A polymer is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits. Due to their broad range of properties, both synthetic and natural polymers play essential and ubiquitous roles in everyday life. Polymers range from familiar synthetic plastics such as polystyrene to natural biopolymers such as DNA and proteins that are fundamental to biological structure and function. Polymers, both natural and synthetic, are created via polymerization of many small molecules, known as monomers, their large molecular mass, relative to small molecule compounds, produces unique physical properties including toughness, a tendency to form glasses and semicrystalline structures rather than crystals. The terms polymer and resin are synonymous with plastic; the term "polymer" derives from the Greek word πολύς and μέρος, refers to a molecule whose structure is composed of multiple repeating units, from which originates a characteristic of high relative molecular mass and attendant properties. The units composing polymers derive or conceptually, from molecules of low relative molecular mass.
The term was coined in 1833 by Jöns Jacob Berzelius, though with a definition distinct from the modern IUPAC definition. The modern concept of polymers as covalently bonded macromolecular structures was proposed in 1920 by Hermann Staudinger, who spent the next decade finding experimental evidence for this hypothesis. Polymers are studied in the fields of biophysics and macromolecular science, polymer science. Products arising from the linkage of repeating units by covalent chemical bonds have been the primary focus of polymer science. Polyisoprene of latex rubber is an example of a biological polymer, the polystyrene of styrofoam is an example of a synthetic polymer. In biological contexts all biological macromolecules—i.e. Proteins, nucleic acids, polysaccharides—are purely polymeric, or are composed in large part of polymeric components—e.g. Isoprenylated or lipid-modified glycoproteins, where small lipidic molecules and oligosaccharide modifications occur on the polyamide backbone of the protein.
The simplest theoretical models for polymers are ideal chains. Polymers are of two types: occurring and synthetic or man made. Natural polymeric materials such as hemp, amber, wool and natural rubber have been used for centuries. A variety of other natural polymers exist, such as cellulose, the main constituent of wood and paper; the list of synthetic polymers in order of worldwide demand, includes polyethylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, synthetic rubber, phenol formaldehyde resin, nylon, polyacrylonitrile, PVB, many more. More than 330 million tons of these polymers are made every year. Most the continuously linked backbone of a polymer used for the preparation of plastics consists of carbon atoms. A simple example is polyethylene. Many other structures do exist. Oxygen is commonly present in polymer backbones, such as those of polyethylene glycol, DNA. Polymerization is the process of combining many small molecules known as monomers into a covalently bonded chain or network. During the polymerization process, some chemical groups may be lost from each monomer.
This happens in the polymerization of PET polyester. The monomers are terephthalic acid and ethylene glycol but the repeating unit is —OC—C6H4—COO—CH2—CH2—O—, which corresponds to the combination of the two monomers with the loss of two water molecules; the distinct piece of each monomer, incorporated into the polymer is known as a repeat unit or monomer residue. Laboratory synthetic methods are divided into two categories, step-growth polymerization and chain-growth polymerization; the essential difference between the two is that in chain growth polymerization, monomers are added to the chain one at a time only, such as in polyethylene, whereas in step-growth polymerization chains of monomers may combine with one another directly, such as in polyester. Newer methods, such as plasma polymerization do not fit neatly into either category. Synthetic polymerization reactions may be carried out without a catalyst. Laboratory synthesis of biopolymers of proteins, is an area of intensive research. There are three main classes of biopolymers: polysaccharides and polynucleotides.
In living cells, they may be synthesized by enzyme-mediated processes, such as the formation of DNA catalyzed by DNA polymerase. The synthesis of proteins involves multiple enzyme-mediated processes to transcribe genetic information from the DNA to RNA and subsequently translate that information to synthesize the specified protein from amino acids; the protein may be modified further following translation in order to provide appropriate structure and functioning. There are other biopolymers such as rubber, suberin and lignin. Occurring polymers such as cotton and rubber were familiar materials for years before synthetic polymers such as polyethene and perspex appeared on the market. Many commercially important polymers are synthesized by chemical modification of occurring polymers. Prominent examples include
The HTT Pléthore was supposed to be the first Canadian supercar and produced by HTT Automobile in Quebec, Canada. However the company has been inactive in recent years, it debuted at the 2007 Montreal International Auto Show as a pre-production prototype under the name "Locus Pléthore", under the supervision of Luc Chartrand. It has a supercharged 6.2L V8 with 750 hp and 655 lb⋅ft of torque or an optional high performance home made engine with 1,100 hp. This engine is supported by Pratt & Miller and based on the supercharged V8 from the Corvette ZR1; the chassis and body are made out of carbon fibre with no engine subframe, resulting in the chassis being exceptionally rigid. The car will weigh 1,089 kg and, if mated to the 1,300 hp engine, will have a power-to-weight ratio equivalent to that of a Formula One race car. Two prototypes were constructed, the second suggests a centre seating position featured in the McLaren F1, 1966 Ferrari 365 P prototype, the 1969 Bizzarrini Manta Concept. HTT Automobile plans to custom build a limited lifetime production run of 99 Pléthores.
On February 16, 2011, the Pléthore was featured on CBC's Dragon's Den. Sébastien Forest & Carl Descoteaux put forward their pitch for Canada's first supercar, asking $1.5 million for 20% of their company. Subject to completion of due diligence, W. Brett Wilson and Robert Herjavec offered to become partners in the company by purchasing 20% of the company for $1 million, providing an additional $500,000 in loans, acquiring the rights to purchase 3 Pléthores at cost, including the first car to be sold in Canada; this deal fell through after the transmission failed during a test drive, however an unidentified party stepped in after their television appearance with the necessary funding. HTT plans to make 6-7 cars a year with 6 cars registered as pre-sold; the HTT Pléthore makes an appearance in the video game Asphalt 8: Airborne
Gryfice is a town in Pomerania, north-western Poland with 16,632 inhabitants. It is the capital of Gryfice County in West Pomeranian Voivodeship in Szczecin Voivodeship; the region was part of Poland during the reign of the first Polish rulers Mieszko I and Bolesław I the Brave. The Battle of Niekładź took place in the area of Gryfice in 1121, in which Polish ruler Bolesław III Wrymouth defeated Wartislaw I, Duke of Pomerania and Swantopolk I, Duke of Pomerania; the area was part of the Duchy of Pomerania, a vassal state of Poland, which on separated itself from Poland as a result of the fragmentation of Poland. In 1262 Wartislaw III, Duke of Pomerania founded a town under Lübeck law on the Rega river to attract German settlers. After his death, his successor, Barnim I, Duke of Pomerania, named the settlement Civitat Griphemberch super Regam after the coat of arms symbol of the Dukes of Pomerania. In 1365 the town entered the Hanseatic League and prospered due to the right of free navigation on the Rega.
A town wall was built and at the end of the 13th century the construction of the St. Mary's church was begun. In a document of 1386 a Latin school is mentioned, called the oldest in Pomerania. In the 16th century, the local Germans pursued a policy of Germanisation towards the indigenous population, however, did not bring results quickly. At that time, some of the indigenous peasants fled to Poland, while Scottish immigrants settled in the town; as a result of the Thirty Years' War, the population of the town decreased dramatically. The town was occupied by the Swedish armies. After the death of the last Pomeranian Duke and by the Treaty of Westphalia Greifenberg became part of Brandenburg-Prussia in 1648 and part of Imperial Germany in 1871. In 1818 the town became the capital of the Greifenberg district. In 1894 the town was connected to the railway line Dąbie - Kołobrzeg. On July 1, 1896 the Greifenberger Kleinbahn was opened, a narrow-gauge railway today used as a railway Museum. In 1933 a Polish association of agricultural workers was established in Gryfice.
Local Poles and Jews were subjected to increased repressions, after the Nazis came to power in Germany in 1933. After the German invasion of Poland, forced labourers from Poland were brought to the town. At the end of World War II, on March 5, 1945, the Soviet Red Army conquered the town, on March 8, Poles entered the devastated town. 40 percent of the town was destroyed. Following the post-war boundary changes, the town became part of Poland. Called Zagórze, it was given the Polish name Gryfice; the Germans who did not escape during the battle with the Soviets, were expelled and the town was populated with Poles, some of them expellees themselves from Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union. The post-war administration of Gryfice was created with the participation of the just freed Polish forced labourers. After the war, the life of the town was being rebuilt. In 1945, the first post-war schools, a hospital and a cinema were opened and the following year a mill, a gasworks and a marmalade factory were opened.
In 1948 a sugar factory was established, which in 1951 was one of the leading sugar factories in Poland. Before the end of World War II the inhabitants were predominantly Protestant. With the transformation into a Polish town after World War II and the complete exchange of its population, the majority of its population has been composed of Catholics. David Christiani, a German mathematician and Lutheran theologian Karl Wilhelm Gottlob Kastner, a German chemist, natural scientist and a professor of physics and chemistry Gustav von Struensee a German writer. Herman Schatz an American politician and blacksmith emigrated to the US in 1851 Friedrich Heinrich Albert Wangerin a German mathematician. Richard C. H. Lenski, Lutheran scholar, emigrated to the US in 1872 Conrad Pochhammer a German physician and surgeon Rita von Gaudecker a German author of books for children and young people Moritz Seeler a German poet, film producer and victim of the Holocaust. Ehrengard Schramm a German politician and writer Krzysztof Linkowski a retired Polish runner who specialized in the 800 metres Bartosz Nowicki a Polish middle distance runner.
Grzegorz Krychowiak a Polish footballer, played over 50 games for Poland Gryfice is twinned with: Güstrow Meldorf Gryfów Śląski Gustav Kratz: Die Städte der Provinz Pommern - Abriß ihrer Geschichte, zumeist nach Urkunden. Berlin 1865, pp. 32–38. "Greifenberg". Encyclopædia Britannica. 12. 1911. P. 557. Official website narrow-gauge railway museum Jewish Community in Gryfice on Virtual Shtetl