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Polyploidy is the state of a cell or organism having more than two paired sets of chromosomes. Most species whose cells have nuclei are diploid, meaning they have two sets of chromosomes—one set inherited from each parent. However, some organisms are polyploid, polyploidy is common in plants. In addition, polyploidy occurs in some tissues of animals that are otherwise diploid, such as human muscle tissues; this is known as endopolyploidy. Species whose cells do not have nuclei, that is, may be polyploid, as seen in the large bacterium Epulopiscium fishelsoni. Hence ploidy is defined with respect to a cell. Most eukaryotes produce haploid gametes by meiosis. A monoploid has only one set of chromosomes, the term is only applied to cells or organisms that are diploid. Males of bees and other Hymenoptera, for example, are monoploid. Unlike animals and multicellular algae have life cycles with two alternating multicellular generations; the gametophyte generation is haploid, produces gametes by mitosis, the sporophyte generation is diploid and produces spores by meiosis.

Polyploidy refers to a numerical change in a whole set of chromosomes. Organisms in which a particular chromosome, or chromosome segment, is under- or over-represented are said to be aneuploid. Aneuploidy refers to a numerical change in part of the chromosome set, whereas polyploidy refers to a numerical change in the whole set of chromosomes. Polyploidy may occur due to abnormal cell division, either during mitosis, or during metaphase I in meiosis. In addition, it can be induced in plants and cell cultures by some chemicals: the best known is colchicine, which can result in chromosome doubling, though its use may have other less obvious consequences as well. Oryzalin will double the existing chromosome content. Polyploidy occurs in differentiated human tissues in the liver, heart muscle, bone marrow and the placenta, it occurs in the somatic cells of some animals, such as goldfish and salamanders, but is common among ferns and flowering plants, including both wild and cultivated species. Wheat, for example, after millennia of hybridization and modification by humans, has strains that are diploid, tetraploid with the common name of durum or macaroni wheat, hexaploid with the common name of bread wheat.

Many agriculturally important plants of the genus Brassica are tetraploids. Polyploidization is a mechanism of sympatric speciation because polyploids are unable to interbreed with their diploid ancestors. An example is the plant Erythranthe peregrina. Sequencing confirmed that this species originated from E. × robertsii, a sterile triploid hybrid between E. guttata and E. lutea, both of which have been introduced and naturalised in the United Kingdom. New populations of E. peregrina arose on the Scottish mainland and the Orkney Islands via genome duplication from local populations of E. × robertsii. Because of a rare genetic mutation, E. peregrina is not sterile. Polyploid types are labeled according to the number of chromosome sets in the nucleus; the letter x is used to represent the number of chromosomes in a single set. Triploid, for example sterile saffron crocus, or seedless watermelons common in the phylum Tardigrada tetraploid, for example Salmonidae fish, the cotton Gossypium hirsutum pentaploid, for example Kenai Birch hexaploid, for example wheat, kiwifruit heptaploid or septaploid octaploid or octoploid, for example Acipenser, dahlias decaploid, for example certain strawberries dodecaploid, for example the plants Celosia argentea and Spartina anglica or the amphibian Xenopus ruwenzoriensis.

Examples in animals are more common in non-vertebrates such as flatworms and brine shrimp. Within vertebrates, examples of stable polyploidy include many cyprinids; some fish have as many as 400 chromosomes. Polyploidy occurs in amphibians. Polyploid lizards are quite common, but are sterile and must reproduce by parthenogenesis. Polyploid mole salamanders are all female and reproduce by kleptogenesis, "stealing" spermatophores from diploid males of related species to trigger egg development but not incorporating the males' DNA into the offspring. While mammalian liver cells are polyploid, rare instances of polyploid mammals are known, but most result in prenatal death. An octodontid rodent of Argentina's harsh desert regions, known as the plains viscacha rat has been reported as an exception to this'rule'. However, careful analysis using chromosome paints shows that there are only two copies of each chromosome in T. barrerae, not the four expected if it were a tetraploid. This rodent kin to guinea pigs and chinchillas.

Its "new" diploid number is 102 and so its cells are twice normal size. Its closest living relation is Octomys mimax, the Andean Viscacha-Rat of the same family, whose 2n = 56, it was therefore surmised that an Octomys-like ancestor produced tetraploid offspring that were, by virtue of their doubled chromosomes, reproductively isolated from their parents. Polyploidy was induced in fish by Har Swarup using a cold-shock treatment of the eggs close to the time


"Schmackeboom" is a song by Swedish singer of French origin - Tacfarina Yamoun. The single was released on 2 July 2014 under the label Warner Music Sweden; the author of the song is a Swedish producer Anderz Wrethov, who had written the song with Le Tac and Behrang Miri. The song was recorded in seven versions. A major part of each version is sung in French, the phrase before the chorus is pronounced in English, German, Italian or Spanish. There was published a separate single of remixes; the name of the song comes from the Swedish "schmacka". In 2014, the song was played on radio stations of Ukraine, Sweden, Poland and France. In August, 2014 at the singer's channel was uploaded music video. Le Tac is shown kneading the dough and clapping the buttocks of half-naked girls appearing in the kitchen with the dough, or "baguettes" in their hands. After that, he starts dancing among them together with the chef. In one of the episodes on some woman's body there appears the flag of Sweden; this video was forbidden on YouTube for unregistered users.

Schmackeboom — European version Schmackeboom — French Schmackeboom — German Schmackeboom — Italian Schmackeboom — Spanish Schmackeboom — Swedish Schmackeboom — English Schmackeboom Schmackeboom Schmackeboom Schmackeboom Schmackeboom Schmackeboom Schmackeboom Schmackeboom Schmackeboom Schmackeboom Schmackeboom "Polish Hot-20" hit parade Interview with Le Tac at Swedish radiostation «P4 Malmöhus»

Musa Khan Mosque

Musa Khan Mosque is one of the few Mughal structures on Bangladesh that stands in the southern part of the country's capital Dhaka. Built in 18th century the mosque holds significant historical values and is named after the son of medieval Bengal's one of the most prominent Baro-Bhuyans, Isa Khan's son Musa Khan; the structure was erected during the Mughal regime in Bengal by the grandson of Musa Khan, Diwan Munwar Khan. The three-domed mosque is situated in the University of Dhaka campus, beside Shahidullah Hall and behind the Curzon Hall; the mosque is now under significant threat due to a metro-rail project of the government of Bangladesh and is included in the list of 75 structures that may face serious consequences due to the metro-rail. The land of Bengal in medieval age was used to be ruled by twelve landlords who were popularly known as Baro-Bhuyan in the history. Baro-Bhuyans were led by Isa Khan, a Muslim Rajput commander who conducted a series of successful military campaigns and resisted the Mughal invasion in Bengal till his death.

His capital was situated in Sonargaon of Narayanganj District. After his death in 1599, his son Musa Khan took over the control and continued his father's legacy to fight Mughals in the western and northern fronts but was defeated by Mughal general Islam Khan I, became loyal to Mughals and served the Mughal army during the Tripura campaign. Musa Khan was buried in Dhaka, his grandson, Munwar Khan, in remembrance of his grandfather built a mosque beside Musa Khan's grave. The mosque has three domes and it built on a vaulted platform of around 3 meters height; the width of the platform varies from 17 meters to 14 meters. Under the platform there are series of rooms; the top of the stage can be reached by an extended staircase on the southwestern corner. The mosque proper occupies the western half of the platform; the four octagonal corner towers with extra towers by their sides rise above the flat fortifications and end in compact cabins with domes on the top. The Mughal structure, one of the rarest one of the country is under threat due to a metro-rail project adjacent to it.

The structure is among 75 structures with historical importance that has fallen under threat due to the project. List of mosques in Bangladesh

Wicklow Senior Hurling Championship

The Wicklow Senior Hurling Championship is an annual Gaelic Athletic Association competition organised since 1903 by Wicklow GAA among the top hurling clubs in County Wicklow, Ireland. The winner qualifies to represent the county in the Leinster Intermediate Club Hurling Championship, the winner of which progresses to the All-Ireland Intermediate Club Hurling Championship; the first senior championship was won by Barndarrig in 1923. There was no Wicklow championship in 1938. There are seven teams taking part in the Championship: Carnew Emmets Glenealy Avondale St Patricks GAA Eire óg Bray Emmets Kiltegan 1903 According to the Wicklow People dated 2/4/1904 this match was played in Annacurra on Sunday 27/3/1904. 1937 Although Whitestown won on the day they were stripped of the title and suspended for playing illegal players. Official Wicklow Website Wicklow on Hoganstand Wicklow Club GAA

John Rolls, 1st Baron Llangattock

John Allan Rolls, 1st Baron Llangattock, was a Victorian landowner, Conservative Party politician, local benefactor and agriculturalist. He lived at a Victorian country house north of Monmouth, he was the only son of his wife Elizabeth Mary Long. Elizabeth was a daughter of Walter Long of Preshaw and granddaughter of William Carnegie, 7th Earl of Northesk. Rolls was educated at Eton College and Christ Church, Oxford becoming Captain in the Royal Gloucestershire Hussars Yeomanry Cavalry, was afterwards appointed honorary colonel of the 1st Monmouthshire Artillery Volunteers 4th Welsh Brigade Royal Field Artillery In 1868 he married Georgiana Marcia Maclean in London, she was the daughter of 9th Baronet, of Morvaren. They lived at The Hendre and they had a house South Lodge, at Rutland Gate in London, they had four children: John Maclean Rolls 2nd Baron Llangattock. Henry Alan Rolls Eleanor Georgiana Rolls the Hon. Lady Shelley-Rolls, she became a leading campaigner for women in engineering, a signatory of the foundation documents of the Women's Engineering Society, co-founded Atlanta Co Ltd. and worked on campaigns towards the electrification of Britain.

She married on 23 April 1898 Sir John Courtown Edward Shelley Shelley-Rolls, 6th Baronet, of Castle Goring and great-nephew of the poet Percy Shelley. In 1917, her husband assumed by Royal Licence the additional surname of Rolls in compliance with the will of his father-in-law, the late Lord Llangattock. However, there were no children of the marriage, The Hendre passed out of the hands of the Rolls family in the 1980s, having passed through the Harding-Rolls line of the family. Charles Stewart Rolls of Rolls Royce fame and the first British aircraft fatality. Rolls was appointed High Sheriff of Monmouthshire in 1875, served as MP for Monmouthshire from 1880–1885. In 1892 he was raised to the peerage of The Hendre in the County of Monmouth, he served as Mayor of Monmouth 1896 - 1897, his gifts to that town included a large public hall, a gymnasium, an isolation hospital. In April 1901 he received the Honorary Freedom of the Borough of Monmouth ′in recognition of his many benefactions to the town′.

He was a magistrate and Deputy Lieutenant of that county. He was a Freemason, rising to the position of Provincial Grand Master in 1894; the Masonic Llangattock Lodge was created in his honour in 1895 and took the Rolls motto, Celerias et Veritas. He was a breeder of Shire horses and acquired a reputation amongst agriculturalists for his shorthorn and Hereford cattle and Shropshire breeds of sheep, he was a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries and restored several Monmouthshire churches at his own expense. Lord Llangattock was a prominent member of the Anti-Vivisection Society, a position that caused some controversy as illustrated by a letter of 18 May 1901 published in the Journal of the British Medical Association: SIR,-I see that Lord Llangattock, who presided at the annual meeting of the Antivivisection Society on 9 May, gave credence to'the horrible stories of what takes place in the laboratories of physiology,' denounced vivisection as'misleading and degrading,' and professed'a sentiment for animals.'

Now, I recollect reading in the newspapers last autumn a description of a battue on a large scale, given by Lord Llangattock at his place in Wales, at which a phenomenal number of pheasants were shot for the recreation of Lord Llangattock and his friends, I should like him to study this little picture of his own dealings with animals, for which he has'a sentiment' drawn not by a vivisector, but by a man, a keen and trustworthy observer, and, in genuine sympathy with all senitient beings. Lord Llangattock's elevation to the peerage confirmed his elevation to the top rank of society. In late October - early November 1900 the Duke and Duchess of York stayed with Rolls at the Hendre. Lord Llangattock died on 24 September 1912, he was succeeded by his eldest son, John Rolls, 2nd Baron Llangattock, who died of wounds received at the Battle of the Somme in 1916. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by John Rolls

Scotty Campbell

Scotty Campbell was the Republican member of the Tennessee House of Representatives for the 3rd district, encompassing Mountain City, Johnson County, parts of Sullivan County, from January 2011 until November 2012. Scotty Campbell was born on February 1984 in Johnson County, he earned a Bachelor of Science from Cumberland University, studied Public Policy at Tennessee State University. He worked as a 911 Police/Fire/EMS Dispatcher, he is a radio personality in Tennessee. He is the host of the SuperTalk Morning Show on SuperTalk 92.9 WFHG. SuperTalk 92.9 is a news/talk radio station in the Tri-Cities, TN/VA region. He was a member of the Chambers of Commerce of Johnson County. In 2001, at age seventeen, he interned for Democratic politician Bob Clement, he was a legislative staffer for Republicans Diane Black, Brian Kelsey, Debra Maggart, to Kent Williams when he was Speaker of the Tennessee House. He received anonymous threats during his campaign for the 3rd district, he became state Representative in January 2011.

He is a Baptist. Scotty Campbell has been a member of the following committees: Finance and Means, Member Health and Human Resources, Member Scotty Campbell has had the following professional experience: Dispatcher, 911 Police/Fire/Emergency Medical Systems, former Scotty Campbell has had the following political experience: Representative, Tennessee State House of Representatives, 2010–2012 Campbell has been a member of the following organizations: Bristol Chamber of Commerce Johnson County Chamber of Commerce Neva Volunteer Fire Department On the June 24th, 2013 edition of Monday Night Raw, Campbell made an appearance with the WWE tag team Tons of Funk, participating in their lively dancing antics as the winning bidder for a Hurricane Sandy Relief Fund fundraising auction the wrestling promotion held in connection with the recent Wrestlemania event