In Greek mythology, Polyxena was the youngest daughter of King Priam of Troy and his queen, Hecuba. She does not appear in Homer, but in several other classical authors, though the details of her story vary considerably. After the fall of Troy, she dies when sacrificed by the Greeks on the tomb of Achilles, to whom she had been betrothed and in whose death she was complicit in many versions. Polyxena is considered the Trojan version of daughter of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra, she is not in Homer's Iliad, appearing in works by poets to add romance to Homer's austere tale. An oracle prophesied that Troy would not be defeated if Polyxena's brother, Prince Troilus, reached the age of twenty. During the Trojan War and Troilus were ambushed when they were attempting to fetch water from a fountain, Troilus was killed by the Greek warrior Achilles, who soon became interested in the quiet sagacity of Polyxena. Achilles, still recovering from Patroclus' death, found Polyxena's words a comfort and was told to go to the temple of Apollo to meet her after her devotions.
Achilles seemed to trust Polyxena—he told her of his only vulnerability: his vulnerable heel. It was in the temple of Apollo that Polyxena's brothers and Deiphobus, ambushed Achilles and shot him in the heel with an arrow guided by the hand of Apollo himself, steeped in poison; some claimed. According to Euripides, however, in his plays The Trojan Women and Hecuba, Polyxena's famous death was caused at the end of the Trojan War. Achilles' ghost had come back to the Greeks to demand the human sacrifice of Polyxena so as to appease the wind needed to set sail back to Hellas, she was to be killed at the foot of Achilles' grave. Hecuba, Polyxena's mother, expressed despair at the death of another of her daughters. However, Polyxena was eager to die as a sacrifice to Achilles rather than live as a slave, she reassured her mother, refused to beg before Odysseus or be treated in any way other than a princess. She asked. Polyxena's virginity was critical to the honor of her character, she was described as dying bravely as the son of Achilles, slit her throat: she arranged her clothing around her so that she was covered when she died.
A few examples in Greek imagery can be securely identified as depicting the sacrifice of Polyxena. Most show. However, some details in the pictorial evidence of the sacrifice hint at varying and earlier versions of the myth. For instance, some images appear to show Polyxena sacrificed over an altar, rather than a tomb, one sarcophagus relief, from Gümüşçay, the Polyxena sarcophagus, dated to c. 500 BC shows a tripod placed next to the tomb. These details have been interpreted as indicating an association between the burial mound of Achilles and sacred ground dedicated to Apollo. There was a trickle of images in medieval and Renaissance art as illustrations to Boccaccio's De mulieribus claris. Primaticcio painted it in the Chateau of Fontainebleau, but the subject became more popular in the Baroque paired with the Continence of Scipio. Pietro da Cortona "established his reputation" with a large painting in 1625. Examples include paintings by Giovanni Francesco Romanelli and by Charles Le Brun, both in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
Sebastiano Ricci never got beyond studies. The 18th-century Venetian painter Giovanni Battista Pittoni was keen on the subject, painting at least nine versions of four compositions. Most versions show Polyxena going to her death in a dignified manner, though with her breasts bared; the sacrifice may be performed by Neoptolemus. As in Ricci's versions, Achilles' tomb may have an equestrian statue of him above it, Agamemnon, who opposed the killing, may be present expressing dissent. Sometimes the ghost of Achilles hovers in the air nearby; the statue called The Rape of Polyxena by Pio Fedi, prominently displayed in the Loggia dei Lanzi in Florence, is misleading in the violence that seems to be depicted. It does not show Polyxena's rape, but her taking to be killed by Neoptolemus, despite the protests of her mother Hecuba, seated; the body on the ground, somewhat anachronistically, is either her brother Polites, or Hector. In most versions, both were killed much earlier, buried by that point in the various stories.
The story of Polyxena features in Hecuba by Euripides, Troades by Seneca and the Polyxena of Sophocles, of which only a few fragments remain. Apart from these classical dramas, there are: Achille et Polyxène, an opera begun by Jean-Baptiste Lully, who died from a conducting injury having only completed the first act, it was completed by his pupil Pascal Collasse, premiered in Paris in 1687. Polixène, an opera by the French composer Antoine Dauvergne, first performed at the Paris Opéra on 11 January 1763 Polyxena is a character in Les Troyens by Hector Berlioz. List of King Priam's children AncientServius. In Aeneida, iii.321. Seneca. Troades, 1117–1161. Ovid. Metamorphoses, xiii.441–480. ModernAghion I. Barbillon C. Lissarrague, F. Gods and Heroes of Classical Antiquity, Flammarion Iconographic Guides, 1996, ISBN 2080135805 "EB": Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Polyxena". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Hall, Hall's Dictionary of Subjects and Symbols in Art, 1996, John Murray, ISBN 0719541476 Mylonopoulos, J, "Gory Details?
The Florence Y'alls are a professional baseball team based within the Greater Cincinnati region in the city of Florence, Kentucky. The Y' alls are a member of the West Division of an independent baseball league. From the 2004 season to the present, the Y'alls have played their home games at UC Health Stadium, located near the Interstates 71 and 75; the Y'alls franchise has won three Frontier League championships. However, these titles came when the team existed as the Erie Sailors, Johnstown Steal, Johnstown Johnnies; the franchise is tied with the Rockford RiverHawks, the Schaumburg Boomers, the River City Rascals for the most league championships with each franchise winning three. The team began in Erie, Pennsylvania as the Erie Sailors in 1994, before moving to Point Stadium in Johnstown, Pennsylvania in 1995, where it was first known as the Johnstown Steal the Johnstown Johnnies beginning in 1998; the team won two Frontier League championships in their time in Johnstown, one in 1995 as the Steal and one in 2000 as the Johnnies.
The team was moved to Florence, where it became known as the Freedom. The Freedom played their 2003 home games at Foundation Field in Hamilton, about 30 miles north of Cincinnati, while the ownership group was building a new stadium in Florence; the team was managed by former major leaguer Tom Browning. The Freedom finished in last place; the team averaged fewer than 500 fans per game in attendance. In 2004, the Freedom opened Champion Window Field in Florence; the park opened on June 18, with the Freedom losing to the Washington Wild Things 10-6 before a crowd of 4,453 fans. On July 7, after a poor start to the season, manager Tom Browning was fired. Pete Rose, Jr. took over for one game, but quit after making a decision to continue his playing career. Mike Easler was hired and finished the season; the Freedom ended the season with a 31-65 record, finishing in last place for the second consecutive year. In July 2004, shortly after the opening of Champion Window Field, contractors began filing liens against the Freedom, accusing the team of not paying for work done on the stadium.
33 liens totaling $4.7 million were filed. In August, Fifth Third Bank sued team part-owner Chuck Hildebrant for failing to repay multiple loans taken out to finance the stadium construction; as part of the lawsuit, it was revealed that Hildebrant had used 204 acres of land that he did not own as collateral for the loans, that he had given the bank a forged document as proof of ownership. Hildebrant was the subject of a federal white collar crime investigation and sentenced to prison in October 2005; the team was sold in November 2004 to a new ownership group led by Clint Brown, not associated with Hildebrant's ownership group. In 2005, former Chillicothe Paints manager Jamie Keefe was signed as the team's new manager. Keefe led the Freedom to their first winning record; the team finished tied for second place in the Frontier League's East Division, missing out on the playoffs by a tiebreaker. Three Freedom players hit more than 20 home runs in 2005—outfielder Mike Galloway, designated hitter Kyle Geswein, first baseman Trevor Hall.
Closer Ted Rowe tied for the league lead in saves with 17. In 2006, the Freedom had a losing record of 38-50, finishing 5th in the Frontier League East Division. In 2007, the Freedom again had a sub-.500 record. This placed the team third in the East Division. Outfielder Reggie Watson led the league in batting average and steals, while winning the Home Run Derby at the 2007 Frontier League All-Star Game, hosted by Florence. Outfielder Ryan Basham earned the Frontier League Rookie of the Year award, hitting.298 with 17 home runs on the season. In 2007, Champion Window Field, home of the Freedom, hosted its first Frontier League All-Star Game, with the Freedom's East Division winning 11-3; the Freedom's Reggie Watson was named the game's Most Valuable Player. The game's attendance of 4,483 set a new attendance record for Florence. In 2008, the team finished with a 47-49 record. For the first time, the Freedom attracted over 100,000 fans to Champion Window Field, with a total of 106,707 fans for the year.
In early 2008, the Freedom changed their primary colors from red and blue to black and silver. In 2009, the Freedom opened against the Midwest Sliders of Ypsilanti at home on May 20. Florence opened 2009 with two major changes—FieldTurf instead of a natural grass surface and a new coaching staff. Toby Rumfield became the new field manager, Freedom alumni Greg Stone, the Freedom's all-time hit leader, as hitting coach and Bill Browett as pitching coach. Clint Brown died in January 2018 after 15 years as team owner, he was succeeded by Kim Brown. Sale of the team to a group of local investors was finalized July 2019. In October 2019, the new owners announced a rebranding of the team for the 2020 season, dropping the name Freedom immediately; the new team name, Florence Y'alls, was announced in January 2020. The team takes its new name from the local Florence Y'all Water Tower. Below is a list of Freedom alumni; the alumni are sorted by peak level of baseball in which they have participated after playing for Florence.
In total, 20 Freedom alumni have signed professional contracts after playing for Florence, with one making the major leagues. As of April 10, 2015: The followi
From the 1960s to the 1990s, South Africa pursued research into weapons of mass destruction, including nuclear and chemical weapons. Six nuclear weapons were assembled. Before the anticipated changeover to a majority-elected African National Congress–led government in the 1990s, the South African government dismantled all of its nuclear weapons, the first state in the world which voluntarily gave up all nuclear arms it had developed itself; the country has been a signatory of the Biological Weapons Convention since 1975, the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons since 1991, the Chemical Weapons Convention since 1995. In February 2019, South Africa ratified the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons, becoming the first country to have had nuclear weapons, disarmed them and gone on to sign the treaty; the Republic of South Africa's ambitions to develop nuclear weapons began in 1948 after giving commission to South African Atomic Energy Corporation, the forerunner corporation to oversee the nation's uranium mining and industrial trade.
In 1957, South Africa reached an understanding with the United States after signing a 50-year collaboration under the U. S.-sanctioned programme, Atoms for Peace. The treaty concluded the South African acquisition of a single nuclear research reactor and an accompanying supply of enriched uranium fuel, located in Pelindaba. In 1965, the U. S. subsidiary, the Allis-Chalmers Corporation, delivered the 20 MW research nuclear reactor, SAFARI-1, along with ~90% HEU fuel to South African nuclear authority. In 1967, South Africa decided to pursue plutonium capability and constructed its own reactor, SAFARI-2 reactor at Pelindaba, that went critical using 606 kg of 2% enriched uranium fuel, 5.4 tonnes of heavy water, both supplied by the United States. The SAFARI-2 reactor was intended to be moderated by heavy water, fuelled by natural uranium while the reactor's cooling system used molten sodium. In 1969, the project was abandoned by the South African government because the reactor was draining resources from the uranium enrichment program that had begun in 1967.
South Africa began to focus on the success of its uranium enrichment programme, seen by its scientists as easier compared to plutonium. South Africa was able to mine uranium ore domestically, used aerodynamic nozzle enrichment techniques to produce weapons-grade material. In 1969, a pair of senior South African scientists met with Sültan Mahmoud, a nuclear engineer from Pakistan based at the University of Birmingham, to conduct studies and independent experiments on uranium enrichment; the South African and Pakistani scientists studied the use of aerodynamic-jet nozzle process to enrich the fuel at the University of Birmingham building their national programs in the 1970s. South Africa gained sufficient experience with nuclear technology to capitalise on the promotion of the U. S. government's Peaceful Nuclear Explosions program. In 1971, South African minister of mines Carl de Wet gave approval of the country's own PNE programme with the publicly stated objective of using PNEs in the mining industry.
The date when the South African PNE programme transformed into a weapons program is a matter of some dispute. The possibility of South Africa collaborating with France and Israel in the development of nuclear weapons was the subject of speculation during the 1970s. South Africa developed a small finite deterrence arsenal of gun-type fission weapons in the 1980s. Six were constructed and another was under construction at the time the program ended. South Africa only produced an operational weapon. In 1982, Armscor built the first operational weapon, code-named Hobo and called Cabot; this device had a yield of 6 kilotons of TNT. It was disassembled and the warhead reused in a production model bomb. Armscor built a series of pre-production and production models under the code-name Hamerkop after a bird. While Hobo/Cabot were not functional, the Hamerkop series were smart television-guided glide bombs; the South African Atomic Energy Board selected a test site in the Kalahari Desert at the Vastrap weapons range north of Upington.
Two test shafts were completed in 1976 and 1977. One shaft was 385 metres deep, the other, 216 metres. In 1977, the AEB established its own high-security weapons research and development facilities at Pelindaba, during that year the program was transferred from Somchem to Pelindaba. In mid-1977, the AEB produced a gun-type device—without a enriched uranium core. Although the Y-Plant was operating, it had not yet produced enough weapons-grade uranium for a device; as has happened in programmes in other nations, the development of the devices had outpaced the production of the fissile material. Atomic Energy Commission officials say that a "cold test" was planned for August 1977. An Armscor official, not involved at the time said that the test would have been a instrumented underground test, with a dummy core, its major purpose was to test the logistical plans for an actual detonation. How that test was cancelled has been well publicised. Soviet intelligence in early August alerted the United States.
On 28 August, The Washington Post quoted a US official: "I'd say we were 99 percent certain that the construction was preparation for an atomic test."The Soviet and Western governments were convinced that South Africa was preparing for a full-scale nuclear test. During the next two weeks in August, the Western nations pressed South Africa not to test; the French foreign minister warned on 22 August of "grave consequences" for Fr