Pauillac is a wine growing commune and appellation d'origine contrôlée within Haut-Médoc in Bordeaux, centred on the small town of Pauillac. Hugh Johnson has said, "If one had to single out one commune of Bordeaux to head the list, there would be no argument, it would be Pauillac.". Pauillac includes 3 of the 5 premier cru châteaux of Bordeaux: Latour, Lafite Rothschild and Mouton Rothschild; the wines of Pauillac are considered the quintessence of Bordeaux wines. Pauillac is on the west bank of the Gironde. St-Julien is to the south. A stream called. To the north, across the Jalle du Breuil, lies St-Estèphe. Pauillac is bounded on the west by the parish of the Landes forest. All three communes lie within the Haut-Médoc; the town of Pauillac is the largest in the Médoc, with a population of over 5000. Pauillac is somewhat more elevated than the surrounding area, rising to a peak of nearly 30 metres above sea-level in the region of Château Pontet-Canet; the soil is gravelly, as with most of the Haut-Médoc.
The forest to the west shelters the vines from the Atlantic winds. Pauillac contains around 1200 hectares of vineyards. Cabernet Sauvignon is the predominant grape; as with all red Bordeaux, Cabernet Franc, Petit Verdot and Malbec may be included in the blend. Prior to the 19th century, Malbec was predominant; the style has been described as'stark'. The predominant fruit flavour is blackcurrant, sometimes veering into plum. Pencil-shavings and cigar-box are characteristic notes. Wine from Pauillac may be labelled as Haut-Médoc. Second wines from the grandes châteaux may be labelled as Pauillac; the classic match is roast lamb. For old vintages leg or rack of lamb would be best, or partridge or grouse. Otherwise, shoulder or saddle would be a good choice, or hare. Rare rib or rump of beef can be good. Château Latour, Château Lafite Rothschild, Château Mouton Rothschild Château Pichon-Longueville, Château Pichon-Longueville-Lalande Château Duhart-Milon Château Pontet-Canet, Château Batailley, Château Haut-Batailley, Château Grand-Puy-Lacoste, Château Grand-Puy-Ducasse, Château Lynch-Bages, Château Lynch-Moussas, Château d'Armailhac, Château Haut-Bages-Libéral, Château Pédesclaux, Château Clerc-Milon, Château Croizet Bages Château La Couronne, Château Pibran, Château Haut-Bages-Averous, Château Haut-Bages Monpelou, Château Fonbadet Clarke, Oz.
Oz Clarke's New Essential Wine Book. New York: Websters International Publishers and Octopus Publishing Group. Johnson, Hugh. World Atlas of Wine. London: Octopus Publishing Group Ltd. Johnson, Hugh. Pocket Wine Book 2010. London: Octopus Publishing Group Ltd. Rowe, David. Collins Gem Wine Dictionary. Glasgow: HarperCollins Publishers
Aubiac is a commune in the Gironde department in southwestern France. Communes of the Gironde department INSEE
Arcins is a commune in the Gironde department in southwestern France. Communes of the Gironde department INSEE
Aillas is a commune of the Gironde department in southwestern France. Communes of the Gironde department INSEE
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Château Cheval Blanc
Château Cheval Blanc, is a wine producer in Saint-Émilion in the Bordeaux wine region of France. As of 2012, its wine is one of only four to receive the highest rank of Premier Grand Cru Classé status in the Classification of Saint-Émilion wine, along with Château Angélus, Château Ausone, Château Pavie; the estate's second wine is named Le Petit Cheval. In 1832, Château Figeac sold 15 hectares/37 acres to M. Laussac-Fourcaud, including part of the narrow gravel ridge that runs through Figeac and neighboring vineyards and reaches Château Pétrus just over the border in Pomerol; this became Château Cheval Blanc which, in the International London and Paris Exhibitions in 1862 and 1867, won medals still prominent on its labels. The château remained in the family until 1998, when it was sold to Bernard Arnault, chairman of luxury goods group LVMH, Belgian businessman Albert Frère, with Pierre Lurton installed as estate manager, a constellation similar to that of the group's other chief property Château d'Yquem.
LVMH acquired Arnault's share in 2009. The vineyard is considered to have three qualities: one third Pomerol as it is located on the boundary, one third Graves as the soil is gravelly, the remaining third typical Saint-Émilion; the vineyard area is spread over 41 hectares, with 37 hectares planted with an unusual composition of grape varieties of 57% Cabernet Franc, 40% Merlot, small parcels of Malbec and Cabernet Sauvignon. The average annual production is 6000 cases of the Grand vin and 2500 cases of the second wine, Le Petit Cheval; the manager of Château Cheval Blanc, Jacques Hebrard, was outraged at the evaluation of his 1981 vintage barrel samples made by influential wine critic Robert M. Parker, Jr. and asked him to re-taste. Upon arriving, Parker was attacked by Hebrard's dog as the manager watched; when Parker asked for a bandage to stop the bleeding from his leg, Parker says Hebrard instead gave him a copy of the offending newsletter. Hebrard denies. However, Parker did retaste the wine and found it changed from his previous evaluation.
The Rumpole of the Bailey Series 4 episode "Rumpole and the Blind Tasting" deals with a large shipment of Château Cheval Blanc found in the garage of a minor South London fence, a regular client of Rumpole's, with the fence claiming he had no idea how it got there. The wine proved not to be Château Cheval Blanc but rather cheap plonk in used Château Cheval Blanc bottles, as part of a scheme to commit insurance fraud; the film Sideways features the Cheval Blanc 1961 vintage as a plot element, despite the main character's stated aversion to Merlot. Sean Connery drinks. Restaurant critic Anton Ego, voiced by Peter O'Toole in the 2007 Disney film Ratatouille, orders a bottle of Cheval Blanc 1947 to accompany "some fresh, well-seasoned perspective". In the 2008 film Bottle Shock, which tells the story of Chateau Montelena, actor Freddy Rodriguez, depicting Gustavo Brambila guesses the 1947 Cheval Blanc in a blind taste at a dare in a bar. In an episode of Frasier Niles asks "What kind of weak-willed man allows a woman to come between him and a 1981 Cheval Blanc?".
McCoy, Elin. The Emperor of Wine: The Rise of Robert M. Parker, Jr. and the Reign of American Taste. New York: HarperCollins. Château Cheval Blanc official site "The Greatest Wine on the Planet"—Slate