Pompeii was an ancient city located in the modern comune of Pompei near Naples in the Campania region of Italy. Pompeii, along with Herculaneum and many villas in the surrounding area, was buried under 4 to 6 m of volcanic ash and pumice in the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79. Preserved under the ash, the excavated city offered a unique snapshot of Roman life, frozen at the moment it was buried, an extraordinarily detailed insight into the everyday life of its inhabitants, although much of the evidence was lost in the early excavations, it was a wealthy town, enjoying many fine public buildings and luxurious private houses with lavish decorations and works of art which were the main attractions for the early excavators. Organic remains, including wooden objects and human bodies, were entombed in the ash and decayed leaving voids which archaeologists found could be used as moulds to make plaster casts of unique and gruesome figures in their final moments of life; the numerous graffiti carved on the walls and inside rooms provide a wealth of examples of the lost Vulgar Latin spoken colloquially at the time, contrasting with the formal language of the classical writers.
Pompeii is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and is one of the most popular tourist attractions in Italy, with 2.5 million visitors annually. After many excavations prior to 1960 that had uncovered most of the city but left it in decay, further major excavations were banned and instead they were limited to targeted, prioritised areas. In 2018, these led to new discoveries in some unexplored areas of the city. Pompeii in Latin is a second declension plural noun. According to Theodor Kraus, "The root of the word Pompeii would appear to be the Oscan word for the number five, which suggests that either the community consisted of five hamlets or it was settled by a family group." Pompeii was built about 40 m above sea level on a coastal lava plateau created by earlier eruptions of Mount Vesuvius. The plateau fell steeply to the south and the west and into the sea. Three sheets of sediment from large landslides lie on top of the lava triggered by extended rainfall; the city bordered the coastline. The mouth of the navigable Sarno River, adjacent to the city, was protected by lagoons and served early Greek and Phoenician sailors as a safe haven and port, developed further by the Romans.
Pompeii covered a total of 64 to 67 hectares and was home to 11,000 to 11,500 people, based on household counts. The first stable settlements on the site date back to the 8th century BC when the Oscans, a people of central Italy, founded five villages in the area. With the arrival of the Greeks in Campania from around 740 BC, Pompeii entered the orbit of the Hellenic people and the most important building of this period is the Doric Temple, built away from the centre in what would become the Triangular Forum. At the same time the cult of Apollo was introduced. Greek and Phoenician sailors used the location as a safe port. Around the 6th century BC, the settlement merged into a single community centred on the important crossroad between Cumae and Stabiae and was surrounded by a tufa city wall; the first wall unusually enclosed a much greater area than the early town together with much agricultural land. The city began to flourish and maritime trade started with the construction of a small port near the mouth of the river.
The earliest settlement was focused in regions VII and VIII of the town as identified from stratigraphy below the Samnite and Roman buildings. In 524 BC the Etruscans arrived and settled in the area, including Pompeii, finding in the River Sarno a communication route between the sea and the interior. Like the Greeks, the Etruscans did not conquer the city militarily, but controlled it and Pompeii enjoyed a sort of autonomy. Pompeii became a member of the Etruscan League of cities. Excavations in 1980–1981 have shown the presence of Etruscan inscriptions and a 6th-century BC necropolis. Under the Etruscans a primitive forum or simple market square was built, as well as the temple of Apollo, in both of which objects including fragments of bucchero were found by Maiuri. Several houses were built with typical of this people; the city wall was strengthened in the early-5th century BC with two façades of thin, vertically set, slabs of Sarno limestone some four metres apart filled with earth. In 474 BC the Greek city of Cumae, allied with Syracuse, defeated the Etruscans at the Battle of Cumae and gained control of the area.
The period between about 450–375 BC witnessed large areas of the city being abandoned while important sanctuaries such as the Temple of Apollo show a sudden lack of votive material remains. The Samnites, people from the areas of Abruzzo and Molise, allies of the Romans, conquered Greek Cumae between 423 and 420 BC and it is that all the surrounding territory, including Pompeii, was conquered around 424 BC; the new rulers imposed their architecture and enlarged the town. From 343 BC, the first Roman army entered the Campanian plain bringing with it the customs and traditions of Rome and in the Roman war against the Latins the Samnites were faithful to Rome. Pompeii, although governed by the Samnites, entered the Roman orbit, to which it remained faithful during the third Samnite war and in the war against Pyrrhus. In the late 4th c. BC the city began to expand from its nucleus and into the open walled area; the c
John Frederick Dryer is an American actor, radio host and former American football defensive end in the National Football League. He played for 13 years in the NFL, in 176 games starting in 1969, recorded 104 career sacks with the New York Giants and Los Angeles Rams, he is the only NFL player to score two safeties in one game. Following his retirement from football, Dryer had a successful career as a film and television actor, notably starring in the series Hunter, his height of 6 physique are useful for his action roles. Born and raised in southern California, Dryer's parents were Charles F. Dryer and Genevieve Nell Dryer, he began his football career at Leuzinger High School in Lawndale in Los Angeles County. Dryer attended El Camino Junior College before transferring to San Diego State University. Dryer was inducted to the El Camino C. C. Athletic Hall Of Fame in 1988, as a charter member and was the Athlete of the Year for his 1966 performance on the football field. Dryer was a 1966 Junior College All-American.
During Dryer's junior and senior seasons at San Diego State, in which he lettered both seasons, the Aztecs had a combined record of 19–1–1. They were the College Division National Champions in both seasons. In 1967 they topped both the Associated Press and United Press International polls as #1. In 1968 San Diego State was voted the champions by UPI and North Dakota State topped the AP poll, thus the two schools shared the College-Division title. Dryer was voted the outstanding defensive lineman on the team and as such was the recipient of the Byron H. Chase Memorial Trophy. One of Dryer's teammates was Carl Weathers, who played Apollo Creed in the first four films of the Rocky series. In 1967, the Aztecs allowed 12.9 points a game on defense, still ninth in SDSU history. In 1967 and 1968 the Aztec run defense allowed just 80.1 and 100.1 yards per game, still fourth and fifth in school annals after nearly forty years. Dryer was named to the Little All-America team in 1968 since at the time the school was 1-AA.
Dryer played in the East-West Shrine Game in San Francisco, the Hula Bowl in Honolulu and the College All-Star Game in Chicago where the college stars played the world champion New York Jets. In 1988, Dryer was inducted into the San Diego State University Aztec Hall of Fame. In 1997, Dryer received college football's ultimate honor in being voted to the College Football Hall of Fame and is one of only three SDSU Aztecs in the collegiate Hall of Fame; when voted into the San Diego Sports Hall of Fame in 1998, he joined athletes such as Ted Williams, Dan Fouts, Dave Winfield, Tony Gwynn in receiving the preeminent recognition for a San Diego athlete. Dryer was drafted in the first round of the 1969 NFL Draft by the New York Giants and won a starting job as a rookie, he was the starting right defensive end from 1969 through 1971. He led the team in quarterback sacks each of those three seasons with 8½ in 1969, 12 in 1970 and 8½ in 1971, he was among the defensive leaders in other categories as well.
In 1969, he recovered two. The next season Dryer could not play due to a bruised hip, he was Second-team All-NFC after recording 69 tackles four pass deflections, three forced fumbles, while recovering two to go along with his 12 sacks. In 1971, he again led the team with 8½ sacks, totaled 62 tackles, he forced two more fumbles and recovered two for the third consecutive season. After several run-ins with Giants management in 1971, Dryer was traded to the New England Patriots in February 1972 for three draft choices; the Giants used. Because Dryer had not signed a contract for the 1971 season, he was eligible to become a free agent in May 1972, he refused to report to the Patriots unless they signed him to a long-term contract making him the highest paid defensive lineman in pro football. The Patriots refused to meet his demands and instead dealt him to the Los Angeles Rams for a 1973 first round draft pick and backup defensive end Rick Cash four days before he could become a free agent; this trade gave Dryer what he wanted all along—a move to a west coast team—and he agreed to a multi-year contract with the Rams.
In his first year with the Rams he backed up left defensive end Jack Youngblood making only four starts but playing in every game despite a broken hand and broken nose. His primary role in 1972 was to come in on passing downs and rush the passer, he had 40 4 1/2 sacks. In 1973, Dryer started all 14 games on the right side and became the only NFL player to have two safeties in the same game by dumping opposing passers in the end zone twice in the fourth quarter, he recovered 3 fumbles. After the season, he was a Second-team All-NFC pick by Pro Football Weekly, he finished the season with 39 tackles s passed knocked down, three forced fumbles and three fumbles recovered. In 1974, he had 15 sacks, which co-led the NFL and was voted the Rams Outstanding Defensive Lineman and was named All-Pro and All-NFC. Statistically, he had another solid year versus the run, totaling two forced fumbles. Dryer scored his first NFL touchdown in 1975 on a 20-yard interception return against Philadelphia. After scoring his touchdown against the Eagles, Dryer promised that if he sco
Shadow King was an American hard rock supergroup. It was formed in 1990, by former Foreigner lead singer Lou Gramm, Def Leppard guitarist Vivian Campbell, Foreigner bass player Bruce Turgon, drummer Kevin Valentine. Vivian Campbell and Bruce Turgon both played with Lou Gramm as a solo artist previous to Shadow King, with Campbell playing on Long Hard Look, Turgon playing on Ready or Not and Long Hard Look, they released a self-titled album in 1991. Although plans were made for a tour, they performed only once, at the Astoria Theatre in London, England, on December 13, 1991. Rick Seratte joined the band for this performance with playing keyboards. Shortly afterward, Vivian Campbell announced. Although replacements were considered, the band members went their separate ways, with Gramm and Turgon rejoining Foreigner in 1992. Shadow King only had their 1991 eponymous debut album. Although Gramm, Turgon and Valentine contributed the song "One Dream" to the Highlander II: The Quickening soundtrack in 1991, the track was credited to The Lou Gramm Band.
Shadow King released their self-titled debut album on October 1991 for Atlantic Records. The album was produced by Keith Olsen, who had worked with Gramm when he produced Foreigner's Double Vision; the album produced only one single, "I Want You", as well as a music video for the song before they disbanded. All songs written by Bruce Turgon except where noted. Lou Gramm – lead and backing vocals Vivian Campbell – lead and acoustic guitars, backing vocals, keyboards Bruce Turgon – bass, backing vocals, rhythm guitar, keyboards Kevin Valentine – drums, backing vocals Biography Shadow King at AllMusic