Polytheism is the worship of or belief in multiple deities, which are assembled into a pantheon of gods and goddesses, along with their own religions and rituals. In most religions which accept polytheism, the different gods and goddesses are representations of forces of nature or ancestral principles, can be viewed either as autonomous or as aspects or emanations of a creator deity or transcendental absolute principle, which manifests immanently in nature. Most of the polytheistic deities of ancient religions, with the notable exceptions of the Ancient Egyptian and Hindu deities, were conceived as having physical bodies. Polytheism is a type of theism. Within theism, it contrasts with monotheism, the belief in a singular God, in most cases transcendent. Polytheists do not always worship all the gods but they can be henotheists, specializing in the worship of one particular deity. Other polytheists can be kathenotheists. Polytheism was the typical form of religion during the Bronze Age and Iron Age up to the Axial Age and the development of Abrahamic religions, the latter of which enforced strict monotheism.
It is well documented in historical religions of Classical antiquity ancient Greek religion and ancient Roman religion, after the decline of Greco-Roman polytheism in tribal religions such as Germanic and Baltic paganism. Important polytheistic religions practiced today include Taoism, Hinduism, Japanese Shinto and various neopagan faiths; the term comes from the Greek πολύ poly and θεός theos and was first invented by the Jewish writer Philo of Alexandria to argue with the Greeks. When Christianity spread throughout Europe and the Mediterranean, non-Christians were just called Gentiles or pagans or by the pejorative term idolaters; the modern usage of the term is first revived in French through Jean Bodin in 1580, followed by Samuel Purchas's usage in English in 1614. A central, main division in modern polytheistic practices is between soft polytheism and hard polytheism."Hard" polytheism is the belief that gods are distinct, real divine beings, rather than psychological archetypes or personifications of natural forces.
Hard polytheists reject the idea that "all gods are one god." "Hard" polytheists do not consider the gods of all cultures as being real, a theological position formally known as integrational polytheism or omnism. For hard polytheists, gods are individual and not only different names for the same being; this is contrasted with "soft" polytheism, which holds that different gods may be aspects of only one god, that the pantheons of other cultures are representative of one single pantheon, psychological archetypes or personifications of natural forces. In this way, gods may be interchangeable for one another across cultures; the deities of polytheism are portrayed as complex personages of greater or lesser status, with individual skills, needs and histories. Polytheism cannot be cleanly separated from the animist beliefs prevalent in most folk religions; the gods of polytheism are in many cases the highest order of a continuum of supernatural beings or spirits, which may include ancestors, demons and others.
In some cases these spirits are divided into celestial or chthonic classes, belief in the existence of all these beings does not imply that all are worshipped. Types of deities found in polytheism may include Creator deity Culture hero Death deity Life-death-rebirth deity Love goddess Mother goddess Political deity Sky deity Solar deity Trickster deity Water deity Lunar deity Gods of music, science, farming or other endeavors. In the Classical era, Sallustius categorised mythology into five types: Theological Physical Psychological Material MixedThe theological are those myths which use no bodily form but contemplate the essence of the gods: e.g. Cronus swallowing his children. Since divinity is intellectual, all intellect returns into itself, this myth expresses in allegory the essence of divinity. Myths may be regarded physically; the psychological way is to regard the activities of the soul itself and or the soul's acts of thought. The material is to regard material objects to be gods, for example: to call the earth Gaia, ocean Okeanos, or heat Typhon.
Some well-known historical polytheistic pantheons include the Sumerian gods and the Egyptian gods, the classical-attested pantheon which includes the ancient Greek religion and Roman religion. Post-classical polytheistic religions include Norse Æsir and Vanir, the Yoruba Orisha, the Aztec gods, many others. Today, most historical polytheistic religions are referred to as "mythology", though the stories cultures tell about their gods should be distinguished from their worship or religious practice. For instance deities portrayed in conflict in mythology would still be worshipped sometimes in the same temple side by side, illustrating the distinction in the devotees mind between the myth and the reality. Scholars such as Jaan Puhvel, J. P. Mallory, Douglas Q. Adams have reconstructed aspects of the ancient Proto-Indo-European religion, from which the religions of the various Indo-European peoples derive, that this religion was an naturalist numenistic religion. An example of
Emil Johansson is a Swedish professional ice hockey player for HV71 of the Swedish Hockey League as a prospect to the Boston Bruins of the National Hockey League. Johansson was selected by the Bruins in the seventh round of the 2014 NHL Entry Draft. Johansson played as a youth within HV71 organizations. On October 1, 2014, Johansson was signed to a first team contract with HV71 for two-years. After playing his first two SHL seasons with HV71, for the 2016–17 SHL season, Johansson signed a one-season contract for Stockholm-based club Djurgårdens IF. Johansson collected a personal best 7 goals and 17 points. On March 24, 2017, Johansson agreed to a three-year entry-level contract with the Boston Bruins, he was assigned to complete the 2016–17 season, with AHL affiliate the Providence Bruins on a professional try-out basis. On May 13, 2019, Johansson signed a three-year deal with HV71. Biographical information and career statistics from Eliteprospects.com, or The Internet Hockey Database
The Pennsylvania lieutenant gubernatorial election of 2014 took place on November 4, 2014, to elect the Lieutenant Governor of Pennsylvania. In Pennsylvania, the winners of the lieutenant gubernatorial primary elections join the ticket of their party's gubernatorial nominee. Primary elections were held on May 20, 2014. Incumbent Republican Lieutenant Governor Jim Cawley was renominated unopposed and ran for re-election to a second term on a ticket with incumbent Governor Tom Corbett; the Democratic nominee was State Senator Mike Stack, businessman Tom Wolf's running mate. Wolf and Stack defeated Cawley in the general election. Jim Cawley, incumbent Lieutenant Governor Mark Critz, former U. S. Representative Brad Koplinski, Harrisburg City Councilman Brandon Neuman, state representative Mark Smith, Bradford County Commissioner Mike Stack, state senator Jay Paterno, former assistant football coach at Penn State and son of former head coach Joe Paterno Brenda Alton, Harrisburg Parks and Recreation Director Michael Crossey, President of the Pennsylvania State Education Association Margo Davidson, state representative Larry Farnese, state senator John Galloway, state representative John Morganelli, Northampton County District Attorney John Wozniak, state senator 2014 Pennsylvania gubernatorial election Official campaign websitesBrenda Alton for Lieutenant Governor Jim Cawley for Lieutenant Governor Mark Critz for Lieutenant Governor Brad Koplinski for Lieutenant Governor Jay Paterno for Lieutenant Governor Mark Smith for Lieutenant Governor Mike Stack for Lieutenant Governor