A polymath is an individual whose knowledge spans a significant number of subjects, known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems. The earliest recorded use of the term in English is from 1624, in the second edition of The Anatomy of Melancholy by Robert Burton. Use in English of the similar term polyhistor dates from the late sixteenth century. In Western Europe, the first work to use polymathy in its title was published in 1603 by Johann von Wowern, a Hamburg philosopher. Von Wowern defined polymathy as "knowledge of various matters, drawn from all kinds of studies ranging through all the fields of the disciplines, as far as the human mind, with unwearied industry, is able to pursue them". Von Wowern lists erudition, philology and polyhistory as synonyms. Polymaths include the great thinkers of the Renaissance and the Enlightenment, who excelled at several fields in science, engineering and the arts. In the Italian Renaissance, the idea of the polymath was expressed by Leon Battista Alberti in the statement that "a man can do all things if he will".
Embodying a basic tenet of Renaissance humanism that humans are limitless in their capacity for development, the concept led to the notion that people should embrace all knowledge and develop their capacities as as possible. This is expressed in the term Renaissance man applied to the gifted people of that age who sought to develop their abilities in all areas of accomplishment: intellectual, social and spiritual. "Renaissance man" was first recorded in written English in the early 20th century. It is now used to refer during, or after the Renaissance. Leonardo da Vinci has been described as the archetype of the Renaissance man, a man of "unquenchable curiosity" and "feverishly inventive imagination". Many notable polymaths lived during the Renaissance period, a cultural movement that spanned the 14th through to the 17th century that began in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and spread to the rest of Europe; these polymaths had a rounded approach to education that reflected the ideals of the humanists of the time.
A gentleman or courtier of that era was expected to speak several languages, play a musical instrument, write poetry and so on, thus fulfilling the Renaissance ideal. The idea of a universal education was essential to achieving polymath ability, hence the word university was used to describe a seat of learning. At this time, universities did not specialize in specific areas, but rather trained students in a broad array of science and theology; this universal education gave them a grounding from which they could continue into apprenticeship toward becoming a master of a specific field. When someone is called a "Renaissance man" today, it is meant that rather than having broad interests or superficial knowledge in several fields, the individual possesses a more profound knowledge and a proficiency, or an expertise, in at least some of those fields; some dictionaries use the term "Renaissance man" to describe someone with many interests or talents, while others give a meaning restricted to the Renaissance and more related to Renaissance ideals.
Robert Root-Bernstein is considered the principal responsible for rekindling the interest on polymathy in the scientific community. He is a professor of physiology at Michigan State University and has been awarded the MacArthur Fellowship, he and colleagues Michèle Root-Bernstein, authored many important works spearheading the modern field of polymathy studies. Root-Bernstein’s works emphasize the contrast between the polymath and two other types: the specialist and the dilettante; the specialist lacks breadth of knowledge. The dilettante demonstrates superficial breadth but tend to acquire skills “for their own sake without regard to understanding the broader applications or implications and without integrating it”. Conversely, the polymath is a person with a level of expertise, able to “put a significant amount of time and effort into their avocations and find ways to use their multiple interests to inform their vocations”. A key point in the work of Root-Bernstein and colleagues is the argument in favor of the universality of the creative process.
That is, although creative products, such as a painting, a mathematical model or a poem, can be domain-specific, at the level of the creative process, the mental tools that lead to the generation of creative ideas are the same, be it in the arts or science. These mental tools are sometimes called intuitive tools of thinking, it is therefore not surprising that many of the most innovative scientists have serious hobbies or interests in artistic activities, that some of the most innovative artists have an interest or hobbies in the sciences. Root-Bernstein and colleagues' research is an important counterpoint to the claim by some psychologists that creativity is a domain-specific phenomenon. Through their research, Root-Bernstein and colleagues conclude that there are certain comprehensive thinking skills and tools that cross the barrier of different domains and can foster creative thinking: “ who discuss integrating ideas from diverse fields as the basis of creative giftedness ask not “who is creative?” but “what is the basis of creative thinking?”
From the polymathy perspective, giftedness
Jayce Mascarenhas-Olivero known as Jayce Olivero, is a Gibraltarian footballer who plays as a defender for Europa. He is member of the Gibraltar national football team, having played at every youth level since Gibraltar joined UEFA in 2013. Olivero is a product of the Lions Gibraltar youth academy, broke into the team during the 2014-15 season at the age of 16. In summer 2015 he had a trial at West Ham United to gain experience of professional training, he returned to the revamped Lions team for the coming season and became a regular in the side, playing an important role as the previous season's bottom side made an early challenge for European qualification. In February 2016, he had a short trial at Leicester City, playing in a youth team game watched by scouts from other professional teams, before returning to Gibraltar. In 2016, he moved to Abingdon United for the duration of his studies. In his first season at the club, he helped them to second in the Hellenic League Division One West, promotion.
For his efforts, Olivero was voted Supporters' Player of the Season. After suffering relegation in 2019, it was announced that Olivero had signed for Europa back in Gibraltar on 15 May 2019, joining in time for the club's Europa League campaign, he made his debut in the 2019–20 UEFA Europa League preliminary round against UE Sant Julià on 27 June. He made his debut for the Gibraltar national football team aged 17 on 23 March 2016, starting in a goalless draw against Liechtenstein at the Victoria Stadium - making him the territory's youngest UEFA era player, his addition into a five-man defence by manager Jeff Wood allowed the defensive Joseph Chipolina to attack. In the 69th-minute, shortly after being booked, Olivero was substituted for Jeremy Lopez. Abingdon UnitedHellenic Football League Division One West - Promotion: 2016–17 Supporters' Player of the Season: 2016–17 Profile at EU-Football.info
Omamori Himari is a Japanese manga series written and illustrated by Milan Matra. The story follows Yuto Amakawa, an orphaned boy who, on the day of his sixteenth birthday, meets Himari, a sword-wielding girl who turns out to be a cat spirit, he soon discovers that his family is one of the twelve Demon Slayer families that had slain demons for hundreds of years, that Himari has sworn an ancient oath to protect him from the demons that are out to kill him until his powers awaken. Throughout the series, Yuto encounters other girls who take a romantic liking to him, most of them ayakashi: Shizuku, a mizuchi in the form of a small child, Lizlet, a tsukumogami in the form of a busty tea-serving maid, Kuesu, the heiress of the Jinguji Family of Demon Slayers and Yuto's fiancée. Omamori Himari began monthly serialization in the July 2006 issue of Monthly Dragon Age, ran until the October 2013 issue, spanning a total of seventy-five chapters. Twelve bound volumes were released by Fujimi Shobo from February 1, 2007 to November 9, 2013.
The first five volumes were published under Kadokawa Shoten's "Dragon Jr." imprint, while the remaining volumes were published under Fujimi Shobo's "Dragon Comics Age" imprint. An official guidebook to the series was released by Kadokawa Shoten on October 24, 2009; the manga was serialized in Fujimi Shobo's paid online magazine, Age Premium, starting from the inaugural September 2011 issue to the November 2013 issue. A four-panel spinoff called Omamori Himari: Himari's Panties, illustrated by Nikubanare, began serialization in the November 2009 issue of Monthly Dragon Age and ended in the November 2010 issue. A compilation called Omamori Himari 1/4: Himari's 4-Koma Anthology was released on April 9, 2010. A bonus two-part side story, called Omamori Himari: Book of the Gaiden illustrated by Nikubanare, was released by Kadokawa Shoten on September 9, 2011; the stories were serialized in the May 2011 and June 2011 issues of Monthly Dragon Age. Omamori Himari is licensed in North America by Yen Press, released all thirteen volumes from October 26, 2010 to July 22, 2014.
The manga is licensed in Taiwan by one of Kadokawa Shoten's subsidiary companies, Kadokawa Media, in Germany by Panini Comics under the title of Talisman Himari. A 12-episode anime adaptation created by animation studio Zexcs ran between January and March 2010 on TV Saitama, Chiba TV, other networks. Individual chapters of the series are called Menageries, each chapter uses either the kanji, katakana, or hiragana for "cat" within its title. List of Omamori Himari episodes List of Omamori Himari characters Official Omamori Himari manga website Omamori Himari at Anime News Network's encyclopedia