of these responsibilities resulted in the following: establishment of contracts for services securing quality medical care for medi-cal recipients with 90 hospital providers annually, establish an estimated $1 billion annual savings for the State General Fund, as well as development and implementation of the managed care system. In 2014, Mojonnier founded a non-partisan, non-profit organization to collect the history of the women that have served in the California Legislature. Video-recorded oral histories are being produced and memorabilia is being collected from these female former members of the legislature, with the goal in mind that a museum is in our not so distant future.
2018 is the Centennial of women elected to serve in the California Legislature. Mojonnier has been CEO of WOMEN IN CALIFORNIA POLITICS FOUNDATION & MUSEUM since the beginning and has worked on producing the Centennial Celebration events since January 2017. Centennial Celebration Events were held on Monday, June 18, 2018 at the California State Capitol and the California State Library Exhibit Halls. WICP100 has been recognized as having the largest collection of Video-recorded oral histories and historical memorabilia on California's female legislators. Http://www.capitolnetwork.org/