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Pomerania

Pomerania is a historical region on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea in Central Europe, split between Poland and Germany. The name derives from a Slavic phrase corresponding to Polish po morzu'by the sea, on the sea, along the sea' or po morze'up to the sea'. Pomerania stretches from the Recknitz and Trebel rivers in the west to the Vistula river in the east; the largest Pomeranian islands are Usedom/Uznam and Wolin. The largest Pomeranian city is Gdańsk, or, when using a narrower definition of the region, Szczecin. Outside its urban areas, Pomerania is characterized by farmland, dotted with numerous lakes and towns; the region has a rich and complicated political and demographic history, was ruled by various countries simultaneously, including local dynasties, although over the centuries Polish and German influences remained the strongest. The region was affected by numerous disastrous wars and border shifts since the Late Middle Ages, but saw long periods of great prosperity, reflected in its rich architecture thanks to maritime trade.

Pomerania is the area along the Bay of Pomerania of the Baltic Sea between the rivers Recknitz and Trebel in the west and Vistula in the east. It reached as far south as the Noteć river, but since the 13th century its southern boundary has been placed further north. Most of the region is coastal lowland, being part of the Central European Plain, but its southern, hilly parts belong to the Baltic Ridge, a belt of terminal moraines formed during the Pleistocene. Within this ridge, a chain of moraine-dammed lakes constitutes the Pomeranian Lake District; the soil is rather poor, sometimes sandy or marshy. The western coastline is jagged, with many peninsulas and islands enclosing numerous bays and lagoons; the eastern coastline is smooth. Łebsko and several other lakes were bays, but have been cut off from the sea. The easternmost coastline along the Gdańsk Bay and Vistula Lagoon, has the Hel Peninsula and the Vistula peninsula jutting out into the Baltic; the Pomeranian region has the following administrative divisions: Hither Pomerania in northeastern Germany, stretching from the Recknitz river to the Oder–Neisse line.

This region is part of the federal state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. The southernmost part of historical Vorpommern is now in Brandenburg, while its historical eastern parts are now in Poland. Vorpommern comprises the historical regions inhabited by Slavic tribes Rugians and Volinians, otherwise the Principality of Rügen and the County of Gützkow; the West Pomeranian Voivodeship in Poland, stretching from the Oder–Neisse line to the Wieprza river, encompassing most of historical Pomerania in the narrow sense. The Pomeranian Voivodeship, with similar borders to Pomerelia, stretching from the Wieprza river to the Vistula delta in the vicinity of Gdańsk; the northern half of the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, comprising most of Chełmno Land. The bulk of Farther Pomerania is included within the modern West Pomeranian Voivodeship, but its easternmost parts now constitute the northwest of Pomeranian Voivodeship. Farther Pomerania in turn comprises several other historical subregions, most notably the Principality of Cammin, the County of Naugard, the Lands of Schlawe and Stolp, the Lauenburg and Bütow Land.

Parts of Pomerania and surrounding regions have constituted a euroregion since 1995. The Pomerania euroregion comprises Hither Pomerania and Uckermark in Germany, West Pomerania in Poland, Scania in Sweden. "Pomerania" and its cognates in other languages are derived from Old Slavic po, meaning "by/next to/along", morze, meaning "sea", thus "Pomerania" means "seacoast" or "land by the sea", referring to its proximity to the Baltic Sea. Pomerania was first mentioned in an imperial document of 1046, referring to a Zemuzil dux Bomeranorum. Pomerania is mentioned in the chronicles of Adam of Bremen and Gallus Anonymous; the term "West Pomerania" is ambiguous, since it may refer to either Hither Pomerania or to combined Hither and Farther Pomerania or the West Pomeranian Voivodeship. The term "East Pomerania" may carry different meanings, referring either to Farther Pomerania, or to Pomerelia or the Pomeranian Voivodeship. Settlement in the area called Pomerania for the last 1,000 years started by the end of the Vistula Glacial Stage, some 13,000 years ago.

Archeological traces have been found of various cultures during the Stone and Bronze Age, Baltic peoples, Germanic peoples and Veneti during the Iron Age and, in the Dark Ages, Slavic tribes and Vikings. Starting in the 10th century, early Polish rulers sudbued the region integrating the eastern part with Poland, while the western part fell under the suzerainty of Denmark and the Holy Roman Empire in the late 12th century. Gdańsk, established during the reign of Mieszko I of Poland has since become Poland's main port. In the 12th century, the Duchy of Pomerania, as a vassal state of Poland, became Christian under saint Otto of Bamberg.

Sakhalin Island taiga

The Sakhalin Island taiga ecoregion covers most of Sakhalin Island, the largest island of Russia, separated from the mainland by the Sea of Okhotsk and the Sea of Japan. The region is one of taiga; the vegetation is influenced by a maritime climate, warmer than the colder continental taiga in Siberia to the west. A long, thin island, Sakhalin is connected to the mainland by ice bridges in the winter, so it shares certain flora and fauna species, it is in the Palearctic ecozone, in the Boreal forests/taiga ecoregion with a Humid continental climate, cool summer climate. It covers 403,504 km2; the Sakhalin Island taiga covers nearly all of Sakhalin Island, with the exception of the extreme southwestern tip, where warmer conditions support a predominantly broad leaf forest cover. The island is flat in the north, while the southern extent of the island, totaling 70% of the area, is mountainous; the mountains are split into two ridges: the East Sakhalin mountains and the West Sakhalin mountains. Altitude zones play a large role in the types of forest cover.

The island stretches north of the northern major island of Japan, separated by 42 km. The mainland to the west is separated by the Sea of Okhotsk in the north, the Sea of Japan in the south, the Tatar Strait at the narrowest point. To the east is the Pacific Ocean, to the north the Sea of Okhotsk; the mountains are medium height. The climate of the region is Subarctic climate, without dry season; this climate is characterized by mild summers and cold, snowy winters.. The warm Tsushima Current flows up the southwest side of the island, while the cold Sea of Okhotsk current chills the northern part of the island; the cold influence of the Okhotsk Sea, drives much of the taiga ecology of the island at the southern latitudes. The collisions of warm and cold sea current in a humid area produce fog; the island is wet, with monsoon characteristics. Precipitation various from 600 to 1,200 mm/year, depending on location, etc; the Poronaysky Nature Reserve in the southeast of the island gets more than 100 rainstorms per year, with frequent fog in the summer.

Most the forest cover of Sakhalin grades from light taiga (mostly Larix species in the north, through dark taiga Picea species in the middle, to dark taiga Abies species dominant in the south. On the coast are meadows and at the high altitudes aspects of tundra. In the north, Kurile larch is found in swampy soil. In the middle and south, Yeddo spruce and Sakhalin fir dominate the mountain ridges. There are few endemic species; the rivers are important spawning grounds for migratory fish, including Cypriniformes, Gobiidae and Salmonidae (Salmon, etc. The freshwater rivers of Sakhalin Island are in the "Sakhalin, Hokkaido, & Sikhote - Alin Coast" freshwater ecoregion; the rivers and streams of this ecoregion are characterized by three levels of flood: snowmelt from lowlands in spring, snowmelt from the mountains in early summer, floods from monsoon rains in summer. The area in the past has suffered from poor logging practices. Today, commercial logging is an important industry in the middle third of the ecoregion, threatening soil erosion and habitat degradation.

Gas production fields are being developed in the northern areas. There is a federally protected area in the southeast of the island, a number of regional nature reserves. Poronaysky Nature Reserve. An IUCN class 1a nature reserve. Area: 567 km2; the only city in the ecoregion is Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, at the southern end of the island. Otherwise, the region is sparsely populated. List of ecoregions in Russia Map of ecoregion "Sakhalin Island taiga". GlobalSpecies.org

Mathias Bringaker

Mathias Bringaker is a Norwegian football striker playing for Start in Eliteserien. Mathias Bringaker was born in Stavanger, but spent his whole youth at Jørpeland where he played for Staal Jørpeland until 2013, when he was picked up by Viking Stavanger to represent their youth squad. In 2016, he got his chance with the senior team as he signed his first professional contract at the club, he made his full debut in the Norwegian Premier League coming on as a substitute against Vålerenga Oslo in the 62nd minute, scoring a goal in the 88th minute, to put Viking 2-0 up against Vålerenga at Ullevaal Stadion. As of match played 2 November 2019