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Polysaccharide

Polysaccharides are long chains of carbohydrate molecules polymeric carbohydrates composed of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages. This carbohydrate can react with water using amylase enzymes at catalyst, which produces constituent sugars, they range in structure from linear to branched. Examples include storage polysaccharides such as starch and glycogen, structural polysaccharides such as cellulose and chitin. Polysaccharides are quite heterogeneous, containing slight modifications of the repeating unit. Depending on the structure, these macromolecules can have distinct properties from their monosaccharide building blocks, they may be amorphous or insoluble in water. When all the monosaccharides in a polysaccharide are the same type, the polysaccharide is called a homopolysaccharide or homoglycan, but when more than one type of monosaccharide is present they are called heteropolysaccharides or heteroglycans. Natural saccharides are of simple carbohydrates called monosaccharides with general formula n where n is three or more.

Examples of monosaccharides are glucose and glyceraldehyde. Polysaccharides, have a general formula of Cxy where x is a large number between 200 and 2500; when the repeating units in the polymer backbone are six-carbon monosaccharides, as is the case, the general formula simplifies to n, where 40 ≤ n ≤ 3000. As a rule of thumb, polysaccharides contain more than ten monosaccharide units, whereas oligosaccharides contain three to ten monosaccharide units. Polysaccharides are an important class of biological polymers, their function in living organisms is either structure- or storage-related. Starch is used as a storage polysaccharide in plants, being found in the form of both amylose and the branched amylopectin. In animals, the structurally similar glucose polymer is the more densely branched glycogen, sometimes called "animal starch". Glycogen's properties allow it to be metabolized more which suits the active lives of moving animals. Cellulose and chitin are examples of structural polysaccharides.

Cellulose is used in the cell walls of plants and other organisms, is said to be the most abundant organic molecule on Earth. It has many uses such as a significant role in the paper and textile industries, is used as a feedstock for the production of rayon, cellulose acetate and nitrocellulose. Chitin has nitrogen-containing side branches, increasing its strength, it is found in the cell walls of some fungi. It has multiple uses, including surgical threads. Polysaccharides include callose or laminarin, xylan, mannan and galactomannan. Nutrition polysaccharides are common sources of energy. Many organisms can break down starches into glucose; these carbohydrate types can be metabolized by some protists. Ruminants and termites, for example, use microorganisms to process cellulose. Though these complex polysaccharides are not digestible, they provide important dietary elements for humans. Called dietary fiber, these carbohydrates enhance digestion among other benefits; the main action of dietary fiber is to change the nature of the contents of the gastrointestinal tract, to change how other nutrients and chemicals are absorbed.

Soluble fiber binds to bile acids in the small intestine, making them less to enter the body. Soluble fiber attenuates the absorption of sugar, reduces sugar response after eating, normalizes blood lipid levels and, once fermented in the colon, produces short-chain fatty acids as byproducts with wide-ranging physiological activities. Although insoluble fiber is associated with reduced diabetes risk, the mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. Not yet formally proposed as an essential macronutrient, dietary fiber is regarded as important for the diet, with regulatory authorities in many developed countries recommending increases in fiber intake. Starch is a glucose polymer, it is made up of a mixture of amylopectin. Amylose consists of a linear chain of several hundred glucose molecules and Amylopectin is a branched molecule made of several thousand glucose units. Starches are insoluble in water, they can be digested by breaking the alpha-linkages. Both humans and other animals have amylases, so they can digest starches.

Potato, rice and maize are major sources of starch in the human diet. The formations of starches are the ways. Glycogen serves as the secondary long-term energy storage in animal and fungal cells, with the primary energy stores being held in adipose tissue. Glycogen is made by the liver and the muscles, but can be made by glycogenesis within the brain and stomach. Glycogen is analogous to starch, a glucose polymer in plants, is sometimes referred to as animal starch, having a similar structure to amylopectin but more extensively branched and compact than starch. Glycogen is a polymer of α glycosidic bonds linked, with α-linked branches. Glycogen is found in the form of granules in the cytosol/cytoplasm in many cell types, plays an important role in the glucose cycle. Glycogen forms an energy reserve that can

Jacob Johan Anckarström

Jacob Johan Anckarström was a Swedish military officer who assassinated Gustav III, king of Sweden. He was executed for regicide, he was the son of Hedvig Ulrika Drufva. He married Gustaviana Elisabet Löwen in 1783, had two daughters and two sons: Gustafva Eleonora Löwenström, Carolina Lovisa, Johan Jacob and Carl David. Anckarström served as a page at court and as a captain in King Gustav III's regiment between 1778 and 1783. During travels to Gotland, he was accused of slandering the king and fled to Stockholm, where he spent the winter. Although he was acquitted due to lack of evidence, he maintained in his confession that this incident sparked his fire of hatred towards the king, fuelled by the contemporary revolutionary movement in Europe; the Swedish nobles were about this time violently opposed to the king, who, by the aid of the other orders of the state, had wrested their power from them and was now ruling despotically. This dislike was increased by the coup d'état of 1789 and by the king's known desire to interfere in favor of Louis XVIII in France.

Anckarström, a man of strong passions and violent temper, resolved upon the assassination of Gustav and communicated his intention to other disaffected nobles, including Counts Horn and Ribbing. Initial attempts to seize the king were failures. On 16 March 1792, Gustav III had returned to Stockholm, after spending the day at Haga Palace outside the city, to dine and visit a masquerade ball at the Royal Opera. During dinner, the king received an anonymous letter that contained a threat to his life, but as the king had received numerous threatening letters in the past, he chose to ignore the warning. After dining, the king with Baron Hans Henrik von Essen at his right arm went around the theatre once and into the foyer where they met Captain Carl Fredrik Pollet; the king, von Essen and Pollet continued through a corridor towards the scene where several dancers and masked men filled the tiles. Due to the crowd, Pollet receded behind the king, who turned backwards to talk to Pollet. Anckarström stood at the entrance to the corridor and edged himself behind the king, took out a pistol from his left inner pocket and pulled the trigger.

Because of the king turning backwards the shot went in at an angle left of the third lumbar vertebrae towards the left hip region. The shot consisted of furniture tacs and bits of lead clippings; the king said "ai" without falling. Anckarström lost courage. Bewildered, Anckarström dropped the pistol and knife on the floor, took a few steps and shouted fire, he went towards the entrance, but the guard had closed the doors. Despondent, he mixed with the crowd, his intention had been to shoot himself with the second pistol. Witnesses told the court that Anckarström had been asked if the king was badly wounded. All guests at the masquerade were forced to give their names before leaving the house. In the 19th Century the history of the assassination was embellished upon, embellishments that still are taken as facts today. Most notably is the tale of how one of the conspirators taps the king on the shoulder and saying “bonsoir, beau masque” to point out Anckarström's target; the other embellishment would be that the king was shot at a certain point in a counter dance, “Plaisir de Grönsöö”.

The conductor, so the legend goes, marked the sound of the shot in the music stopped. But the court records show that few people noticed the shot and the music continued playing for some time afterwards. Anckarström's pistols, legend aside, were brought around to several gunsmiths the next morning and one who had repaired them for Anckarström recognized them and identified him as their owner. Anckarström was arrested the same morning and confessed to the murder, although he denied a conspiracy until he was informed that Horn and Ribbing had been arrested and confessed in full. Anckarström was jailed in a prison not far from the Royal Palace in Stockholm. Today the former prison is an underground restaurant named after the viceroy Sten Sture. Curiously, the murder had been predicted to the king four years earlier, when he paid an anonymous visit to the celebrated medium of the Gustavian era, Ulrica Arfvidsson, she was employed by his brother, Duke Charles, was said to have a large net of informers all over town.

In 1791, Charlotta Roos predicted misfortune to King Gustav III, something he referred to on his death bed after the assassination. Gustav III died of his wounds on 29 March and on 16 April Anckarström was sentenced, he was stripped of his nobility privileges. He was sentenced to be cast in irons for three days and publicly flogged, his right hand to be cut off, his head removed, his corpse quartered; the execution took place on 27 April 1792. He endured his sufferings with the greatest fortitude, seemed to rejoice in having rid his country of a tyrant, his principal accomplices Ribbing and Horn were stripped of titles and estates and expelled from the country. In the same year, the Anckarström family changed its surname to Löwenström and donated funds for a hospital as a gift of appeasement; this resulted in the Löwenström Hospital, or Löwenströmska lasarettet in Upplands Väsby north of Stockholm. Living descendants of An

Dependency Walker

Dependency Walker or depends.exe is a free program for Microsoft Windows used to list the imported and exported functions of a portable executable file. It displays a recursive tree of all the dependencies of the executable file. Dependency Walker was included in Microsoft Visual Studio until Visual Studio 2005 and Windows XP SP2 support tools; the latest version v2.2.10011 is not available on dependencywalker.com website but is included in the Windows Driver Kit v10. As of Windows 7, Microsoft introduced the concept of a form of DLL redirection. Dependency Walker has not been updated to handle this layer of indirection gracefully, when used on Windows 7 and it will show multiple errors. Dependency Walker can still be used for some application level debugging despite this; as of October 2017 an Open Source C# rewrite of Dependency Walker called Dependencies.exe has been released on GitHub. It does not yet offer the full range of Dependency Walker features, but has been updated to handle Windows API-sets and WinSxS.

Runs on Windows 95, 98, Me, NT, 2000, XP, 2003, Vista, 7, 8 and 10 List all dependent modules Supports 64-bit and Windows CE executables Detects if the module is programmed in C or C++ Detects modules not listed in the import address table Color coding of the list to help highlight problems Traces dependencies recursively, lists dependencies of all modules in a tree view Official website Video:Dependency Walker, By: Andrew Richards, Chad Beeder, 2015-12-07, Defrag Tools #147, Channel 9 Microsoft Analyze application failures the easier way with Dependency Walker, by Tim Newton, 2010-06-25, Ask the Performance Team Blog, Microsoft How to use Dependency Walker